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, VT. 





1763-1915 ^^ 






this mdloce 15 dedicated to the memory of 
Justin W. Moody, with grateful recollec- 
tions OF his long and faithful SER^^CE to 
his townsmen as public servant, citizen, 
n'eighbor. and friend. 


Conscious that there are many imperfections in this volume, 
the Editor nevertheless ventures the hope that it may be found 
to contain in convenient form matter concerning the more 
important periods of Waterbury's history, biographical data 
of a certain interest and information about some of the men 
whose words and deeds have earned distinction for the town. 
No pretense is made at giving full genealogies and many of the 
biographical sketches are regrettably incomplete. Omission 
of much that might properly have been included is, of course, 
one of the inevitable incidents to the undertaking. Acknowl- 
edgments are made to Mr. Harry C. Whitehill, Senator 
William P. Dillingham and Mr. O. A. Seabury for their 
effective assistance and unwearied interest without which the 
work could not have been accomplished. Thanks are also 
due the members of the staff of librarians at the Waterbury 
Public Library and the Vermont State Library for their help- 
ful courtesy. Many others have evinced a kindly disposition 
to assist in the compilation of military and biographical data; 
to all such the Editor expresses his sense of obligation. It will 
be apparent that material in many instances has been verified 
by recourse to such sources as Hemenway's Gazetteer, Child's 
Gazetteer and Thompson's Vermont. The subscriber takes 
this occasion to hazard the remark that some such paraphrase 
as "happy is the town that has no history" is of no assistance 
to one attempting utter justice to Waterbury's. 

April i-November i, 191 5. T. G. L. 


Chapter I 

Aboriginal Trails — Period i 763-1 800 — Introduction — Town 
Charter — Contemporaneous Events in State and Nation — 
Survey — Geographical Description — First Settler, James 
Marsh — Incredible Hardships — Second Settler, Ezra But- 
ler — Other Early Settlers and Holdings — First Town Or- 
ganization — Side Lights on Town Meetings — Farm Loca- 
tions — Revolutionary Soldiers 1-31 

Chapter II 

Period i 800-1 830 — Contemporaneous National and State Events 
— Local Sentiment — Chittenden County — Capital Location 
Dispute — Act Establishing Capital at Montpelier — Presi- 
dential Electors — Church Matters — Tax Redemption In- 
cident — Highways and Turnpikes — Amasa Pride — Farms 
and Families — Butler-Hovey Controversy — Ezra Butler's 
Political Activities — Correspondence — War of 18 12 — Gen- 
eral Peck — Sanders' Letter — Waterbury's 1812 Volunteers 
— Butler in Congress — Daniel Webster's Resolution — But- 
ler's Speech — Wells Family — Calkins Family — Kennan 
Family — Dan Carpenter and Family — Calkins' Reminis- 
censes — "Era of Good Feeling" — State under M. Chitten- 
den, Galusha, Skinner and Van Ness Administrations — La- 
Fayette's Visit — Governor Butler's Terms — Anti-Masonic 
Movement 33-62 

Chapter III 

Period i 830-1 850 — Contemporaneous State Political Affairs — 
Henry F. Janes, Postmaster — Mr, Janes in Congress — 
Legislative Lamentation — Leander Hutchins — The "Corner 
Store" — Harrison & Tyler Campaign — Death of the Presi- 
dent — Tyler's Succession — Anti-Slavery Convention — The 
Dillingham Family — Deacon Paul Dillingham — Paul Dil- 
lingham, Jr. — Political Career — Saxe's Poem — Mr. Dilling- 
ham in Congress — As Lieutenant-Governor and Governor — 
Personal Characteristics — Anecdotes — Luce Family — 
Mexican War — Mr. Lucius Peck in Congress — "The Free 
Mountaineer" — Central Vermont Railway — License Laws 
AND Votes — Moody Family — Chauncey Lyon — Dr. Thomas 
B. Downer — John D. Smith Family — Dr. Will F. Minard — 
The Henry Family — Various Families — Longevity 63-103 

Chapter IV 

Period i 850-1 875 — Population and Grand List — Merchants and 
Business — Town Meetings — Pierce Administration — Bio- 
graphical of Warren and Parker — Politics — ^Alternation 



OF Voting Places, Village and Center — Arch Bridge — Mer- 
chants — Premonitions of Disunion — Resume of Water- 
bury's Votes — Abolition Sentiment — Lincoln's Early Ad- 
ministration — First Call for Troops — Waterbury's Re- 
sponse — Representation in Various Regiments — Different 
Battles — List of Commissioned Officers — Non-Commis- 
sioned Officers — Privates — Action at Town Meetings — 
General Wells — General Henry — Major Dillingham — 
Colonel Janes — March of Events — Readjustment and Re- 
construction — Presidential Vote in 1868 — Biographical — 
Post-Bellum Memories — Business in Waterbury — Reca- 
pitulation of Town Vote 105-153 

Chapter V 

Period 1876-1900 — Town, Gubernatorial and Presidential Elec- 
tions — Mount Mansfield Railroad Appropriation — Colum- 
bian United Electric Franchise — Incorporation of the Vil- 
lage in 1882 — First Village Officers — Tax Rates — Street 
Lights — Water Supply — Bond Issue — Telephone and Tele- 
graph Franchises — New Additions to Village — List of Vil- 
lage Officers to Date — Recapitulation of Improvements — 
First Telephone — Senator William P. Dillingham — Ver- 
mont State Hospital — Dr. Don D. Grout — Seabury Family 
— Moses Knight — Edwin F. Palmer — Dr. Emory G. Hooker 
— George W. Randall — Other Sketches — Waterbury Rec- 
ord — Spanish War — Century End Events 155-194 

Chapter VI. 

Period 1900-1915 — Senator Dillingham's Election — Guberna- 
torial AND Presidential Votes — License and No-License 
Votes — Miscellaneous — R6sum6 of Industrial Life — Early 
Manufacturers — Town Litigations — Various Legislative 
Acts — Religious History and Churches — The Library 
Beginnings and Present Condition — Horace Fales Fund — 
Biographical Sketch of the Fales Family — Mark Carter 
Canerdy's Gift — Dr. Henry Janes' Gift — Early Efforts at 
Securing Public Schools — Present High School — Water- 
bury Alumni and Students from the State Universities 
and Colleges — Green Mountain Seminary — Women's Clubs 
— Waterbury's State and Federal Officers — Town Rep- 
resentatives—State Senators — Town Clerks — Sheriffs — 
Banking History — Professional and Business Firms of 
Today— Lodges, Organizations, etc. — Fire Record— Soldiers' 
Monument — Conclusion 195-272 

Appendix — Memorial Day Address 273-286 


I 763-1 800 

The site of the town of Waterbury lay in the track of the 
murderous French officer, Hertel de Rouville, who with other 
French officers led a band of Indians upon an expedition of 
plunder and massacre against the ill-fated town of Deerfield, 
Massachusetts, in the early part of 1704. The expedition 
came down from Canada by the way of Lake Champlain. 
They branched ofT at the mouth of the Winooski River and 
followed the trail of that river through its peaceful valley until 
they came to the upper waters of the stream, from which they 
again branched off through a gap in the Green Mountains and 
followed the White River Valley until they debouched upon 
the Connecticut River, the frozen surface of which served as 
a highway directly to their objective point. The march was 
made by easy stages until at length they reached a blufT above 
the doomed town and prepared for their unspeakable orgy of 
blood. The horrible story of massacre, pillage, rapine and 
burning of that night of February 28 and morning of the 29th 
is familiar to every New England school boy. What is not 
often mentioned, however, is the main object of the expedition 
as tradition gives it. It is related that the chief purpose, to 
which other plunder and captives were merely incidental, was 
to recover the church bell from the Deerfield Meeting House. 
This bell was said to have been taken from a French vessel by 
a Colonial privateer while it was being transported to its 
destination, one of the Catholic churches of Canada. On 
this raid the 340 French and Indians secured the bell and 
carried it back to Canada by the same route, up the Connecti- 
cut, across to the Winooski headwaters and thence down the 
valley repassing the site of Waterbury, to the river's mouth. 
The bell was hung in the Chapel St Regis and was used to call 
the Children of the Faith to the Jesuit services (3 Sylvester's 
Indian Wars of New England, p. 54). No authentic records 


are extant of the occupation of this part of the Winooski 
Valley prior to the date of the coming of a surveying party in 
1782. As the river valley aflforded a natural trail to Indian 
war and hunting parties passing over southeasterly from Lake 
Champlain to the Connecticut, there is little likelihood of the 
region ever being for long the home of the less nomadic off- 
shoots of the Iroquois tribe (well known to have had a bent 
for agriculture and peaceful pursuits), lying as it did directly 
in the pathway of hostile marauders. To be sure, here and 
there in the Winooski Valley are evidences of aboriginal efforts 
at agriculture, but nothing has been found that would indicate 
a prolonged sojourn in the region. The usual earthenware 
vessels, flint arrow heads, axes, pottery, fire-stones, and even 
rudely cultivated corn patches and sites of lodges have been 
encountered just as they are found almost everywhere in the 
United States. There are Indian earthworks too, now and 
then, and burial places. We are told with great circumstan- 
tiality the story of the tapped maple trees on the Moss place, 
and the theories about a permanent occupation of North Hill 
by the Indians as evidenced by these tapped trees. It was 
not, however, until after the Indian mission was established, 
following the subjection of Canada to British rule, that the 
Indians in this part of Vermont evinced any pronounced desire 
for a domestic or sedentary life. In scattered villages were 
a few on both the Lamoille and Winooski rivers who kept 
fowls and cattle. It is stated upon no less an authority than 
Mr. Joshua Merriam of Waterbury Center that the hens kept 
by these domesticated Indians were marvelous layers, besides 
being the object of awe-struck admiration for their supernatural 
gifts as soothsayers. " It was a type of these hens, " says Mr. 
Merriam, "that crowed near Captain Miller's camp during 
the battle (at Plattsburg) of September 11, 1814, and Captain 
Miller being of the same faith had those hens sent back near 
Montpelier as fatidic fowls." The allusion, of course, is to 
the crowing of a hen upon the mast as prophetic of victory and 
the particular type was known as a "buff Coossuck." Upon 
the whole, it is a safe inference that the Winooski Valley was 
used chiefly by the Indians as a highway or trail way. 

PERIOD 1763-1800 3 

At the date of the granting of the royal charter by George 
III through his "Trusty and Well-beloved Benning Went- 
worth, Esq." to "Our loving subjects," etc., on the 7th day of 
June, 1763, the township of Waterbury came into documen- 
tary existence, though its municipal and civic life did not 
begin until nearly twenty-seven years later, March 31st, 1790. 
That the phrase, "our loving subjects," as used in the royal 
grant was merely in conformity with the stilted style and 
grandiose verbiage of kingly usage is grimly evidenced by the 
attitude of New Englanders and other colonists at the date of 
the charter. The almost absolute isolation of this region at 
that time from the gathering storm between the Colonies and 
England was sufficient to set apart this geographical portion of 
what later became the State of Vermont from any participation 
in the ante-revolutionary doings of historical interest, but the 
embers of discontent and rebellion were being fanned into 
flame in New England and to a lesser degree even in New York. 
It was as if Waterbury town were segregated with others in 
this part of Vermont from the eddies and whirlpools of insur- 
rection and her lovely valleys, hills and streams preserved in 
peace for the important part in the building of a common- 
wealth she was destined to play. 

Patrick Henry at this time was inflaming the people of 
Virginia in the famous tobacco cases involving the royal right 
of veto of Colonial acts, wherein "a lowly parson's private 
right was obscured by the gathering shadow of a public wrong." 
James Otis in Massachusetts was carrying conviction by sheer 
force of logic and knowledge of government and law. The 
"loving subjects" of George III were strangely averse to his 
enforcement of navigation laws authorizing arbitrary seizures 
of merchantmen, the imposition of direct and indirect taxes 
for the raising of revenue and the use of this revenue for the 
maintenance of standing armies of royal troops in Massachu- 
setts. Such, then, was the outside situation when the charters 
of Waterbury, Burlington, Colchester, Essex, Williston, Bolton, 
Duxbury, Moretown, Jericho, Underhill, Middlesex and Berlin 
were granted by Governor Benning Wentworth at Portsmouth, 
New Hampshire, the then seat of government of the Grants. 


Following a general policy of encouraging settlement by 
Connecticut citizens who sought to transplant pioneer stock 
in virgin territory, the grant of land for Waterbury township 
was made to John Stiles and sixty-five other individual pro- 
prietors, nearly all of Connecticut and New Jersey, in the 
quaint phraseology following : 

waterbury \ „ „ 

> George the Third, 
p.s. J 

By the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France and Ireland, King, De- 
fender of the Faith ect. 
To all Persons to whom these Presents shall come, Greeting. 

Know ye. That We of our special Grace, certain Knowledge, and meer 
Motion, for the due Encouragement of settling a New Plantation within 
our said Province, by and with the Advice of our Trusty and Well-beloved 
Benning Wentworth, Esq; Our Governor and Commander in Chief of our 
said Province of New Hampshire, in New England, and of our Council of 
the said Province; Have upon the Conditions and Reservations hereinafter 
made, given and granted, and by these Presents, for us, our Heirs, and 
Successors, do give and grant in equal Shares, unto Our loving Subjects, 
Inhabitants of Our said Province of New Hampshire, and Our other Govern- 
ments, and to their Heirs and Assigns forever, whose names are entred on 
This Grant, to be divided to and amongst them into Seventy two equal 
Shares, all that Tract or Parcel of Land situate, lying and being within 
our said Province of New Hampshire containing by Admeasurement, 
23040 Acres, which Tract is to contain Six Miles square, and no more; out 
of which an Allowance is to be made for High Ways and unimprovable 
Lands by Rocks, Ponds, Mountains and Rivers, One Thousand and Forty 
Acres free, according to a Plan and Survey thereof, made by Our said 
Governor's Order, and returned into the Secretary's Office, and hereunto 
annexed, butted and bounded as follows. Viz. Beginning at the South 
Easterly corner of Bolton on the Northerly side of Onion or French River, 
from thence Easterly up said River (& bounding on the same so far as to 
make Six Miles on a streight Perpendicular Line, with the Easterly Line 
of said Bolton, from thence Northerly on a Parrallel with the East line of 
Bolton six Miles, from thence Westerly about six Miles to the North East- 
erly Corner of said Bolton, from thence southerly by said Bolton East line 
six Miles the place begun at — And that the same be, and hereby is Incor- 
porated into a Township by the name of Waterbury And the inhabitants 
that do or shall hereafter Inhabit said Township are hereby declared to be 
Enfranchised with and Intitled to all and every the Priviledges and Im- 
munities that other Towns within Our Province by Law Exercise and En- 
joy: And further, that the said Town as soon as there shall be Fifty 
Families resident and settled thereon, shall have the Liberty of holding 
Two Fairs, one of which shall be held on the And the 

PERIOD 1 763-1 800 5 

other on the annually which Fairs are not to continue 

longer than the respective following the said 

and that as soon as the said Town shall consist of Fifty Families, 
a Market may be opened most advantagious to the Inhabitants. Also, 
that the first Meeting for the Choice of Town Officers, agreable to the Laws 
of our said Province, shall be held on the 20th Day of July next, which said 
Meeting shall be Notified by Cap Isaac Woodruff Jun' who is hereby also 
appointed the Moderator of the said first Meeting which he is to Notify 
and Govern agreable to the Laws and Customs of our said Province, and 
that the annual Meeting for ever hereafter for the Choice of such Officers 
for the said Town, shall be on the Second Tuesday of March annually. To 
Have and to Hold the said Tract of Land as above expressed, together 
with all Privileges and Appurtenances, to them and their respective Heirs 
and Assigns forever, upon the following Conditions, viz. 

I That every Grantee, his Heirs or Assigns shall plant and cultivate 
five Acres of Land within the Term of five Years for every fifty Acres con- 
tained in his or their Share or Proportion of Land in said Township, and 
continue to improve and settle the same by additional Cultivations, on 
Penalty of the Forfeiture of his Grant or Share in the said Township and 
of its reverting to Us, our Heirs and Successors, to be by Us or Them Re- 
granted to such of Our Subjects as shall effectually settle and cultivate the 

II That all white and other Pine Trees within the said Township, fit 
for Masting Our Royal Navy, be carefully preserved for that Use, and none 
to be cut or felled without Our special Licence for so doing first had and 
obtained, upon the Penalty of the Forfeiture of the Right of such Grantee, 
his Heirs and Assigns, to Us, our Heirs and Successors, as well as being 
subject to the Penalty of any Act or Acts of Parliament that now are, or 
hereafter shall be Enacted. 

III That before any Division of the Land be made to and among the 
Grantees, a Tract of Land as near the Centre of the said Township as the 
Land will admit of, shall be reserved and marked out for Town Lots, one 
of which shall be allotted to each Grantee of the Contents of one Acre. 

IV Yielding and paying therefor to Us, our Heirs and Successors for 
the space of ten Years, to be computed from the Date hereof, the Rent of 
one Ear of Indian Corn only, on the twenty-fifth Day of December annually, 
if lawfully demanded, the first Payment to be made on the twenty-fifth 
Day of December, 1763. 

V Every Proprietor, Settler or Inhabitant, shall yield and pay unto 
Us, our Heirs and Successors yearly, and every Year forever, from and 
after the Expiration of ten Years from the above said twenty-fifth Day of 
December, which will be in the Year of Our Lord 1773 One shilling Procla- 
mation Money for every Hundred Acres he so owns, settles or possesses, 
and so in Proportion for a greater or lesser Tract of the said Land; which 
money shall be paid by the respective Persons above said, their Heirs or 
Assigns, in our Council Council Chamber in Portsmouth, or to such Officer 


or Officers as shall be appointed to receive the same; and this to be in Lieu 
of other Rents and Services whatsoever. 

In Testimony Whereof we have caused the Seal of our said Province to 
be hereunto affixed. Witness Benning Wentworth, Esq; Our Governor 
and Commander in Chief of Our said Province, the Seventh Day of June 
In the Year of Lord Christ, One Thousand Seven Hundred and Sixty three 
And in the Third Year of Our Reign. 

B. Wentworth. 
By His Excellency's Command, 
With Advice of Council, 
T. Atkinson Jun"" Sec'^y 
Prov* of New Hamp' June 7th 1763 
Recorded According to the Original Charter under the Pro'' Seal 

T Atkinson Jun' Sec'' 


John Stiles Esq' 

Josiah Crane 

Hezekiah Thompson 

Jesse Muir 

Abner Frost 

Nathi Potter 

Kennedy Vance 

David Ball 

Manen Force 

Jeremiah Mulford 

Joseph Bagdly 

Sam' Bedford 

jei-eah Pangboon 

David Baker 

Will" Pierson 

Jon» Dayton 3d 

Abra™ Rool 

Eben' Price 

Ichabod Deane 

Will™ Willcocks 

Hon*"'" James Nevin | 

Jos'" Newmarch f Esq" 

Nathi Barren 

Jon* Crane Esq' 
John Nixson 
Zophar Squire 
David Potter 
John Dickinson 
Daniel Bedford 
Joseph Abbets 
Thomas Gardner 
Charles GiUam 
Thomas Miller 
Nath' Salmon 
Nath' Wade 
Nath' Baker 
Henry Baker 
Will™ Pearson Jun' 
Will" Mills 
Thos. Willis 
Jesse Clark 
Elias Bedford 
Patridge Thatcher 
Meshech Wear Esq. 
John Page Esq' 
Cap' Ezekiel Worthen 

Isaac Woodruff Jun' 
Isaac Roll 
John Boyle 
David Lacey 
Jonath" Stiles 
James Cory 
Will™ Connet 
James Pufiosey 
James Osborn 
Joseph Osborn 
Steph" Bedford 
James Scudder 
David Meeker Jun' 
Daniel Baker 
John Meeker 
John Mills 
Bernerdus Van Neste 
John Marsh 
Benj» Williams 
Sam' Averill 

His Excellency Benning Wentworth Esq' a Tract of Land to Contain 
Five Hundred Acres as marked B-W in the plan which is to be Accounted 
two of the within shares. One whole Share for the Incorporated Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, One Share for a Glebe 
for the Church of England as by Law Establish'd one Share for the first 
settled Minister of the Gospel, And one Share for the benefit of a school 
in said Town 

Province of New Hamp' June 7"" 1763 

Recorded According to the Back of the Original Charter of Waterbury 
under the Pr° Seal 

T Atkinson Jun' Sec'^ 

PERIOD 1 763-1 800 

To the tract described in the charter were added strips 
from Bolton and Middlesex which became annexed to Water- 
bury under the Laws of 1850 and 1851. The boundaries of 
these additions were described in the following Acts: 

So much of the town of Middlesex, as is contained in lots numbered 
fifty, fifty-five, fifty six, fifty-seven, fifty eight, sixty-three and sixty four, 
in the fourth division, and lying on the westerly side of Hog-back mountain,' 
and so much of the undivided land in said Middlesex as lies westerly of a 
line commencing at the most south-Easterly corner of the aforesaid lot 
number sixty-four and running south, thirty six degrees west, and parallel 
with the present line between Waterbury and Middlesex to the northerly 
line of the Governor's right, so-called, and thence on the northerly line of 
the Governor's right to Waterbury line, is hereby annexed to said town of 
Waterbury, and shall hereafter constitute a part of the town of Water- 
bury, the same as if it had been included in the original charter thereof. 

[Approved October 30, 1850, Sess. Laws 1850, p. 46.] 

So much of the town of Bolton in the county of Chittenden as is here- 
inafter described, to wit: beginning on the north-Easterly corner of lot 
number one hundred and nine in the first division; thence westerly in the 
northerly line of lots number one hundred and nine, one hundred and ten, 
one hundred and eleven, and one hundred and twelve to the northwesterly 
Corner of said lot one hundred and twelve; thence northerly, in the west- 
erly line of lot number one hundred and five, and the other lots in the fourth 
tier of lots, to the southerly line of that part of Stowe, which was formerly 
Mansfield; thence easterly in the southerly line of said Stowe, to the cor- 
ner of Waterbury; thence southerly in the line between said Bolton and 
said Waterbury, to the northeasterly corner of lot number one hundred 
and nine, the place of beginning, is hereby annexed to the town of Water- 
bury, in the county of Washington, and shall hereafter constitute a part 
of the town of Waterbury, the same as if it had been included in the origi- 
nal charter thereof. Said piece, so annexed to said Waterbury, contains 
forty-four lots of land; Provided, the rents and proceeds of lot number 
ten (back lot) and lot number one hundred and eight, be and remain pay- 
able to the town of Bolton, in the same manner as though said lots had 
not been annexed to the town of Waterbury. 

[Approved October 30, 1851, Sess. Laws 1851, p. 64.] 

The next date of importance in the history of the town w£is 
May 10, 1770, when at a meeting of the proprietors in New 
Milford, Connecticut, it was voted to lay out the township 
by survey; this meeting was adjourned to September 25, 1770, 
and again to October 25, 1770, at Newark, New Jersey, where, 
at another meeting, November 15, 1770, the various portions 
or divisions of the original tract granted to the proprietors were 


allotted by number. Thereafter there were meetings of the 
proprietors April 13, 1773, and the second Tuesday in May, 
1773, at Kent, Province of New York (now Londonderry, 
Vermont), at which a second division or apportionment of lots 
was made. Little or nothing afifecting Waterbury as a town 
occurred between 1773 and the close of the Revolution, but 
mention must be made of the alternate ebbings and flowings 
of the fortunes of the political division of which the town was 
soon to become an integral part. Pending the carrying out 
of the plan of confederation, the Continental Congress was 
torn with sectional strife and jealousy. New England states, 
particularly those whose land grants were extensive, were the 
objects of many bitter attacks of a polemic and forensic kind ; 
these emanated for the most part from southern sources but 
in all their clashings the respective adversaries could not excel 
in bitterness those doughty protagonists of New Hampshire 
and New York, who came almost to sword's points over 
possession of the Green Mountain Territory. Not quite a 
year after the Declaration of Independence Vermont petitioned 
the Continental Congress to be admitted as a state into the 
Union. Then began a series of backings and fillings; the 
people of Vermont, almost at the point of fruition of their 
hopes for admission, saw them dashed to earth repeatedly; 
meanwhile the struggle for the territory west of the Connecti- 
cut River and the southwestern part of what is now Vermont 
waxed furious; New York had been and remained insistent 
upon her claim to what was then called the New Hampshire 
grants. An attempt had been made at an amicable test of 
title to the disputed territory under the Bennington grant by 
Governor Wentworth in pursuance of an arrangement with 
the Royalist Governor of New York, by which it was agreed 
that no further grants should be made until the boundary 
question then pending should be settled. But Governor 
Wentworth continued to grant charters, so that by the end 
of 1763 he had chartered one hundred thirty-eight towns all 
coming under the political power of New Hampshire, among 
which was the township grant of Waterbury. The claims of 
New York Tories and the counter-claims of settlers holding 

PERIOD 1763-1800 9 

under the original grants in resisting regrants continued to 
vex the people, even during the Revolution, until over forty 
years had elapsed from the date of the Bennington charter to 
a final settlement. 

Still remote from the stirring scenes that were being enacted 
along the shores of Lake Champlain and in the southern, 
southwestern and more populous parts of Vermont, the valley 
of the Winooski remained sparsely settled, and the valley was 
peaceful until October, 1780, when a band of three hundred 
Indians, bent upon the capture of one Whitcomb at Newbury, 
ascended the Winooski River from Lake Champlain. Passing 
through the valley and probably over the site of Waterbury, 
the band of marauders came at length to the spot where Mont- 
pelier now stands; through the representations of certain 
white captives the Indians were diverted from their original 
purpose and made a descent upon the town of Royalton, then 
a thriving settlement, though it had received its charter only 
the year before. After killing two men and capturing over a 
score of prisoners, they put women and children to flight, 
burned the village, seized and drove off many cattle and horses 
and returned on their way to Canada through the Winooski 

The first survey of the town is ascribed to Colonel Partridge 
Thatcher in 1782, by Reverend C. C. Parker in his discourse of 
February 10, 1867. Mr. Thatcher was prominent among the 
original proprietors and presided at their meeting in New Mil- 
ford, Connecticut, and afterwards at Arlington. The beauti- 
ful tributary of the Winooski River, known as Thatcher's 
Branch, takes its name from the pioneer from Connecticut who 
built his surveyor's camp at a spot in the rear of the double 
tenement building now owned by Thomas O'Neill, between 
the branch and the railway line, a few rods northwest of the 
twin bridges. A later survey on record in the Town Clerk's 
office in Waterbury, dated in 1774, is there attributed to 
Jabez Pritchard, Isaac Hitchcock, William Daviss, Partridge 
Thacher and Paul Averill, in which the last four men, including 
Mr. Thacher, are described as "Chain Bearers, Markers, etc." 
A copy of the record is given herewith: 



A Survey of the Township of Waterbury 

Lying on Onion River, A Township Lately Granted by his Excellency 
Benning Wentworth Esq' Governor of The Province of New Hampshire 
Bounded as followeth: Beginning at the south East Corner of Bolton on the 
North east Bank of '^ River from thence Run North 36 Degrs and 33 
East six Miles by said Town Numbring each Mile as was run then 
Beginning at the aforesaid Corner at the River and runing by said River 
untill it makes six Miles on a Right angle from the aforesaid Bolton Line 
to the South East Corner of said Waterbury which is a Pine Tree standing 
on the Bank of said River Marked Jabez Pritchard Partridge Thacher 
Dale &c from thense Running six Miles on a Paralel Line with the first 
described Line Between Bolton and Waterbury Marking Each Number of 
Miles as run then Proceeding to Lay out a division of Land of one Hundred 
acres. Each original Right Said Division Lying in the Teer of Lots being 
Twenty four Lots in Each Teer being 20 Chains Wide and 51 Chains and 
50 Links of said Length Being Allowed For highways the First Teer of 
Lots Butting on a ... Running Back of the Entervail said Line 
Beginning at the Town Line Between Waterbury & Bolton 20 Chains From 
the River runing a Right Angle from said Town Line Beginning to N° the 
First Teer of Lots at the West side of the Intervail Numbering on to N° 24 
Each Lot being Numbred at the S. E. Corner of said Lot the Second Tear 
of Lots being Numbred at the North East Corner of said Lots beginning 
with No. 25 . . . East Side of said Town and so on in succession 

48 The Third Teer being Numbered at the South 
Corner of Each Lot begining with N° 49 so on through said Town ending 
with N° 72 Said Work was done in the year 1774. 
By Jabez Pritchard 



Chain Bearers 
Markers &c. 

Partridge Thacher 
Isaac Hitchcock 
William Daviss 
Paul Averill 
Recorded by Samuel Averill Jun' Register. 

At this point it is deemed appropriate to advert to the early 
geographical divisions of the town. The original intention 
was to have the Waterbury tract six miles square and to con- 
tain about 23,040 acres. We have already described the 
annexations from Middlesex on the east and Bolton on the 
west, which, of course, enlarged that first tract. A survey 
was made in three divisions; this soon gave rise to confusion 
and uncertainty regarding true boundaries. One hundred 
acres were included in the first division lots; thirty-one in the 
second and one hundred and twenty- four in the third, leaving 



2 Q 

O <u 

PERIOD 1763-1800 II 

an undivided parcel of forty-seven acres to each right. Recog- 
nizing the value of river land, the proprietors evidently had 
it in mind to set ofT to each right an interval area of thirty-one 
acres on the VVinooski. With this in view they started with 
a point or place of beginning on what was erroneously taken to 
be the east line of Bolton for the first division. The river 
land was found to be insufficient when the second division was 
lined out and the other small lots were located in the center 
part of the town. The third division lay north of the first 
and ran nearly to the Stowe line; the Governor's plot (marked 
B. W.) of five hundred acres is described by Mr. H. F. Janes 
in his supplementary paper to the Parker historical sketch as 
having been surveyed in the southeast corner of the town; 
adjacent to this was one portion of undivided lands and the 
other part lay between the third division and the south 
Stowe line. The mistake of the surveyor of the first division 
consisted in taking in the width of two Middlesex lots when 
he sought a place of beginning. This error with others was 
subsequently rectified but the falls which are located in the 
territory of Waterbury properly and should be known as 
Winooski Falls were always known as Bolton Falls. 

The town is bounded on the south by the Winooski River. 
This beautiful stream is broken by the falls three miles below 
the village and is described in Thompson's Gazetteer of Ver- 
mont as having worn "a channel through the rocks, which, in 
times past, undoubtedly formed a cataract of no ordinary 
height below, and a considerable lake above. The chasm is 
at present about one hundred feet wide and nearly as deep. 
On one side the rocks are nearly perpendicular, some of which 
have fallen across the bed of the stream in such a manner as 
to form a bridge, passable, however, only at low water. On 
the same side the rocks, which appear to have been loosened 
and moved by the water, have again rested and become fixed 
in such a position as to form several caverns or caves, some of 
which have the appearance of rooms fitted for the convenience 
of man." 

The water power was first utilized for saw mill purposes by 
Benjamin Palmer who built a dam and erected a mill. This 
was afterwards carried away by a flood. 


A lesser stream is the Waterbury River, flowing from its 
source in Morristown in a southerly direction through Stowe 
and the westerly part of Waterbury until it debouches into 
the Winooski one mile below town. 

Thatcher's Brook, or Branch, has its source in Stowe and 
nearly divides Waterbury in two parts emptying into the 
Winooski at the northwesterly end of the village, flowing 
through lands owned by Doctor Henry Janes, at his death. 
This stream has been mentioned as having taken its name from 
one of the surveying party. The name was indifferently spelled 
"Thacher" and "Thatcher" in the early records. In Stowe 
is also the source of Alder Brook which empties into the Water- 
bury River near where the Free Will Baptist Meeting House 
stands. Saw mills and factories of various kinds were located 
on this brook. The stream has a precipitous descent at the 
picturesque falls. Other streams on which mills have been 
erected at different times are Cotton Brook and Ricker's 

The general contour of the township is suggestive of an 
oblong amphitheater, situated, as it is, in the beautiful vale 
or depression between the Green Mountain Range on the west 
and the mountainous spur on the east called the Hogbacks. 
The soil is all tillable in the valleys and peculiarly adapted to 
grazing purposes on the uplands. Roughly speaking, as has 
been indicated, the town is bounded on the north by Stowe, 
east by Middlesex, south by the Winooski River and west by 
Bolton and lies in longitude 4'' 17' and latitude 44° 23'. 

In nearly every instance the immediate grantees from 
Benning Wentworth were not bona fide settlers on the tracts 
covered by the grants; for the most part they were land specu- 
lators who parted with their rights to those who assumed the 
burdens of pioneering with the titles they purchased. Of 
course there were many instances of the chain of title passing 
through several grantees before it reached one willing to face 
the perils and hardships of an unbroken wilderness. Such a 
person was the first settler of Waterbury, James Marsh, a 
native of New Canaan, Connecticut, whose early struggles 
and almost superhuman endurance in his battle with the 

PERIOD 1 763-1800 13 

wilderness have already been made the subject of a thrilling 
and pathetic narrative by the gifted clergyman, Reverend 
C. C. Parker, in his discourse on the early history of Water- 
bury. Indeed, this mention of James Marsh's share in the 
settlement of Waterbury is made with great hesitation in the 
light of the simple but soul-stirring account of Mr. Parker. 

That James Marsh was of the best quality of pioneer timber 
is attested by his early experiences as a trooper in the French 
wars. Ever alert for seasoned veterans who knew how to 
fight and endure, the drafting officers for the Colonists marked 
him as their prey in the early days of the Revolution. Having 
removed with his family from Canaan to Cornwall, Connecti- 
cut, he found that his wife's enfeebled condition and his large 
family of children of tender years required his personal care 
and attention; doubtless thinking that his previous military 
service had gained for him the right to turn his attention 
to the needs of his family, he sold his home in Canaan and 
hired ds a substitute, for $100, a man to respond in his place 
and stead to a call for minute men. Then to put himself 
beyond the reach of the draft, he sold his Cornwall place 
and purchased, rather too hurriedly it would seem, a right 
of land in Bath, New Hampshire, and one in Waterbury, 
Vermont, in 1780, this latter from a Mr. Steele whose name 
does not appear in the list of original proprietors but whose 
title was derived from some one in that list. Leaving Corn- 
wall with his family, Mr. Marsh proceeded to Bath, New 
Hampshire, where he remained long enough to discover that 
his title to his land purchase there was defective. Upon the 
assurances of others who professed to be willing to begin a 
settlement in Waterbury, Marsh again braved the uncer- 
tainties of a new move and came to the site of Waterbury 
in the spring of 1783 and selected his holding, cleared a plot 
of ground on the northerly slope of what is now the cemetery, 
extending toward the river, and planted it to corn. He 
returned and awaited the ripening of his crop, which he 
gathered on a second visit in the fall, storing it in a roughly 
built corn crib against his needs for the following year. Mind- 
ful of his family's dependence he brought his wife and eight 


children with him, in the early part of 1784, as far as the 
fort at Corinth, where he left Mrs. Marsh and five children 
for the time, while he with two young sons and a daughter 
proceeded to his holding in Waterbury. This journey was 
made on snowshoes under extraordinary difficulties ; what 
with the care of the three children and the labor of hauling 
sufficient provisions for the journey on a hand sled, the sturdy 
pioneer's task might easily have daunted the spirit of a stronger 
and younger man. 

Upon his arrival he took his children and what was left 
of his provisions to the Thatcher cabin, which the surveying 
party had erected for temporary use two years before. After 
a life of hardships, laboring under a burden of poverty inci- 
dental to his wanderings, ever mindful of his duty as a father 
and husband, the prospect of a fixed place of abode, however 
humble, must have cheered the heart of the lonely settler, 
when suddenly he was confronted by the paralyzing fact 
that his small store of corn, so carefully harvested and hoarded 
on his last visit, had nearly all disappeared. Having relied 
upon this store to eke out temporarily a scanty sustenance 
for himself and his family, he had provided for little more 
than was sufficient for his needs on his journey. His immediate 
necessities he managed to relieve precariously by hunting 
and fishing; no grain was to be had nearer than Corinth, 
about thirty miles away over a rough and dangerous trail. 

In his dilemma Marsh set about laying in a week's store 
of provisions from hunting and fishing; after working on his 
clearing and replanting his crop from his scanty supply of 
seed, he set out to return to Corinth for the other members 
of the family, leaving alone his son, Elias, aged fifteen, his 
daughter Irene, of twelve, and James, a small boy. Incredible 
as it now seems, such absences of their elders were not un- 
usual in the days when self-reliance was the heritage of all 
children of the wilderness. The story runs that the week's 
supply of provisions had been too nicely calculated and the 
week end brought with it an end of available food for the 
three growing youngsters. As if to vindicate their father's 
judgment in their self-reliance, the children started for the 

PERIOD 1763-1800 15 

falls to catch fish for food ; in attempting to cross Waterbury 
River on a pole of buttonwood, little Irene lost her balance and 
fell into the river, whence she was rescued by her two brothers. 
For a week the brave youngsters subsisted on what wild 
vegetables they could find and finally started for the home of 
Mr. Jesse McFairlane, near Richmond, thirteen miles north- 
west of the Marsh holding. The wonderful courage and en- 
durance of the children of the wilds has been made the subject 
of many a household talk with the youngsters of Waterbury 
and the grown-ups, as well. The tale of how they met a bear 
on this memorable journey, how their faithful hunting dog that 
had shared their hardships put the huge beast to flight and 
how, after a long weary tramp without food, they came at last 
to a haven of rest, safety and plenty, in the home of Mr. Mc- 
Fairlane has been told and retold and still remains ever new. 

Meanwhile the elder Marsh had arrived at Corinth and 
attempted an immediate removal of his wife and the remain- 
ing members of the family to Waterbury, but was obstructed 
by delays of various kinds so that three weeks elapsed before 
the family was able to make a start. Meanwhile the father 
was desperately frantic with anxiety for the safety of those he 
had left alone — an anxiety that gave way to despair when, 
upon arriving at the surveyor's cabin in Waterbury, he found 
it empty and deserted and no signs of recent occupancy visible. 
A prey to the most poignant distress, the unhappy father dis- 
patched a youth, who had returned with his party from Corinth, 
to the McFairlane farm on the bare chance of learning some- 
thing about the children ; the finding of the children in a place 
of safety tenderly cared for, the joyous return and the affecting 
family reunion in the rude cabin near Thatcher's Branch, all 
combine to round out the rough epic of the early attempts at 
settlement in Waterbury. 

But James Marsh was not destined long to be favored of 
Fortune ; the problem of subsistence for those dependent upon 
him was ever uppermost; obliged to wait for the harvest of 
his corn crop before Indian meal could be ground, the family 
lived on what wild onions could be found growing in the 
vicinity, while Marsh was beating the woods and fishing the 


streams for food ; now and then a chance moose, buck or bear 
would be added to the larder. What time could be spared 
from the providing of food was devoted to the building of a 
log house on the site already cleared, which is described by 
Mr. Parker as "a little to the west of the grave yard hill"; 
after the permanent home had been erected, the family moved 
in and began preparations for the coming winter. One can 
imagine the glow of hope that warmed the breast of James 
Marsh when he observed that his corn crop raised on the river 
bottom land promised to be bountiful ; nor need the imagina- 
tion be strained at the luckless man's discouragement when a 
sudden flood rendered useless all but twenty bushels of the 
corn that promised so well. 

By dint of taking such spoils of the hunt as moose, deer 
and bear, and fish from the streams, the Marsh family kept 
starvation at bay, though the problem of getting grain for 
bread was ever present. At times it was possible to exchange 
bear, deer and beaver skins for grain in the distant settlements 
of Jericho, Williston and Richmond. With the arrival of the 
spring of 1785 the loneliness and isolation of the Marsh family 
was greatly lessened by the coming of another hardy settler 
who was the second in order of arrival. The name of this 
second settler was Ezra Butler, a man destined to stamp him- 
self indelibly on the history of Waterbury and Vermont. 
Mr. Butler, however, did not remain very long on the occasion 
of his first visit before returning whence he came to remain 
until the following spring of 1786, at which time he again 
returned to Waterbury. An interval of one year and a half 
elapsed before another and third settler, Mr. Caleb Munson, 
joined the infant colony. 

With the arrival of Mr. Munson and his family ends the 
sombre chronicle of the ill-starred James Marsh. Overjoyed 
as he was at the prospect of Mr. Munson's coming, Marsh 
went to the settlement of Richmond to meet and escort his 
new neighbor to his home site, March 29, 1788; he crossed the 
river to the home of a Mr. Brownson for the purpose of re- 
molding some pewter spoons; waiting until nightfall, he 
attempted to recross the river then filled with floating ice- 

PERIOD 1 763-1800 17 

cakes, only to fall into an open space and drown. Upon the 
recovery of his body several days later, the funeral and burial 
was held at Richmond. It was as if James Marsh had been 
marked out as the sport and plaything of a malign influence, 
diabolical in ingenuity and remorseless in purpose. No sooner 
had the possibilities of a permanent settlement in his wilder- 
ness began to assume actual form than he was removed from 
the scene of his hardly won, puny success. The part James 
Marsh played in the history of the town is valuable, not only 
because he happened to be the first settler but also for the evi- 
dence it furnishes of the unconquerable spirit which, left un- 
dismayed in the face of almost insuperable obstacles, still 
animated the pioneers of those days and remains to us as an 
example of self-reliance, persistence, industry and courage. 

The building of a new community involves something more 
than mere physical endurance and capacity for gruelling toil; 
it brings out whatever latent powers of leadership may be 
possessed by the builders. It is no small task to reduce to 
something like an orderly system the government of the smallest 
hamlet, and yet this task must be undertaken from the sheer 
necessity conditions impose. The town of Waterbury was 
fortunate in having in the person of its second settler, Ezra 
Butler, a veritable tower of strength; indeed, the first fifty- 
three years' record of the town's life has to do largely with the 
sayings and doings of this remarkable man, directly or indi- 

Mr. Butler, though a native of Worcester County, Massachu- 
setts, spent his early life in West Windsor, Vermont, and 
Claremont, New Hampshire. He was born in the town of 
Lancaster, Worcester County, Massachusetts, the fifth of 
seven children, to Asaph and Jane (McAllister) Butler, Sep- 
tember 24, 1763, just three months and seventeen days 
after the date of the charter of Waterbury. Before Ezra 
Butler had completed his seventh year, his father brought 
his family to West Windsor, Vermont; shortly afterwards his 
mother died and he went to live with the family of his eldest 
brother, Joel, with whom he spent about seven years. At the 
age of fourteen young Butler's business in life began in earnest; 


according to the custom then widely prevalent he " bound him- 
self out," or became an apprentice under a formal indenture of 
apprenticeship to Doctor Thomas Sterne of Claremont, New 
Hampshire, "to learn the art, trade and mystery of a hus- 
bandman." An indenture in those days was a legal instru- 
ment written in duplicate, the line of division of whose parts 
was literally "indented"; both parts were signed by the parties 
to the agreement and duly exchanged. The text of the instru- 
ment under which Ezra Butler served as an apprentice is 
given here as throwing a vivid side light on the obligations of 
a person so bound to his master, who, on his side, undertook 
to stand in loco parentis in many respects to the other party to 
the agreement: 

This Indenture Witnesseth that Ezra Butler a minor aged fourteen years 
years* the twenty forth day of September last, son of Asaph Butler of 
Wethersfield in the county of Cumberland in the State of New York other- 
wise called the State of Vermont . . . hath put himself and by these 
presents doth voluntarily and of his own free will and accord and with the 
Consent of his said Father the said Asaph Butler put and bind himself as 
apprentice to Thomas Sterne of Claremont in the County of Cheshire in 
the State of New Hampshire Physician to learn the art, trade and mystery 
of a husbandman & with him the said Thomas Sterne his executors or 
administrators after the manner of an apprentice to serve from the said 
twenty forth day of September last for and During the Term of seven years 
from thence next insuing to be compleat and Ended: During all which 
Term the said Apprentice his s** master faithfully shall serve, his secrets keep 
and lawfull commands everywhere Gladly Obey. He shall do no Damage 
to his said Master nor suffer it to be done by Others, without letting, or 
giving notice thereof to him the s<* Thomas Sterne, he shall not waste the 
Goods of his said master nor lend them unlawfully to any. He shall not 
Commit fornication, nor Matrimony contract within the said term. At 
cards, dice or any other unlawfull Game he shall not play: He shall not 
absent himself by Day or by Night from the service of his said master 
without his Leave; nor haunt Ale Houses, Taverns or play Houses but in 
all things behave himself as a faithfull Apprentice ought to do towards 
his said master and all his, during said Term. And the said Thomas Sterne, 
for himself, his executors and administrators doth hereby covenant and 
Promise to Teach & instruct, or cause the said Apprentice to be taught «& 
instructed in the trade, art & Business of Husbandry by the best way or 
means he may or can (if said Apprentice be capable to learn) and to find & 
provide unto said apprentice good and sufficient meat, Drink, Washing and 
lodging & apparril (and in sickness medicine & attendance) and Teach him 
to read, write & Cypher so as to transact Common business among men 

PERIOD 1763-1800 19 

during s"* Term: And at the Expiration thereof to give unto the said Ap- 
prentice Two suites of apparrel for all parts of his Body, One of them to be 
suitable for Lord's Day: and also to pay unto the said apprentice so much 
lawfull money (then passing) as shall be equal in value to sixty ounces Troy 
■weight of Silver; or otherways as shall be Equivalent to Eighty Bushels, of 
good Merchantable Wheat at the price it shall then be Comonly sold at. 
In Testimony whereof the Parties, to these presents have interchangeably 
set their hands and seals the Ninth day of July Anno Domini 1778 

(sgd.) T. Sterne { Seal \ 
Sign^ Sealed & Delv<* in presence of 
*allowing that he began his service from s'd 
twenty forth Day of September, this wrote 
before signing & sealing. 
Seth Lewis 
James Goodwin 

Indorsed: " December 31st 1784. this may certify that we the Subscrib- 
ers have settled all matters relative to the Indenture and all accounts to 
this Day." 

(sgd) T. Sterne. 

Ezra Butler. 

It appears from the indenture and the indorsement thereon 
that his formal term of service was about seven years and 
three months; Mr. Parker's sketch refers to a period of six 
months during this term when the young apprentice served in 
the Revolutionary army and says that, but for this interval, he 
continued with Doctor Sterne until he came of age. Leaving 
the service of Doctor Sterne, young Mr, Butler, after a few 
months spent in Weathersfield, started with his brother Asaph 
for Waterbury in March, 1785. The first part of the journey 
was made with a team of oxen as far as the home of Judge 
Paine of Williamstown, the remainder on snowshoes with a 
handsled to carry their necessary outfit. Arriving at Water- 
bury on the 20th of March, they were warmly greeted by the 
Marsh family whose nearest neighbor for two years had been 
Thomas Mead in Middlesex, seven miles away. Allowing no 
precious time to elapse the young brothers set about the 
business of home-making. They selected a plot of ground, 
suitable to their purpose, probably without much thought 
as to the validity of its title. 

After clearing the ground and putting in a planting of corn, 
they returned to their former home in Weathersfield where 


Ezra Butler was married, in June of that year, to Miss Try- 
phena Diggins. The newly married pair came to Waterbury 
shortly after the wedding, making the trip and carrying 
necessary household utensils on horseback. It is easy to 
understand what uncertainties attended the slipshod methods 
of conveyancing in those early days ; defective land titles were 
the rule rather than the exception, as the unfortunate James 
Marsh had found, and as Ezra Butler discovered with reference 
to his original selection. Mr. Butler's brother, Asaph, having 
settled for himself in Richmond, was no longer able to assist 
in the selection, clearing and improving a new home site. 
This time Mr. Butler picked out a plot situated on the right- 
hand side of the main road near the present residence of Mr. 
George Wells, at the base of the hill, on what is now the 
Burlington road. 

Here to his log cabin he brought his wife and, with his 
meager effects, took possession in September, 1786. This 
last property remained his home for the rest of his life and 
somprised a tract including that afterwards owned by the 
ctate for the purposes of a Reform School, as well as the land 
on which Doctor Henry Janes lived and died. The whole tract 
was divided after Ezra Butler's death, the portion farthest 
northwesterly going to Russell Butler and that nearest the 
village to Mrs. Henry F. Janes. 

The first framed house built in Waterbury was erected by 
Ezra Butler; the building still stands with its steep roof and 
central chimney designed to furnish open fireplaces for four 
rooms, a few rods to the southeast of Mr. Butler's first home- 
site. For many years it was occupied by Mr. Russell Butler, 
afterwards by Deacon Parker, and now by George Wells. 
Here was born Polly Butler, the first white child in Waterbury, 
October 23, 1788. The tale of the days of the first three years 
of Mr. Butler's residence in his new home was nearly identical 
with that of the Marsh family; there were the same insistent 
problems of subsistence; there was the same monotonous 
round of toil and hardship; there were the same dangers of 
isolation, Ijut with all these there was the exultation of a strong 
man who has tangible evidence of his prowess in accomplished 


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PERIOD 1 763-1 800 21 

The next important date in order is the year 1790, when 
a warrant was issued to Ezra Butler to convoke a meeting of 
freemen to perfect the town organization of Waterbury, at 
which he was chosen as town clerk in March, 1790. Mean- 
while, Vermont had undergone certain vital governmental 
changes. The Revolution had ended in 1783, the year of 
Marsh's advent to Waterbury. Approximately, the period 
of state incubation was from 1776 to 1791 ; the new common- 
wealth had passed successively through the travail of a decla- 
ration of independence, the adoption of a constitution, the 
election of state officers and the long-desired adjustment of 
the rival claims of New Hampshire, Massachusetts and New 
York, to Green Mountain territory. Nationally, the Articles 
of Confederation of the thirteen original states had been 
replaced by the Constitution of 1789, and the Federal Congress 
declared finally on the i8th of February, 1791, that on the 
4th of March, next ensuing, Vermont should be admitted "as 
a new and entire member of the United States of America." 
Thomas Chittenden had served as governor since 1778, first 
as chief executive of the independent state, and after 1791 
continuing as the head of the new member of the Federal 
family of states until his resignation in 1797. The civic 
birth of Waterbury, then, occurred in 1790, the year before 
Vermont's admission to the Union, and during Governor 
Chittenden's administration. Up to and including the year 
1799, the name of Ezra Butler appears successively in the 
town records in one or another official capacity, and always 
in connection with some local movement for growth and 

The town started its municipal life with Richard Holden, 
Caleb Munson and E. Butler as the first selectmen, 
Munson serving as treasurer, Elias Marsh, son of James 
Marsh, as constable, and Phineas Waters, first highway 
surveyor and fence viewer. At a point near where Stowe 
Street crosses the railway the first school building was located. 
The daughters of Mr, Reuben Wells were teachers in a private 
school at or about this time. It was not until after the new 
century was ushered in that any attempt to build a county 


grammar school was made. This attempt proved abortive 
in the end for the town declined to finish the work already 
undertaken and carried forward in the building by private 
subscription. Apparently this official precedent must have 
had undue weight for many years afterwards as to adequate 
housing for the town's schools. 

At the March meeting of the town in 1793 it was voted 
that "Swine may Run at large Being well Yolked and 
Wringed," but this piece of municipal legislation suffered 
the fate of other ill-considered measures, for at the town 
meeting in 1794 it was voted that "Swine shall not Run 
at large." A peculiarly tough Gordian knot was required to 
be summarily cut at the town meeting, March ist, 1796, in 
which the office of constable was involved. It was voted: 
"We will set up at Vendue the Office of Constable — and it 
was struck off to Robert Parcher who Bid three Shillings and 
Six pence for the Office — and procured Richard Holden for 
his Bondsman who was accepted by the Town"; but local 
patriotism triumphed temporarily for we read in the record 
of March 4, 1799: "Voted that we Set up the Office of Con- 
stable at Vendue and John Peck oflfered to serve as Constable 
without any compensation from the town and at the same time 
procure Good Bonds." John got the job and a new era of 
civic virtue began. But this era proved short-lived, for at 
the meeting on the loth day of March, 1800, it was again 
voted : "That we set up the Office of first constable at Vendue 
and it is struck off to Isaac Woolson who is to receive Ninety 
five cents for his services and procure Good Bonds. " Ephraim 
was joined unto his idols. Conservatism held sway in the 
councils of the town fathers, as witnesseth the following from 
the minutes of town meeting of September, 1802: "Voted not 
to grant to Doc*' Daniel Bliss the priveledge of seting up a 
Pest House or Houses the insuing season for the enoculation 
of the small Pock." To make assurance doubly sure, at the 
town meeting of January, 1803, it was voted: "Not to intro- 
duce the small Pox into this town by inoculation." 

Education was not overlooked. At the March meeting of 
1803 it was voted "to raise two Cents on the Dollar on the 

PERIOD 1 763-1 800 23 

Grand List of 1800 for the support of schools payable in good 
Wheat and six Shillings per Bushel, Rye at four & In^ Corn 
at three shillings the Bus'." Also "that the sum of Money 
received for the support of Schools be Apportioned on the 
Schollors from four to Eighteen years old." These excerpts 
from the town records are given as tending to illuminate the 
conditions of that trying first decade of town government. 
It must be remembered that the town builders were more 
intent upon carrying out their practical object than upon the 
niceties of system and cut-and-dried methods. They realized 
that they were confronted by a solemn duty and were looked 
to for results, which they undertook to accomplish without 
any unnecessary red tape or ceremony. They realized that 
there would still be plenty of time for that sort of thing after 
the town had emerged from its swaddling clothes. 

The town was first represented in the General Assembly by 
Daniel Bliss in 1792. Though the government of the state 
approximated very closely to a true democracy, the arbitrary 
designations of republicans and federalists as then applied to 
the two great political parties, convey no distinctive signifi- 
cance today. The legislative power was reposed in the House 
of Representatives but each bill passed by the House was 
required to be submitted to the Governor and the Council of 
twelve persons for their action. If this checking body opposed 
any measure in its executive capacity, its passage was sus- 
pended until the next legislative session and the people in this 
way, expressed by a modified sort of referendum their approval 
or disapproval. 

Seemingly there was no representative for Waterbury in 
I793» but the line appears to have remained unbroken from 
the year 1794, when Ezra Butler was first chosen. Mr. Butler 
was reelected for each successive session to and including 1807, 
except the years 1798 and 1805, when George Kennan, of 
whom more anon, was the choice of the freemen of Waterbury. 
The last decade of the eighteenth century witnessed the 
town's growth from fifteen families and a population of about 
ninety-three to six hundred forty-four souls. A thrifty and 


permanent air was given the growing town by the rapid estab- 
lishment of the homes of constantly arriving settlers. 

Caleb Munson, the third settler came here from Torrington, 
Connecticut, in 1788 and made his selection of a tract on the 
large meadow above the town, through which the railroad 
passes and a part of which is now owned by Emerson L. John- 

Richard Holden, who afterward was sent in 1793 as a dele- 
gate to the Constitutional Convention, planted his household 
gods on the spot where the State Hospital Nurses' Annex 
now stands, known in early days as the Peck, Sheple or Doctor 
Fales place. The interval or property now occupied by A. M. 
Brigham was the home site of Amos Waters in 1788. The 
next place west of this at the mouth of the Waterbury River, 
on the east side, was the home of Doctor Daniel Bliss, the first 
physician and first representative of the town (1792), and 
afterwards became the shop site of Seth Chandler, the first 
blacksmith, who was killed there by a falling tree. 

The widow of the unfortunate James Marsh was married to 
Mr. Phillip Bartlett. They occupied a house on the property 
known as the Henry farm, taking its name from Sylvester 
Henry, an early settler, the grandfather of Mrs. Albert Spen- 
cer, and, after his death, owned by Sylvester Henry, his son, 
the father of Franklin S. Henry, who was the donor of the 
Soldiers' Monument. Elias Marsh, a son of James Marsh, had 
married and established his home where Miss Electa Corse's 
residence was afterwards built, now occupied by Mrs. Thad- 
deus B. Crossett. In the year 1796, Deacon Asaph Allen and 
Mr. David Austin, coming from Massachusetts and Connecti- 
cut, took up residence, the one near the Center on what is now 
Mark H. Moody's farm; the other on the place now occupied 
by B. G. Webster, on Blush Hill. 

Deacon Asaph Allen's life was reflective of the stern, vigorous, 
sturdy stock and the grim conditions from which he sprung. 
Born in the famous old fort at Deerfield, Massachusetts, 
October 25, 1751, — a circumstance in itself that might speak 
volumes — he went with his father's family to Bernardstown, 
Massachusetts. Here he became a deacon of the Orthodox 

PERIOD 1763-1800 25 

Congregational Church. It was not long before his service 
was required in the militia. He also served as a soldier in the 
Revolutionary War, for which service he received a pension 
from the government. His marriage to Persis Sheldon oc- 
curred in 1773 or 1774 in Bernardstown. Coming to Water- 
bury in 1796, he settled on the place described one-half mile 
east of Waterbury Center Village. After an upright, honor- 
able life he died March 19, 1840. His wife survived him nearly 
twelve years and died at the advanced age of ninety-four years 
and ten months. Nine children were born of the marriage: 
Roxana, born August 16, 1777; Zebulon in 1779; Sophia, 
December 10, 1781; Eliakim, February 24, 1785; Asaph in 
1788; Horace, August 15, 1792; Charles S., February 24, 1795; 
Persis, born in Waterbury, July 2, 1797, and Seba, born in 
Waterbury, August 16, 1801 . Of these Roxana (Allen), George 
and Eliakim who married Deborah Godfrey May i, 1808, 
made their homes in Waterbury. Eliakim continued the 
conduct of the farm near the Center until the year 1846 when 
he came to live in the Village. Mr. Allen was town represen- 
tative in the Legislature and was a member of the Methodist 
Church for over fifty years. Mrs. Deborah Allen died Octo- 
ber 19, 1857. Eliakim Allen was married for the second time 
to Achsah Kingsbury of Stowe, who was born in 1803. By 
his first marriage there were seven daughters. Of these Har- 
riet Allen, Julia, Pamelia, Aurelia and Alma were married in 
Waterbury, the first to Elymas Newcomb; Julia to True B. 
Colby, a farmer; Pamelia to Lucius Marshall; Aurelia twice, 
to George Calkins and Charles Hicks, and Alma to Storrs 

Horace Allen, one of the sons of Deacon Asaph Allen, was 
a farmer near Waterbury, and married Polly Field. He died 
in Waterbury Center, leaving one son, Charles S,, who died in 
the United States' service in the Mexican War. Charles S. 
Allen, another son of Asaph Allen, married Nancy Hale. 
Three daughters were Cornelia (Mrs. Cornelius Eddy of the 
Center), Romelia (Mrs. O. W. Stearns), and Persis (Mrs. C. F. 
Clough), all of the town of Waterbury. 

Prominent among the citizens of Waterbury at this time 


was General John Peck, an uncle of Governor Asahel Peck. 
General Peck came directly from Calais, though a native of 
Massachusetts. He soon fell into the stride of affairs and was 
chosen town representative in 1811 and 1818. He also served 
as chief judge of the County Court and as high sheriff. He was a 
particularly active candidate for Congress on the general ticket 
nominated by the legislative caucus, but was defeated through 
the efforts of Mr. Van Ness who afterwards became Governor. 
General Peck held office under the Federal Government as 
assessor of Federal taxes and later was chosen as a member of 
the state council in 1826, and died soon after the adjournment 
of the session in December of^, that year. General Peck was 
held in wide esteem for his store of common sense, quick in- 
telligence, affability, dignity and public spirit. His part as 
brigadier-general in command of the Vermont Militia at the 
Battle of Plattsburgh, September 11, 1814, is noticed else- 
where. The parcel of land on which Ezra and Asaph Butler 
first made their pitch, which they afterwards relinquished, 
passed in due course to Richard Holden, then to Judge Dan 
Carpenter, and then to General John Peck; under General 
Peck's occupancy and ownership, the place by additions and 
improvements came to be the show place of the town. The 
property was sold by Peck's administrator to D. G. Sheple, 
thence it passed to Sheple's son-in-law, Doctor Horace Fales. 
This old colonial residence was on the south side of Main 
Street, the second from the present site of the Roman Catholic 
Church, easterly. It was burned while occupied by Doctor 
and Mrs. Horace Fales. Doctor Fales afterwards built the 
brick house, known as the Hospital Annex, on the site. 

Massachusetts continued to furnish new settlers for Water- 
bury. In March, 1790, Jason Cadyof Sheldon, Massachusetts, 
built a home near the arch bridge on South Main Street, lead- 
ing to Duxbury. About the year 1788, one John Craig began 
a clearing on the meadow above the Winooski Falls and put 
up a small dwelling house. Craig removed to Ohio after a few 
years and the property passed to Joseph Palmer, then of rather 
more than local fame as a bridge builder. Mr. Palmer added 
to the tract by purchase and on his death it was divided into 

PERIOD 1 763-1 800 27 

parcels which included the farms afterwards known by the 
names of Davis, Remington and Randall — the Randall farm 
now being conducted by Doctor W. L. Wasson. Another early 
settler, who afterwards became prominent in the town history 
as a public official and town representative, was George Ken- 
nan, the great-grandfather of the widely known American 
traveler, lecturer and writer on Russia and Siberia, of that 
name. Mr. Kennan's home was on the site of the old Elisha 
Moody place, now occupied by Richard N. Demeritt. Isaac 
Wilson occupied a piece of ground near the present site of the 
Waterbury Inn. 

Attracted by the outlook. Stiles Sherman and his brother- 
in-law, Jonathan Wright, came to the town in 1788 and were, 
respectively, the fourth and fifth settlers in the order of arrival. 
Imbued with the true pioneer spirit Sherman and W^right 
lived, worked and died at advanced years on the sites where 
they first settled. Both were public spirited, enterprising, 
substantial citizens. Mr. Sherman dispensed hospitality as 
Boniface in Waterbury 's first tavern and endeared himself to 
the community for his unselfish, generous and thoughtful 
care of those ill and in need. Mr. Wright's home, at what is 
now known as Colby ville, was on the property recently sold 
by Warner L. Moody to C. C. Abbott, and was probably the 
first settled away from the river valley, although Mr. Parker's 
pamphlet admits the possibility of an earlier pitch on the hill 
"near the residence of George Stearns," while Mr. Sherman's 
selection was the site of the present town farm, to which he 
brought his family in 1789. Mr. Wright's cabin was situated 
on the stream above the Oliver C. Rood place; this was the 
birthplace of Tilman Wright, the first male child born in 
Waterbury. The Wright property was sold to James Green 
by the administrator of Tilman Wright and remains to this 
day in the Green family. Oliver C. Rood came to Waterbury 
in the full flush of strong manhood and set his brawn and 
brain at work in road making, bridge building, clearing and 
house raising; he built the grist mill which was afterwards 
rebuilt by W. W. Wells. 

The first settler on Loomis Hill was Silas Loomis who, born 


in Torrington, Connecticut, April 12, 1771, came to Water- 
bury about the year 1796; the following year he selected a 
place for a home on the hill named for him two miles from the 
Center. Here he cleared a home site in the forest, built a 
substantial log cabin and returned to his former Connecticut 
home for his wife, two children and personal effects. He is 
said to have announced his determination to live, die and be 
buried in his new home. Mr. Loomis, though never a large 
or robust man, was a hard \*7orker and soon added to his hold- 
ings until his original home place comprised four hundred 
acres. An interesting description of the man is given in Child's 
Washington County Gazetteer: 

He was small in stature, never weighed one hundred and twenty-five 
pounds, very light complexion, large, lustrous, dark hazel eyes and bright 
red hair, which he never had cut but wore it in a queue to the close of his 
life. He dressed in homespun garments in winter, made by the deft hands 
of his competent wife, and linen in summer. His stockings were long, 
reaching above the knee, and over all he wore a long frock. He was scru- 
pulously neat, and his farm, barns, sheds and tools were kept in perfect 
order. He was opposed to buying and maintained that farmers should 
raise their own provisions and clothing. . . . He despised fraud, 
deception and dishonesty. . . . He had a mind of his own and never 
endorsed an opinion because some one else had. At the call of his county 
in the War of i8i2he hastened to its defense. . . . He died March 
2, 1853, aged eighty-two years. 

Kneeland Flat was first occupied by Richard Kneeland 
(known as "Little Dick"). Born in Westford, Massachusetts, 
April I, 1778, he married Katherine Knights of Claremont, 
New Hampshire, and came to Waterbury in 1803. His occu- 
pation was that of a house joiner and builder and farmer. He 
carried on farming operations on the property formerly owned 
by John Parker in 1813. He died in February, 1868. Mr. 
Kneeland served as justice of the peace, presiding as trial 
justice in many cases, and by virtue of his office he became 
known as the "marrying justice." He was wonderfully well 
informed on matters pertaining to ancient and Biblical history 
and naturally was something of a controversialist. He was 
wont to emphasize his somewhat dogmatic statements by 
adding the word "faithful" in much the same way as the locu- 

PERIOD 1 763-1 800 29 

tion "honestly" is used. His boast was that he alone in the 
community knew how to draft plans and specifications for 
winding stairv\'ays. The sons of Mr. and Mrs. Kneeland were : 
Willard H., who died at the age of ninety-one; William, who 
married Dorothy Jackman, and settled on the old farm until 
it was sold in 1853; Henr>% a Waitsfield farmer, and Doctor 
Lucius Kneeland, who went to Florida and died at the age 
of thirty years. The daughters were: Ortensia, who died at 
the age of fifty-one years; Martha (Kneeland) Parker, who 
died at the age of forty years; Mary A. (Kneeland) Whitney, 
who died at the age of seventy-three years; Catherine, who 
died at the age of twenty-one years, and Adaline (Kneeland) 
Wade of Colbyville. 

Mention has already been made of the old Governor Butler 
place. This tract of between two hundred and three hundred 
acres included one hundred and thirty acres which was for- 
merly the farm of the State Reform School. The first framed 
house, a photograph of which is in this book, stands on the 
seven-acre homestead plot. The larger part of the tract be- 
longs to the Doctor Henr>' Janes estate. Mr. Russell Butler, 
son of Governor Butler, formerly owned a parcel of four acres 
at the mouth of Thatcher's Branch, the site of the sur\-eyors' 
camp built in 1782. Mr. Russell Butler, was the youngest 
member of the family. He was born February' 17, 1807, in 
Waterbury, and made his native place his home. After a col- 
lege preparatory course at the Montpelier Academy he entered 
the University of Vermont in 1825. Ill health precluded his 
finishing the course and he left the university at the end of 
Sophomore year. Mr. Russell Butler imbibed a great love 
for books and was remarkably familiar with literature and 
bibliography. Unlike his father, he avoided political life. 
Indeed, he is said to have peremptorily declined to permit his 
name to come before the public for political preferment, either 
by way of an elective or appointive office. Though personally 
averse to holding office he was, nevertheless, an ardent student 
of government, a protagonist for the cause of the public welfare, 
and a champion of educational and religious training. Mr. 
Butler's influence in the community was such as might be 


looked for from a man of unquestioned purity of life, morals 
and motives. He died, February 7, 1883. His wife, Elizabeth 
M., was born in 1815 and died in 1844. 

Stephen Guptil (whose name appears in the town records 
spelled Guptail) owned the farm that afterwards came into the 
possession of Jared George, whose barn did duty at times for 
many years as a meeting house for religious services, dating 
back to 1798. Another well-tilled farm was known as the 
Eddy place. It was owned by David Adams, William Eddy 
and Harvey Eddy, in succession, and was situated with its 
meadow land on the branch below the property first located 
by Deacon Asaph Allen in 1796. The Allen place, in turn, 
passed into the possession of Eliakim Allen and was by him 
transferred to parties out of the family. Most of the upland 
farms had their beginnings at a later date than those men- 
tioned. These included the old Silas Loomis place, the Clough 
place on Indian Hill, the Raymond Huse place on Alder 
Brook below the falls, and others. 

In 1791 Joshua Hill started his farm in the south part and, 
as it was on the main traveled thoroughfare or hill road running 
north, his farm house served as a wayside tavern. Another 
tavern situated near the southern boundary of the town on this 
road was opened and kept for some years by George Kennan. 
The upland farms were particularly well adapted to stock 
raising and dairying, and nearly all had thriving maple 
orchards, from the sap of which the far-famed Washington 
County maple sugar and syrup were produced. On land in 
Waterbury Center, near the chapel, James Bryant settled in 
1793; Stephen Jones followed him four years later on a lot of 
land adjacent on the north ; George Scagel took up his residence 
on a Center plot in 1794, and spent his life there. Mr. Jones 
and Mr. Scagel were prominent members of the Methodist 

As to those residents of Waterbury who had seen service in 
the War of the Revolution, next to nothing is obtainable con- 
cerning the dates of enlistment, terms of service, actions par- 
ticipated in, and the like. There are buried in the Waterbury 
Cemetery the following Revolutionary soldiers: Captain 


PERIOD 1763-1800 31 

Thomas Jones, Aaron Wilder, Ezra Butler, Zachariah Bassett, 
Moses Nelson, David Towne, John Hudson, D. Sloan, Benja- 
min Conant, Paul Dillingham, Asaph Allen, Isaac Marshall, 
Thomas Eddy, Alphas Sheldon, Joseph Hubbard, Stephen 
Jones, Asa Poland, George Kennan. 

The close of the eighteenth century found Waterbury fairly 
started on its course. There had been town representation in 
the General Assembly since 1792; the townspeople were 
energetic, thrifty and industrious; the farms were being tilled; 
shops, stores, taverns and mills had been erected ; town govern- 
ment had been organized, and the first or formative period in 
the State, Chittenden County and town of Waterbury, had 
fairly passed. W^ashington County had not yet been organ- 
ized. Montpelier had begun town government on March 29, 
1 791, a year later than Waterbury, and so we are brought to 
the epochal nineteenth century. 


I 800-1 830 

The year 1800 was not particularly noteworthy in the 
town's annals. To be sure the people of Waterbury were 
keenly interested in matters political. George Washington 
and John Adams had earned the approval of the Vermont 
Legislature; Governor Isaac Tichenor appropriately praised 
their respective administrations in his speech to the General 
Assembly. It is a fair assumption that a majority of the 
electorate of Waterbury favored the reelection of John Adams 
to the presidency, although he was the choice of the federalists. 
Thomas Jefferson was the then republican-democratic candi- 
date and was stoutly supported in the General Assembly when 
it was sought through a formal measure by republican mem- 
bers, to secure a choice of presidential electors by districts rather 
than by appointment by the Council and Legislature. This 
bill was defeated but the vote of ninety-five to seventy-three 
showed a decided republican increase within the year. Mr. 
Jefferson's success and his candid avowal that a difference of 
political opinions was not a difference of principles led many 
good Vermonters, and presumably citizens of Waterbury, to 
be misled as to his course regarding political patronage, but 
they probably profited by the lesson. 

Chittenden County had been incorporated in 1782 and 
within its borders were included Stowe, Waterbury, Duxbury, 
Fayston, Waitsfield, Moretown, Middlesex and Worcester, 
which were afterwards taken into Washington County upon 
its organization in December, 181 1, with Ezra Butler as 
county judge and John Peck as sheriff. 

A story is rife at this writing concerning the choice of a 
State Capital which is not without interest. Among the 
towns bidding for the honor of becoming the seat of govern- 
ment was Waterbury; the story runs that an entirely unex- 
pected local opposition arose among some of the more promi- 



nent residents and settlers and efifectually put a quietus upon 
the movement. It is fair to say that the compiler has not 
succeeded in verifying the story and it is given here for what 
it is worth. The Act fixing the capital at Montpelier was 
passed by a session of the Legislature held at Danville in 
October, 1805. At the two succeeding sessions in Middle- 
bury and Woodstock vigorous eflforts were made to bring 
about a change in location, but the counter efforts of Secre- 
tary of State David Wing and Montpelier's town representa- 
tive, Honorable Cyrus Ware, prevailed and the Act remained as 
here given from the original certified copy now among the 
effects of the late Doctor Henry Janes, a grandson of Ezra 
Butler, named as one of the committee in the Act : 

An Act establishing the permanent seat of Government at Montpelier. 

Section i. It is hereby enacted by the General Assembly of the State 
of Vermont, that Elijah Paine, Ezra Butler, and James Whitelaw, be and 
they are hereby appointed a Committee to fix upon a place in the town 
of Montpelier for the erection of buildings for the accommodation of the 
Legislature of this State, and to prepare a plan for such buildings 

Sec. 2. And it is hereby further enacted, That if the town of Montpelier, 
or other individual persons, shall, before the first day of September, which 
will be in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and eight, 
erect such buildings on the place designated by the aforesaid Committee, 
to their acceptance, and shall compensate said Committee for their serv- 
ices and, also convey to the State of Vermont, the property of said build- 
ings and the land whereon they shall stand, and lodge the Deed of Convey- 
ance duly executed, in the Secretary of State's Office, then and in that 
case, said Buildings shall become the permanent seat of the Legislature, 
for holding all their sessions. 

Sec. 3. Provided nevertheless, and it is hereby further enacted, That 
if any further Legislature, shall cease to hold Their sessions in said Town 
of Montpelier, Those persons, who shall erect said Buildings, and convey 
the property of the same, and of the land as aforesaid, shall be entitled 
to receive from the Treasury of this State, the full value of the same 
as it shall be, then, fairly appraised. — 
State of Vermont. 

Secretary of State's Office. 
Montpelier, 19 November, 1805. 

I hereby certify that the above and foregoing, is a true copy of an Act 
of the Legislature of this State passed on the eighth day of November 

Attest: Day. Wing Jr. Secry. 

PERIOD 1800-1830 35 

At about this time it became necessary to commission the 
presidential electors who had been chosen at the general elec- 
tion in the autumn of 1804. Governor Isaac Tichenor, there- 
fore, executed a formal commission, a true copy of which is 
given : 



By His Excellency 

Isaac Tichenor, Esquire 

Governor in and over said State. 

To All Persons to whom these Presents shall come: Greeting. 

Know Ye, 

That the Honorable Josiah Wright, Samuel Shaw, Ezra Butler, Nathaniel 
Niles, William Hunter and John Noyes of Guilford Esquires, have been 
duly elected, by the joint Ballot of both Houses of the Legislature of the 
State of Vermont, Electors of President and Vice-President of the United 
States agreeably to the Constitution of the United States and the Laws of 
the State, for the purpose of Electing a President and Vice-President of 
the United States for and during the Term of Four years commencing on 
the Fourth day of March which will be in the Year of our Lord, one Thou- 
sand eight Hundred and five. 

In Testimony whereof, I have caused the Seal of this State to be here- 
unto affixed. 

Given under my Hand at Rutland this Third day of November in the 
year of our Lord, one Thousand eight Hundred and four and of the Inde- 
pendence of the United States, the Twenty-ninth. (Signed) 
By His Excellency's Command Isaac Tichenor. 

William Page, Sec'y- 

All this while religious instruction, as promulgated from 
the pulpits of churches, had languished not only in Water- 
bury but in the surrounding towns. Religious services were 
held when and where circumstances permitted. A copy of a 
subscription agreement entered into by some citizens of Rich- 
mond is given, which sheds more lustre on the intention of the 
signers than it does upon the ability to draft contracts then 
available. It is questioned whether the "somes hereafter 
annexed" would tempt a money -making twentieth century 
evangelist : 

Richmond Decern' 4*'' A.D. 1804 

Whereas Richmond, at present is destitute of Gospel preaching and it 
is the indispensable duty of all Parents and heads of familys to encourage 


the preaching of the Gospel, for the good of the rising Generation, in order 
to reform their morals as well as to give edification to those of Mature 
Years, — 

We, the subscribers therefore do covenant and agree with Elder Samuel 
Webster, of Bolton to preach one half on every other Sabath for the term 
of three Months from the time of commencing in the School House, near 
Cap't Hodges' farm on the East side of Onion River in S"* Richmond; and 
if the somes hereafter annexed to our names may be sufficient encourage- 
ment to encourage the said Elder Webster, we promise (on condition that 
the s'd Elder Webster, do fulfil the afores'i agreement, to pay him severally 
the sumes which we shall sever'ly annex to our respective names at or before 
the expiration of s'd term in Grain delivered at our respective places of 
abode, witness our hands. 

Names of Subscribers. 
Ezra Moore X $0.75 James Butler $0.50 

Abraham Ford X 0.75 Asaph Butler 0.75 

Thos. Hall 0.75 Benoni Thompson 0.50 

John Stacy O.50 Joshua Beardsley i.oo 

Reference has been made to a few instances of invalid land 
titles. Tax sales were not frequent and when land passed in 
this way it was generally redeemed, — sometimes at consid- 
erable risk and hardships as in the case of Colonel Sumner, a 
citizen of New Hampshire, owning land in Waterbury. The 
time to redeem was on the point of expiration when Sumner 
sent his son, David H., a youth, with money to redeem 
the land, by horseback, from his home in New Hampshire, 
seventy-five miles away. The way led through practically a 
trackless forest for much of the distance. The youth arrived 
safely in Montpelier at the home of Colonel Davis at sundown. 
After a brief stop there to rest and feed his faithful mare, he 
started on the last bit of his journey to Waterbury; mean- 
while, it grew dark and the going became rough and difficult; 
at a place near the foot of Rock Bridge, the mare stopped, 
refusing to move forward. Through the dusk David was 
able to see a huge bear, disputing the right of way, standing 
erect on his haunches. The sight was not one to lighten the 
difficulties of the situation, but young Sumner screwed up his 
courage and bided his time; having satisfied his comic curi- 
osity, Bruin departed leisurely through the undergrowth at 
the road side, allowing the boy and mare to pass to the river, 

PERIOD 1800-1830 37 

which they forded. Arriving at the house of the tax collector, 
Mr. Holden, the plucky boy found that he had just one hour 
in which to redeem the land by payment of the taxes. 

The problem of building and maintaining passable high- 
ways in the town was then as now most burdensome. The 
early roads were little better than mere trails. One ran along 
the river through the Hog Backs to Middlesex, but was dis- 
continued for a better thoroughfare on the other side of the 
river. The old hill road to Stowe, and thence to the Lamoille 
River, was used as an artery of travel until a more level grade 
was found through the Center. The Waterbury River road 
to Stowe lay along the old hunters' trail and is still a pictur- 
esque traveled way. 

The Legislature granted a charter, in 1805, to a turnpike 
company for a road between Montpelier and Burlington. 
Little difficulty was encountered in disposing of sufficient stock 
to build the road which ran through the Village from the upper 
end down to Bolton. This turnpike was not a profitable 
enterprise after the ravages of a flood in the summer of 1830, 
which swept away its bridges and grading in various places. 
Two brothers, Thomas and Hezekiah Reed of Montpelier, 
took over the property, paying $10 a share for stock which 
had previously sold for $175. The Reed brothers rebuilt the 
bridges and regraded the road which became the main thor- 
oughfare for freighters from Boston and other eastern points. 
At that time freight wagons were drawn by oxen as well as 
horses, and a single trip would require between two and three 
weeks from Boston by way of Montpelier to Waterbury. After 
water routes were made possible by cutting the canal between 
the Hudson and Lake Champlain, teaming and traffic between 
Burlington and Montpelier were greatly increased and the 
turnpike became profitable. The charter of the Vermont 
Central provided for a purchase of the turnpike franchise. 
Under the terms of a settlement with the road company, the 
railroad applied the tolls to its own use after taking over the 
pike. Soon after the railway line began operations the turn- 
pike was abandoned to the towns through which it passed, 
and they have received the benefit of the road ever since. 


One of the early pioneers in mercantile life in the town was 
Amasa Pride who came here from Brookfield, Vermont, in 
1802; he entered mercantile business and was the first suc- 
cessful merchant in the new village; he also opened a tavern 
on the site of the Eugene Moody place which was one of the 
few houses of entertainment in the place. Subsequently he 
acquired a tract of land extending from the north side of the 
river across what is now Main Street to the rise across the 
railway tracks, known as "Pride's Pinnacle," west to the Ran- 
dall property and east to the Atkins corner. His residence 
was on the site of the present Waterbury Inn; from there he 
removed to the brick house now facing the common where 
his daughter, Mrs. D. C. Caldwell, now lives. In common 
with other citizens, Mr. Pride was enthusiastic over the build- 
ing of the Vermont Central Railway through the Village and 
was a subscriber to the stock offered by the road as a condi- 
tion of its extension from Middlesex. 

The "common " between Main Street and the railway tracks 
was formerly known as the Doctor Drew place. This was pur- 
chased by Mr. Pride to be transferred by him to the railroad 
company. The negotiations for the station site and the other 
surrounding property were conducted through Governor 
Charles Paine and the conveyance has been erroneously re- 
ported to have been made on condition that the "common" 
should not be built upon so that a free and unobstructed view 
of the station might be had from the Pride residence. Mr, 
Pride was married twice; his second wife was Miss Polly Hill, 
to whom he was married September i, 1836. Two daughters 
were born to them, Mary, who died unmarried, and Martha 
L. (Mrs. D. C. Caldwell), who still occupies the old Pride 
residence. The following obituary, printed in 1862, reflects 
the high esteem in which Mr. Pride was held by his towns- 

Died in Waterbury, August 16, 1862, Amasa Pride, Esq., aged 85 years, 
10 months and 3 days. Mr. Pride was born in Lisbon, Conn. In his four- 
teenth year he came to Brookfield, Vt., to which place his father had moved 
two years before. In 1802, in his 26th year, he opened a store in Water- 
bury, and became the first permanent and successful merchant in the place. 
He commenced business with very little capital, but, by his sound judg- 

PERIOD 1 800-1 830 39 

ment, sterling integrity, and great energy and enterprise, he accumulated 
a large property and became one of the most substantial and valuable men 
in the community. His hand was open to every call of charity and the 
public good. He had been a consistent member of the Congregational 
Church twenty-six years. 

The property, formerly known as the Loomis Hill farm, 
occupied by Silas Loomis in 1797, lay south of a farm settled 
and cleared by Timothy Claflin from Croydon, New Hampshire, 
in 1802 or 1803, which is now owned by Henry F. Hill, the 
Loomis place being occupied by Edward Woodward. In 
1805 or 1806 Abel De Wolf, coming from Conway, Massa- 
chusetts, took the farm now owned or occupied by Charles 
Stevens and son. Simeon Woolson was another farmer who 
began in 1798 on the place now owned by Henry Thurston. 
The Frank Morey place was the farm of William Kneeland in 
1796. What is now known as the Bradley Shaw estate was 
the farm of Israel Thatcher in 1808. This was afterwards 
known as the Robert Broderick place. Solomon Newcomb 
took the place now owned by Nathaniel Sawyer in 1809 and 
lived there on an unimproved lot until his death in 1845. 
Otis Whitney began on the Fred Marks property in 1807, 
and Robert Parcher on the property of C. C. Robinson, Jr. 

If it be thought that undue space is being given to Ezra 
Butler in these pages, the reader is reminded that he was so 
indissolubly connected and bound up with the first half cen- 
tury of Waterbury's life that he literally made the town's 
history, assisted, of course, by his neighbors and fellow pio- 
neers. It is difficult to conceive how a staid Elder of the Bap- 
tist Church, ordained in 1801, could have run the gamut of 
judicial, legislative and executive experiences and yet remain 
always a person of Christian meekness, dignity and propriety. 
Indeed, it must not be supposed that his meekness was of the 
sort that deprived him of controversial force when he thought 
his rights were being infringed, nor did it paralyze his political 
acumen in any noticeable degree. For example, when a 
question arose as to who was "the first settled minister" 
within the meaning of the charter provision as to the ministerial 
right of land, the question of priority of ordination arose be- 


tween Reverend Ezra Butler and Reverend Jonathan Hovey. 
Mr. Butler had been ordained in i8oi; the church called 
Reverend Hovey to settle over them in 1802; Mr. Hovey 
questioned the regularity of Mr. Butler's ordination, which 
Mr. Butler vigorously upheld; he laid claim to the right of 
land, not because he wanted it for himself but because he 
wanted to see it applied for school purposes. At a town 
meeting in 1802 it was voted: "that we do consider the right 
of land granted to the first settled minister to be Elder Butler's 
in consequence of his ordination in this town. Voted to 
choose a committee to wait on the council that is to ordain 
Rev. Jona. Hovey. Voted that the committee consist of 
these persons: Ezra Butler, Richard Holden, David Atkins, 
George Kennan and Daniel Bliss. Voted that the committee 
state to the council the proceedings of this meeting and the 
dilificulty that may arise in town, and with a request that the 
ordination might not take place unless that Mr. Hovey will 
agree to quit claim the right of land granted the first settled 
minister to the town of Waterbury for the use of the common 
school." In 1806 the selectmen were directed to take "the 
most wise and prudent manner to get and keep the possession" 
of the ministerial lot. And that the selectmen "lease out the 
right, etc., also to choose a committee to Council with the 
Selectmen," upon which were Ezra Butler, Isaac Woolson, 
Thomas Gubtail, Isaac Parker and David Austin. Mr. 
Hovey was dismissed, December 31, 1807, for lack of adequate 
support and removed to Piermont, New Hampshire, whence 
he continued to wage battle for his claim. In 181 1 a settle- 
ment was proposed whereby Dan Carpenter and Humphrey 
Gubtail were authorized to pay Mr. Hovey for betterments 
and improvements not to exceed $250, and to take a deed from 
him. Mr. Hovey's tenacity drove him finally to bringing suit 
in the United States Court, nominally against Lemuel Lyon, 
to recover possession of the ministerial lot, and, as late as 1814, 
the town voted to appoint John Peck as agent to defend the 
suit, which ultimately resulted in the title being vested in the 
town for school purposes. Throughout this controversy the 
fine Italian hand of Mr. Butler is visible; he was resourceful 

PERIOD 1800-1830 41 

and astute in counsel and vigilant and untiring in watching the 
moves of his opponents. Wherever the political storm center 
happened to be located, one had not far to seek for his aggres- 
sive presence and personality. 

Mr. Butler divided the honor of being town representative 
with Mr. George Kennan for the first fifteen years of the town's 
representation in the General Assembly, Mr. Butler serving 
from 1794 to 1798, Kennan in 1798, Butler again from 1799 
to 1805, Kennan again in 1805 to 1806; Butler was reelected 
in 1807 and 1808, and the latter term must have been divided 
by him between the House of Representatives and the Council, 
for the records show that he was elected to both bodies in the 
same year. Mr. Parker suggests, as an explanation, the fact 
that the Council was elected by a general ticket, votes for 
which were enumerated by a committee of the General Assem- 
bly and that Mr. Butler probably remained in the House until 
after the result of the vote became known when he took his 
seat in the Council. 

Not the least important of Ezra Butler's official functions, 
and always along the lines of sound public policy, were the 
ceremonies of marriage he performed in his several capacities 
of justice of the peace, chief judge of the County Court, regu- 
larly ordained minister of the Gospel and member of the State 
Council. There is reason to believe that his official action in 
this regard, evidenced by the town records of some thirty-five 
marriage ceremonies, was of vastly greater service to the state 
than if he had signed so many decrees of divorce. It is not 
unlikely that he adopted the graceful course of presenting the 
marriage fees to the brides, afterwards followed by other 
Waterbury justices. 

Mr. Butler's fame and influence increased steadily and so 
when a chairman was required to preside over the war meeting 
at Montpelier, which had been called by the Democratic 
friends and supporters of President Madison's war policies to 
take appropriate action thereon, almost, as of course Ezra 
Butler, a good Democrat (or then a Republican) and member 
of the ascendant party in the state and county, was chosen 
as chairman. The war measure referred to in the Robinson 


letter to Butler, given below, had passed in January and its 
ratification was sought at this meeting the following month. 
If accounts of that occasion now available may be trusted, Pat- 
rick Henry's fiery utterances of treasonable sentiments in the 
Virginia House of Burgesses were merely mild remonstrances 
as compared with the vitriolic, vituperative charges and coun- 
ter-charges of treason in that Montpelier meeting. With that 
never-failing sense of observing due decorum at the beginning 
of the meeting, one of the committee was despatched to request 
the then settled minister of Montpelier to open the meeting 
with prayer. The committeeman soon reported that the 
ministerial gentleman had declined on the score of conscientious 
scruples. In this situation Reverend Ziba Woodworth re- 
sponded to a call for an opening prayer, which was a master- 
piece of contumelious satire and downright abuse of the Feder- 
alists as "enemies of our blessed country" and as being guilty 
of "treasonable opposition to the wise measures of our God- 
appointed rulers." Meanwhile, Mr. Butler had resigned the 
chairmanship of the meeting and, although succeeded by 
Esquire Bulkeley, a strong Federalist, as chairman, he saw the 
war party carry everything its own way, even to the affixing 
of the chairman's signature to the very resolutions Bulkeley 
meant to defeat. 

The war of 1812 loomed threateningly as the first rock of 
importance upon which the hitherto comparatively harmoni- 
ous General Assembly was destined to split. The Federalists 
deemed the war premature and impolitic, while the Republi- 
cans favored it as a wise and far-sighted policy declaring it 
their duty as citizens to support the declaration of war ; other- 
wise they would identify themselves with the enemy "with 
no other distinction than that of locality." We are able to 
give the text of a letter dated January 10, 1812, from one of 
Vermont's United States Senators, Jonathan Robinson, to 
Ezra Butler, which, while breathing sentiments of the loftiest 
patriotism, betrays a certain anxiety as to how the people 
would receive the joint action of President Madison and the 
Congress, as will be seen: 



S > c c 











PUBLIC library! 


PERIOD 1800-1830 43 

Washington, Jany 10 th 1812 
My respected old friend. 

Sitting in the Senate this morning and having answered all my corris- 
pondents my mind turned on the . . . conversations we held in the 
Capital at Montpelier. The President & both Houses of Congress have 
united in their Opinion at last that the accumilated Injuries and aggravated 
Insults of the English government ought no longer to be borne by a Gener- 
ous but brave people whose conduct has for years exhibited a forbearance 
unequalled in the annals of Civilized Nations. The blood of our brave 
countrymen lately murdered on the Wabash by Indians excited to murder 
and desolation by that unprincipled Nation call for Vengeance and I 
think I can lay my hand on my heart and appeal to the God of armies with 
an honest conscience and ask his protecting aid in our measures. We have 
this day passed the long contended and delayed Bill to raise 25,000 men 
and nothing but the President's signature is wanting to its becoming a Law. 
We, of course, call on you all to recommend to us good, firm, patriotic and 
brave men as officers for captains and subalterns and we do most ardent 
hope every effort will be made by our friends to aid inlistments that we 
may have a short war and a popular one; before next summer I hope you 
will see an army marching to the North; if Canada is ours war with the 
Indians under the Jeffersonian policy is forever at an end. Your w-ishes in 
a postmaster is gratified. Recollect me to friends. Your cordial friends 

Jonathan Robinson 
Hon. Ezra Butler Esq'. 

as we have passed the Rubicon we wish to know how the public Pulse 


Apparently as a result of this request for a recommendation 
of officers and subalterns Henry Fisk Janes of Waterbury, 
later to become the son-in-law of Ezra Butler, and father of 
the late Doctor Henry Janes, received a commission as ensign 
in Captain Gideon Wheelock's company from Governor 

A letter bearing date, February 14, 1814, from President 
Daniel C. Sanders of the University of Vermont to Mr. Butler 
contains some interesting information about the progress of 
the war from which the following is an extract : 

Two hundred sleighs are hiving in this vicinity (Burlington) to go to 
the French Mills to wait further orders, the object not yet known to us. 
The British are said to be engaged in building new vessels on Lake Cham- 
plain and if our government should not keep pace with equal steps, with 
them, it is feared, that the next campaigne will prove most disastrous 


to our country in the vicinity of this Lake. I trust the Government will 
not long remain unmindful of an interest so highly important to the issue 
of the contest in which our country is engaged. 

Waterbury was ably represented at the Battle of Platts- 
burg by General John Peck, who, as brigadier-general of 
Vermont Militia, participated with his command in that 
engagement. Forty officers and privates in command of 
Captain George Atkins of Waterbury, belonging to the 
Fourth Regiment of Vermont Militia under Colonel Peck, 
about September 7, 1814, volunteered to go to Plattsburg. 
These participated in the battle of September 1 1 , and remained 
in Plattsburg a day or two after the battle, their service 
extending over the period of September 7 to September 17. 
The list taken from the rolls in the Adjutant-General's Office 
includes: Captain George Atkins, Lieutenant John G. Knights, 
Ensign Davis Marshall, Sergeant Guy J. H. Holding, Ser- 
geant David A. Towne, Corporal Luther Cleaves, Corporal 
Ezra O. Button, Corporal Abijah Towne, Privates Moses 
Coffin, Giles H. Holding, Asa Stearns, Ebenezer M. Man, 
Asa Austin, Richard W. Holding, Moses Nelson, Nathaniel 
Gublait (meaning Guptail or Guptil), John De Wolf, Benja- 
min Parry, Hosea Towne, Humphrey Gublait (Guptil), Oliver 
C. Rood, Truman Murry, Orin Austin, Israel Straw, Salem 
Towne, Edmond Towne, Johnson Bates, Nathaniel Perkins, 
Waldo H. Field, William Huckins, Joel Kilburn, Sylvanus 
Parker, David Austin, Justus Kenman, Bartholomew Knee- 
land, David Adams, Daniel Demon, Daniel H. Austin, Jotham 

The records in the office of the adjutant-general at Mont- 
pelier contain a statement made at Waterbury September 
27, 1850, by Captain Chester Marshall, in which he says 
that when the Fourth Regiment was ordered out by Colonel 
John Peck, he himself was not ordered out but on Saturday, 
the day before the Battle of Plattsburg, the members of his 
company residing at Waitsfield rallied as volunteers. On 
Sunday he took command and marched his men to Burlington 
where he was ordered to attempt to get to Plattsburg, via 
Cumberland Head. Obeying this order, he with his command 

PERIOD 1800-1830 45 

reached the American forces at Plattsburg, Tuesday, Sep- 
tember 13. Captain Marshall made another sworn state- 
ment at Waterbury, October 12, 1850, verifying a statement 
of one Orson Skinner of Waitsfield that he, Skinner, had 
served in a company of cavalry, Fourth Regiment, Second 
Brigade, Third Division of Vermont Militia, commanded by 

Among those named in the list of forty volunteers is Moses 
Coffin, Sr., who lived on Blush Hill with his wife, Lydia Dustin 
Coffin, his two sons, Moses, Jr., and Daniel, and a daughter, 
Electa. The two sons died in the second year of the War 
of 1812, one (Moses, Jr.) at Fort George, Upper Canada, and 
the other (Daniel) at Plattsburg, New York, November 15, 
1813. The daughter of Moses Cofifin, Sr., Electa, was the 
mother of Mr. George W. Randall, the greater part of whose 
long life has been spent in Waterbury. Electa (Cofifin) 
Randall, on her part, was the granddaughter of Hannah 
Dustin, whose heroic exploits in that stressful period of Massa- 
chusetts history, closing the Seventeenth century, gave her 
immortality. Nearly every schoolboy is familiar with the 
story of how the Indians swooped down upon the Dustin 
home at Haverhill, March 15, 1697; how the father managed 
to get seven children out of harm's way, fighting off the Indians 
single-handed; how the mother, Hannah Dustin, lying in 
bed with an infant daughter, one week old, and a woman 
attendant were taken captives by the Indians who forced 
the two women, with the infant, to take the rough trail lead- 
ing to a spot near the present site of Concord, New Hampshire. 
On the way, the Indians, not wishing to be burdened with 
the infant, dashed out her brains against a tree. The heroic 
mother, assisted by her woman companion and a fourteen- 
year-old captive boy, tomahawked ten of the twelve Indians 
comprising the party, while they slept, leaving a squaw and 
papoose to escape, and made her way with her companions 
back to Haverhill and Boston, where she was suitably rewarded 
for her bravery. Her name is still a household word in Con- 
cord, New Hampshire, where a monument was erected to 
her memory. 


Among those whose army record, if fully available, would 
make good reading was Levi Gleason, soldier in the Revolu- 
tionary War, the War of 1812, and the Mexican War. Gleason 
was a son of James Gleason of Westmoreland, New Hamp- 
shire, and grand-uncle of Mrs. G. W. Randall. He is described 
as "short and stout with dark straight hair. " He was known 
familiarly as "Tip" Gleason from his being in the Battle of 
Tippecanoe, November 7, 181 1, and lived in Waterbury 
for some years. 

Captain Chester Marshall was the son of Amasa Marshall, 
who lived where the condensed milk factory now stands on 
South Main Street, also owning the meadows below that 
place and the high land back of it on the same side of the 
river. Captain Marshall, as a young man, was noted for 
his deeds of daring. At the time of the great freshet in the 
early 30's, the Middlesex gorge became dammed with debris 
of all sorts. It was found that the key obstruction was a 
huge millstone which, lying submerged in the narrow channel, 
effectually blocked it. Marshall dived into the swirling 
stream and passed a chain through the hole of the millstone, 
enabling those on shore to remove it. Chester Marshall lived 
in Waterbury for the greater part of his life, removing to 
Stowe toward the latter part where he died at the age of 
eighty-four. He was the father of Mrs. William Deal of 
South Main Street. 

Nathaniel and Humphrey Guptil, named in the list of forty 
volunteers from Waterbury at the battle of Plattsburg, were 
sons of Thomas Guptil, Jr., and grandsons of Thomas Guptil 
who came to Waterbury one hundred and thirty years ago, 
settled on Guptil Hill, there lived and died, and was buried in 
the Guptil family lot on the hill. All the Guptils were farmers, 
and Humphrey acquired some local reputation as surveyor. 
Another was Stephen J. Guptil, born February 11, 18 16, and 
died April 10, 1891. His first wife was Mary (Wallace) 
Guptil, born April 21, 1817, and died April 8, 1847; his second 
wife was Hannah (Reed) Guptil, born November 10, 181 1, 
and died January 26, 1894. Of this marriage was born Walter 
E. Guptil, May 10, 1851, who died March 3, 1895, also Eleanor 

PERIOD 1800-1830 47 

born July 11, 1852, and Martha born April 10, 1856, who died 
August 7, 1857. The wife of Walter Guptil was Florence E. 
Stevens, born April 14, 1856, now living in Waterbury. 

Guy Holden, a son of Richard Holden, was a teacher in the 
district school of Waterbury in 1 810-18 12. Attributed to him 
is an incident about the Battle of Plattsburg related by one of 
those furnishing matter supplementary to Mr. Parker's ad- 
dress in Hemenway's History of Washington County. On the 
day before the battle was fought, Holden, with a number of 
young boys, climbed a hill near the town to listen for the sounds 
of cannonading at Plattsburg. The narrator says: "On the 
day of the battle, Sunday, September 11, 1814, there was no 
need of listening to hear the broadside discharges of artillery 
in the lake action, to which a hundred of Waterbury boys were 
witnesses," meaning, doubtless, that one hundred boys could 
have testified to the fact that the cannonading could be heard 
in Waterbury. 

Some confusion has arisen as to the name of three of the 
volunteers in Captain Atkins' company of forty who went to 
Plattsburg about September 7 and took part in the battle 
September 11. They are given in the list as Sergeant Guy 
J. H. Holding, Giles H. Holding and Richard W. Holding. 
These are, undoubtedly, sons of Richard Holden (so spelled), 
whose name appears so often in the town records as selectman, 
moderator, justice of the peace and as a member of the Con- 
stitutional Convention. The Guy Holden mentioned as 
having heard the cannonading from Plattsburg, September 11, 
must be the Sergeant Guy Holding listed with the forty vol- 
unteers, in which case he could hardly have listened to the 
artillery fire in Waterbury and yet have taken part in the 
battle of Plattsburg. 

Colonel (General) John Peck, commanding the Vermont 
troops, and Anna Peck were the parents of Emily, born June 
17, 1801 ; Lucius B. (member of Congress), born November 17, 
1802, and Julius C, born November 10, 1806. General Peck 
died at Burlington, Massachusetts, December 22, 1826. 

It was too much to expect that the Madison administration 
should be exempted from being saddled with the responsibility 


of the War of 1812. Indeed, it was sought to fix its ultimate 
cause upon certain alleged omissions to keep the country- 
informed as to the terms of certain decrees promulgated by 
the French government. The intimation by the Federalist 
leaders in and out of Congress was that these decrees had 
either been purposely delayed or temporarily suppressed by 
the administration and that an earlier knowledge in respect of 
them might have put a different face upon the necessity for 
war. Supporting this contention was no less a person than 
Daniel Webster of New Hampshire who took his seat in the 
House of Representatives in May, 1813. It will probably 
come with some surprise to the readers of this book that the 
very first measures introduced in Congress by Daniel Web- 
ster, were a series of resolutions calling upon President Madi- 
son for a statement of the time and manner in which Napo- 
leon's pretended revocation of his decrees against American 
shipping had been announced to the United States and that 
these measures were vigorously opposed by Ezra Butler of 
Waterbury in his initial performance in Congress. As a mat- 
ter of historical interest it may be well to record here the fact 
that these resolutions were introduced by Mr. Webster, June 
10, 1 813. Thus it appears that the two men took their seats in 
Congress in the same term and their first legislative efforts there 
were directed to the same subject matter. The order of the day 
was called up on the second resolution, June 21, and at once 
engaged the attention of Ezra Butler in opposition. Mr. 
Butler's congressional career was not long, but it is doubtful 
if, during his incumbency, a more forceful speech than his on 
this occasion were made. He said in part : 

Sir, I see no necessity for the information required, and to call on the 
President for documents that can be of no use would be improper. We 
may ask for information without giving the President the reasons, but we 
certainly ought to have good reasons ourselves for so doing. It has not 
once been intimated, that any act of the Legislature can be founded on the 
answer expected; much less that we should now declare war against France; 
I, therefore, can discover no profitable use that can be made of any answer 
in the power of the President to give. 

It has been said that this inquiry ought to have been made by the friends 
of the administration; but as they have neglected their duty, these resolu- 
tions were introduced to give the President a fair opportunity, by his 

PERIOD 1 800-1 830 49 

answer, to remove the suspicions under which many of the people are 

Sir, if that unfortunate class of the community had believed the most 
solemn assertions of the President, or even of their own senses in relation 
to his conduct for forty years past, they would not now be laboring under 
these painful suspicions. As no part of his conduct has laid the foundation 
for or given any support to these suspicions, nothing that he can do, nothing 
that he can place on paper will remove them. Should the President give 
the most satisfactory answer, it would only leave his character on the same 
high ground on which it now stands, and therefore would contribute nothing 
to his reputation. . . . As to the motives of the honorable gentleman 
from New Hampshire [Mr. Webster], who introduced all these resolutions, 
I shall say nothing; I shall treat with equal charity all the arguments 
offered in their favor. It is sufficient for me to be fully satisfied that they 
can produce no other consequences than those that are deeply to be la- 
mented. According to all the arguments advanced by gentlemen on the 
other side of the House, it would appear that either the Government of 
France, or that of the United States, is responsible for all the blood and 
treasure that may be wasted in our war with Great Britain. They might 
as well say, in plain English, that the President and majority in Congress 
have been the sole cause of the war. It is only a circuitous course taken to 
enforce the charge with more effect. Through you all the people of the 
United States may be told this, and much sophistry urged to support it. 
I shall not say that the motives were bad; but that the effect must be so, is 
certain. . . . 

Sir, after having heard so many charges brought against our own Govern- 
ment, it may not be improper to inquire whether individuals in our country 
may not be, in one degree, chargeable with the consequences of this war. 
And in order to this, I will call your attention to two or three notorious 
facts. Near the commencement of that Congress, who afterwards declared 
war to exist, a number of resolutions were introduced, authorizing prepara- 
tions for war. Those resolutions were adopted almost unanimously by 
this House. The opinion of the Senate and of the President were also 
known. The faith of this Government was now pledged to resist the en- 
croachments of Great Britain unless she should abandon the ground she 
has taken, before we were prepared to resist her. This ought to have put 
all contention to rest; the benefits that would result to our country from 
union, must be obvious to all. 

But here, sir, you find yourself in open view of conduct long to be la- 
mented — conduct that must enkindle emotions of shame, grief, and anger. 
You were told to your face, that there was no sincerity in your words and 
acts; that all was meant only to deceive, delude and scare. That the 
British had nothing to fear, and our own country nothing to hope from those 
in power. That you had not the least intention to declare war. That 
you had become too tame to resent any injury, however great. That you 
could not be kicked into a war. . . . 


Sir, you will now permit me to ask you one or two questions. Do you 
not believe that the conduct just mentioned was an encouragement to 
Great Britain to persist in her aggressions on your rights? Do you believe 
that Great Britain would have continued trampling on your rights if our 
country had been united to a man in the support of our own Govern- 
ment? Would she have risked a war with this country under such cir- 
cumstances? . . . 

I have stated some of my reasons for voting against the resolutions before 
you, and some of the objections I have against the arguments advanced in 
their favor. I shall now submit to your decision, whatever it may be, 
when I have placed my name where it will forever be pleasing to have it 
standing. Neither am I troubled at the thoughts of being in a minority; 
for, sir, I would give my vote in the negative, did I know it would stand 
entirely alone. 

In spite of Mr. Butler's strong speech, Mr. Webster's 
measures passed. 

It may not be amiss to observe here that the end of the War 
of 1 8 12 saw the end of the Federalist party as such. Fac- 
tional strife was succeeded everywhere throughout New 
England by the "era of good feeling" and the dominant idea 
was that the ideal citizen should measure up to a standard 
later fixed by the ex- Federalist Daniel Webster: "He is to 
have no objects in his eye but American objects and no heart 
in his bosom but an American heart." These noble senti- 
ments so at variance with the attitude of Congressman Webster 
in 1 8 13 were called forth by the action of Secretary of State 
Van Buren, of President Jackson's cabinet, in seeking to 
compose differences with the British government arising dur- 
ing John Quincy Adams' administration. 

Another of the leading families of this period was the Wells 
family, the members of which will always be associated with 
the early beginnings, growth and maturity of the town. 
Roswell Wells, Sr., the head of the Waterbury family, was 
born in Greenfield, Massachusetts, September 6, 1769, and 
came to Waterbury in 1805, where he died July 26, 1826. He 
married Pamelia White, a descendant of the first white person 
born in New England. Two sons were born of this marriage, 
William Wellington and Roswell Wells, Jr. William Welling- 
ton Wells was born in Waterbury October 28, 1805. Studious 
in his youth, he was graduated from the University of Vermont 

PERIOD 1800-1830 51 

in 1824 and began the study of law in the Burhngton office of 
Charles Adams, Esq. After his admission to the bar of 
Chittenden County, he found that his presence was required 
in Waterbury in connection with the administration of his 
father's estate; in this way he became immersed in business 
pursuits which left small time for the practice of his profession. 
He had business affiliations both in Burlington and Water- 
bury, holding a large interest in a leading dry goods firm of the 
former city and a membership in the firm of Hutchins, Wells 
& Company, at Waterbury. Here he also became interested 
in the business of a tannery, a grist and flouring mill, north of 
the village and near the tannery and a dry goods store at 
Waterbury Center. Business life, however, did not engross 
his attention to the extent of blinding him to public duties. 
He served as town treasurer and selectman several years; 
was town representative in the Assembly in 1840, 1863, and 
1864, besides being a member of the Council of Censors in 
1855. When the War of the Rebellion broke out Mr. Wells 
was fifty-six years of age, but found a way of rendering devoted 
service as chairman of the board of selectmen for the four 
years of the war, seeing to it that every call for soldiers was 
promptly filled and so administering the town's finances that 
Waterbury emerged from the war period free from debt. 
Not content, however, with this necessary civil service he 
presented himself for enlistment, joined a company in Ran- 
dolph in the fall of 1862 and drilled for two weeks, only to be 
rejected as being over age and of impaired vision. Mr. Wells' 
ardor in the cause of temperance gave it an impetus in this 
community that is felt to this day; and so with every move- 
ment in which he became interested, giving lavishly of his time 
and means to accomplish any worthy public object. Mr. 
Wells was a man of rare intellectual attainments and learning. 
His intelligent interest in the town schools never flagged, and 
by precept and example he sought to impress the young with 
the necessity for habits of industry and self control. He had 
no patience with cant or hypocrisy but lived a life of sterling, 
unpretentious honesty in the sight of all men. His marriage 
with Miss Eliza Carpenter, second daughter of Judge Dan 


Carpenter, January 13, 1831, was a remarkably happy union. 
Of this marriage seven sons and one daughter were reared; 
two children died in infancy. Roswell White Wells was born 
November 14, 1833, died February 4, 1883; Edward Wells, 
born October 30, 1835, died February 19, 1907; William Wells, 
born December 14, 1837, died April 29, 1892; Curtis Wells, 
born February i, 1840, died March 16, 1898; Charles Wells, 
born June 22, 1845; Sarah Carpenter Wells, June 22, 1845; 
Henry Wells, born February 15, 1848, died January 7, 191 1; 
Frederic Howard, born September 27, 1851. The father, 
William Wellington Wells, and the mother, Sarah Carpenter 
Wells, of this remarkable family, died respectively April 9, 
1869, and August 5, 1873, in Waterbury. Four of the sons 
served in the War of the Rebellion in the Union army: Ed- 
ward, William, Curtis and Charles, William attaining to the 
rank of brevet major-general of volunteers. General Wells' 
career will be dwelt on more at length in its proper place. 

Roswell Wells, the eldest of the family, went to Waupun, 
Wisconsin, where he entered upon a business life. Curtis 
became the cashier of the Waterbury National Bank, while 
Edward, Henry and Frederic were associated in the old whole- 
sale drug firm of Wells, Richardson & Company of Burlington. 
Charles for a time was employed in the Customs Department 
of the Government and lived in St. Albans. Mrs. Sarah Car- 
penter (Wells) Brock lived in Montpelier where she died on 
the 1st day of July, 1914. Charles Wells now resides in Bur- 

One of those who came to Waterbury from Connecticut, 
via New Hampshire, was John P. Calkins of New London. 
Mr. Calkins left his home town for Canaan, New Hampshire, 
but decided to throw in his lot with the new settlement at 
Waterbury, Vermont. He settled here on the river in 1796, 
and raised a large family of eight sons and three daughters. 
Most of the descendants removed to Ohio. Harris, the second 
son, settled in Waterbury where he died, leaving two sons and 
a daughter; Clarissa died in Ohio, aged eighty-nine. Mr. 
Calkins, Sr., died in 1877, aged ninety-four, while his wife 
(of the New Hampshire Gilmans) died a few years before. 

PERIOD 1800-1830 53 

aged eighty-six. Mr. Charles Calkins, whose reminiscences 
are given later in this book, writing in April, 1879, of the 
family's longevity says: "So there are living, George aged 
ninety-two, Jesse eighty-four and Jedediah eighty-two, and 
his wife; and but a few years ago, Clarissa died aged eighty- 
nine, Charles, ninety-four and my mother, eighty -six." John 
P. Calkins is mentioned as one of those who supplied the pulpit 
in the meeting house before the coming of Mr. Warren. 

Allusion has been made to George Kennan, whose long term 
of public service in town and state government made him a 
considerable factor in Waterbury's early history. He served 
as moderator and selectman in 1794, 1797 and 1804; he was 
justice of the peace and town representative. Mr. Kennan 
was the father of three sons: George, who was constable in 
1802 and selectman in 1809; Thomas, a clergyman, who 
married Sally Lathrop February 19, 1795; and Jairus, de- 
scribed by a University of Vermont classmate in these words : 
"His intellectual powers were of a high order and he cultivated 
them with untiring devotion. He was distinguished for 
warmth of feeling, and kindness of manner, and, had he lived, 
would have taken high rank as a philanthropist. He was a 
bright example of what energy and ambition may accomplish." 

It has been said with truth, too often mixed with cheap 
cynicism, that among the evils following in the wake of civili- 
zation is the lawyer. He is usually hailed as a harbinger of 
trouble by those who are the first to crave his assistance in 
sparsely settled communities. They succumb reluctantly to 
his ministrations but they ultimately are forced to recognize 
him as an institution. This, no doubt, was the early experi- 
ence of Dan Carpenter who came as a lawyer to Waterbury in 
1804 from Norwich. Mr. Carpenter had a virgin field in the 
Mad River Valley, Duxbury, Stowe, Mansfield and Water- 
bury; his nearest rival was in Williston. 

In due course Mr. Carpenter soon began to fill places of 
trust and confidence. He was known and described as a 
sound lawyer, of excellent practical judgment and a safe and 
conservative adviser. He was married, January 27, 1805, at 
Norwich to Miss Betsy Partridge and with her commenced 


housekeeping in a modest one-story dwelling. In 1815 he 
built the two-story building which has been occupied for so 
many years by his grandson, Franklin Carpenter. Eight 
children were born to Judge and Mrs. Dan Carpenter, four of 
whom died in infancy; those reaching maturity were William, 
born October 25, 1805, and three daughters, Sarah P. (the 
first wife of Paul Dillingham, Jr., by whom there were two 
daughters), born May 18, 1807; Eliza, December 11, 1810, and 
Julia, December 3, 1812. After the death of Sarah (Carpen- 
ter) Dillingham, Paul Dillingham, Jr., married Julia Carpenter 
who died September 15, 1898. 

In these days when an Act of the Legislature is found 
necessary to simplify legal procedure by making it still more 
incomprehensible we read with astonishment that the limits of 
a justice's jurisdiction in the first part of the nineteenth cen- 
tury was $13! Naturally the county courts were made the 
tribunal where most cases were tried and Mr. Carpenter's 
professional life was a busy one. The second lawyer. Honorable 
Henry F. Janes, had not then come into the field nor did he 
until 181 7. The high estimation in which Mr. Carpenter was 
held is evinced by his public service as town clerk from 1808 
till 1828 in successive terms, excepting one; he was first select- 
man most of this time and town representative from 181 7 till 
1827, except for the 1818 term. He became an assistant judge 
of Washington County Court in 1827 and held that post for 
eight successive years. As a presidential elector in 1824, he 
carried the state ballots to Washington. In 1823 Mr. Car- 
penter took as law partner Paul Dillingham, Jr., who 
succeeded to the practice on Mr. Carpenter's taking the 

Notwithstanding his manifold interests, Mr. Carpenter 
embarked in mercantile pursuits with Charles R. Cleaves in 
1820. Acquiring Mr. Cleaves' interest, he took as partner his 
son, William Carpenter, in 1824. Ten years later the firm 
erected the brick store now occupied by Brisbin & Brisbin. 
W. E. Carpenter, a grandson, succeeded to the business. 
Judge Carpenter died December 2, 1852, and his wife, Betsy 
Partridge Carpenter, surviving him many years, passed away 

Doorway of Carpenter Residence 

Erected in 1816 
Now occupied by Mr. Franklin Carpenter 


PERIOD 1800-1830 55 

in 1875 at the age of ninety-two. His son, William, died 
March 17, 1881. Any estimate of the worth of Judge Car- 
penter as a citizen would fall far short of adequacy if it omitted 
to mention his kindly, courteous and respectful demeanor; his 
conscientious habits of life and his quick and practical sym- 
pathy for those in distress. He is described as a man of fine 
personality, nearly six feet high, slim, lithe and graceful. 

Of the third generation of Carpenters, sons and daughters 
of William and Mary E. (Partridge) Carpenter, there were: 
Sarah Louisa, born October 28, 1832, who married Erastus 
Spicer, December 24, 1864, and died February 17, 1887; George 
Henry, born September 25, 1835, who married Helen Wallace 
of Aurora, New York, January 23, 1866; Mary Partridge, born 
October 7, 1838, who married M. O. Evans of Waterbury, 
May I, i860, and died November 15, 1872; Julia Eliza, born 
June 10, 1842, who married George W. Wheeler of Burlington, 
Kansas, November 12, 1867; Franklin, born June 19, 1845, who 
married Ellen Eliza Shurtleflf September 22, 1868, and now 
occupies the old Carpenter residence on Main Street erected 
in 1816, and William E., who married Sarah Moody June 4, 
1872, and now resides across Main Street from the old Car- 
penter residence, the home of his brother Franklin. 

Interesting reminiscences of the decade between 1823 and 
1833 are still extant, which were reduced to writing by Mr. 
Charles G. Calkins, whose boyhood was spent in Waterbury 
and whose later life was passed in Ohio. At this time the 
"street" or what is now Main Street was the main artery of 
traffic and travel. A small settlement had sprung up on the 
Mill or Thatcher Brook; a turnpike led across the "interval" 
over the farms of General Peck, Amasa Pride and the Wells 
estate. This turnpike crossed the river near Deacon Mun- 
son's and continued up a slight hill to the level place where 
was located the old-time "tavern." Mr. Calkins also speaks 
of the small common which later became the site of the meet- 
ing house built in 1824. East of this stood the stores of Car- 
penter & Cleaves and other firms, as that of Pride & Hutchins 
near the brow of the hill facing on the Stowe road. The post 
office was maintained in the law office of H. F. Janes, Esq., from 


which issued quarterly bills for postage which were described as 
"models of neatness and economy of ink and paper." Stamps 
and envelopes were yet to make their appearance ; postage was 
rarely prepaid and "used to range from six and one-fourth 
cents to twenty-five cents on single pieces of paper." 

Other homes on the street were those of Esquire Carpenter, 
Doctor Pierce and neighboring families. The "interval" was 
occupied by a tannery and a few other shops and later the 
brick dwellings of L. Hutchins on the Stowe road and of Es- 
quire Janes on the south side of the road, on the lower plateau 
west, near the brook. The tavern on this plateau was erected 
later by a Mr. Allen and was a building of three stories and 
was a famous landmark with its dead black barns, sheds and 
outbuildings. Wholesome cheer was furnished man and beast 
by the owner and landlord, Mr. Parmalee. Important build- 
ing additions made toward the end of this decade were the 
brick dwellings of Mr. Pride and Mr. Charles Cleaves, which 
latter stood next east of the meeting house. (This was sold to 
Paul Dillingham, Jr., about 1 830-1 835 and is now occupied 
by Mrs. W. F. Minard.) This place of worship was built in 
1824 and is described by Mr. Calkins from memory as 

A substantial and capacious two-story building with a steeple comprising 
a square section, then an open belfry, surmounted by a cupola with blinds 
covered by a tinned dome above which was a spire with a vane from which 
extended a lightning tractor to the ground. The interior was nearly square, 
with two ranges of body pews and one next each wall. The pews were 
finished with pine unpainted and were a medium between the high built 
box pews of older times and the modern slips. Each had a panel door with 
a wood button and they were not numbered. They were all private prop- 
erty held as real estate. There was a gallery all round; the choir occupying 
the semi-circular section towards the front of the building and the commo- 
dious pulpit was in front of and below the choir and had a crimson curtain 
inside of small turned half-columns inclosing all the semi-circular front, 
with crimson tassels hung around the cornice and a somewhat gorgeous 
cushion with tassels surmounting the book stand. The front of the pulpit 
was supported by a single pillar and the communion table stood in the 
open space underneath. 

It seems that attendance on the services at the new meeting 
house included a few families of the Congregational persuasion 
as well as a number of non-communicants. Reverend Daniel 

PERIOD 1800-1830 57 

Warren was the first minister to occupy the pulpit as the regu- 
lar incumbent. Mr. Calkins describes with photographic 
accuracy the impressions produced upon the retina of his 
youthful memory by these awesome services ; how Judge Butler 
would enter alone usually and walk solemnly to his pew ; how 
Esquire Carpenter with his mother and daughters and Paul 
Dillingham, Jr., his law partner and son-in-law, were wont to 
be in attendance; how Mr. Pride and his wife sat in front of 
these in the same tier and how distinctly were remembered 
the locations of the pews of Doctor Drew, Deacon Dutton, Pitt 
Butler, Asa Austin, Enoch Bean, Deacon Allen, Deacon Mun- 
son, John Stearns, Luther Cleaves, Sayles Hawley, the Wells 
families, and others. Speaking of the performances of the 
choir, Mr, Calkins whimsically and feelingly remarks that 
they were "never listened to critically then but now it seems 
no choral effort could or need transcend its effect on the soul 
of a half-awakened boy." 

Mr. Calkins speaks entertainingly of visits to his home near 
the mills in Waterbury, of Governor Butler and how, as a 
boy, he sought to propitiate the governor into relating his 
experiences by running out to feed his fine, fat bay chaise 
horse till Elder Butler forbade him, saying, "a horse don't 
want to eat all the time more than a man." 

The meeting house described by Mr. Calkins was the edi- 
fice erected thirty-four years after the town's organization. 
Meetings had been held in schoolhouses, residences and barns 
before this. Every project for a union meeting house had 
proved abortive. It was not until Judge Carpenter, Amasa 
Pride and Roswell Wells took the matter in hand that the 
building of the Congregational Meeting House became an 
assured fact. 

With the year 1820 the population of Waterbury had at- 
tained to 1,269 souls. The "era of good feeling" had arrived 
at its apogee under the administrations of Presidents Monroe 
and John Quincy Adams and the State Governors from Martin 
Chittenden to Samuel C. Crafts. Political capital was sought 
to be made over the circumstance that Governor Martin 
Chittenden declined to order out the militia for the defence of 


Plattsburg, instead of calling upon them as volunteers. Chit- 
tenden's answer to this must have effectually stopped the 
mouths of the malcontents when he pointed out that "as no 
portion of the Vermont militia had been detached by the 
President for the service of the United States, a call upon pa- 
triotic citizens for their voluntary services was, in this case, 
considered to be the only mode by which efficient and timely 
aid could be afforded." 

Martin Chittenden was no weakling as his record attests. 
While acknowledging with gratitude the providential inter- 
position which frustrated the hostile attempts of the enemy and 
averted from our borders the horrors of war, he stoutly ad- 
hered to his original opinion as to the propriety of the war, 
declaring that he "conscientiously disapproved of it as un- 
necessary, unwise and hopeless in all its offensive operations." 
The several terms of Governor Galusha, succeeding Martin 
Chittenden, were comparatively uneventful. When Richard 
Skinner became governor in 1820, Waterbury's sterHng citizen 
and able town representative. Judge Dan Carpenter, improved 
his opportunity of voting for a resolution of remonstrance 
against the admission of Missouri into the Union with a con- 
stitution "legalizing slavery and the cruel and unnatural traffic 
in human blood, and instructing Vermont's senators and repre- 
sentatives in Congress to exert their influence and use all legal 
measures to prevent it." The succeeding administrations of 
Governors Skinner and Van Ness were noteworthy for legis- 
lative attempts at securing to Vermont the passage of an act 
of Congress appropriating to the use of the state, for the pur- 
poses of education, such portions of the public lands as should 
be equitable and just; also in 1824 on the recommendation of 
Governor Van Ness the Legislature passed an Act giving the 
choice of presidential and vice-presidential electors to the 
people by a general ticket, which measures were supported by 
Waterbury's representative. Judge Carpenter. 

It was during Governor Van Ness' administration that the 
Marquis de La Fayette made his memorable visit to Vermont 
upon invitation extended by the governor at the instance of 
the Legislature. The distinguished guest entered the state 

PERIOD 1 800-1 830 59 

at Windsor June 28, 1825, and came to Montpelier where an 
enthusiastic reception was given him. On his way to Burling- 
ton, through Waterbury, he passed the Butler home and tar- 
ried to greet Miss Fannie Butler (afterwards Mrs. Henry F. 
Janes), to whom the state's distinguished guest was presented 
by Governor Van Ness. 

When, upon the expiration of Governor Van Ness' last term 
as chief executive, Ezra Butler was elected governor in 1826, 
the lottery traffic had become rampant, Mr. Butler sought to 
curb the evil and made strong recommendations in his speech 
to the Assembly. A law was passed prohibiting the sale of 
lottery tickets without a license under penalty of a heavy fine. 
His next term for the year 1827 marked the first attempt at a 
systematized department of education in the state. Governor 
Butler recommended the appointment in each town or county 
of commissioners whose function it should be to examine teach- 
ers and to exercise general supervision over the schools. Ac- 
cordingly, a new plan tending to improvement of the schools 
and insuring uniformity in methods of instruction was adopted 
by the Legislature. This provided for the appointment of a 
superintending committee annually in each town; that no 
teacher should be employed in the public schools who had not 
been examined by the committee and who had not received 
from them a certificate of his qualifications for teaching 
(H Thompson's Vermont, page 100). Five commissioners, 
having general supervision of educational matters in the state, 
were also provided for. They were required to procure and 
circulate information on the subject, recommend suitable books 
to be used in the schools, inquire into the necessity for 
changes in the school laws and file an annual report addressed 
to the Legislature. 

Perhaps no written or printed words of Ezra Butler reflect 
the uncompromisingly devout spirit of the man as do those of 
his Thanksgiving proclamation dated October 25, 1827, which 
runs in part as follows: 

If the inspired Psalmist deemed it important to pay his vows of thanks- 
giving and praise unto the Lord, in the Courts of the Lord's House, 
AND IN THE PRESENCE OF ALL THE PEOPLE, for the individual blessings 


which he had received, how much more becoming it is for a whole com- 
munity, when they enjoy common blessings, to unite at one time and with 
one consent, in publick and social acts of thanksgiving and praise, to the 
common author of all their mercies? Such common blessings are enjoyed 
by us as a commonwealth and therefore, such social acts of praise, such a 
concert of thanksgiving highly becomes us as a community. 

In conformity, therefore with the usage of our forefathers, and with the 
fullest conviction of the fitness of that usage, I do hereby at the request of 
the General Assembly, and by advice of the Council, appoint Thursday, 
the sixth day of December next to be observed, throughout this state, as 
a day of Publick Thanksgiving and Praise. . . . With the spirit 
of thanksgiving, stands connected also, a sense of dependence, and a con- 
viction that all our future blessings must come from the same merciful 
hand that has hitherto supplied us. Our praises, therefore, should be 
mingled with prayer, that the God of love would, for the sake of his Son 
Jesus Christ our Lord still continue his favors; that he would continue 
to bless our state, its officers and its citizens; that he would bless the United 
States, the President, and all the officers of the general and several state 
governments; that he would bless and prosper the cause of political liberty, 
in this and the other hemisphere; and especially that he would bless the 
gospel of his Son, and extend and strengthen its influence through the 
whole earth, until the Kingdoms of this world, shall become the Kingdom 
of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. 

Given under my hand, in Council Chamber at Montpelier this twenty- 
fifth day of October, in the Year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred 
and twenty-seven, etc., etc. 

By his excellency the Governor 

[seal] Ezra Butler. 

Daniel Kellogg, Secretary. 

Attempts were made as early as 1829 to crystallize the anti- 
Masonic sentiment in the state into party issues and to nomi- 
nate a complete list of state officers at an Anti-Masonic State 
Convention, held August 15, 1829. This movement took its 
origin in the alleged abduction of William Morgan in 1826 for 
certain disclosures he was supposed to have made regarding 
Masonry. A letter to Ezra Butler, a delegate to the State 
Convention, from Royal Makepeace Ransom of South Wood- 
stock, dated July 23, 1829, is interesting as showing that 
though the writer himself was personally opposed to Masonic 
candidates for office yet he deplored pressing the nomination 
of an anti-Masonic ticket. "It appears to me," says the cor- 
respondent, "that such a course would be very impolitic to 

PERIOD 1800-1830 61 

say the least of it. I f we are to make a ticket . . . what 
do we attempt to do but to act on the same principles that we 
believe govern Masons? That is, to bias the votes which 
should be free, and set up our standard for others to be gov- 
erned by in the discharge of a duty concerning which they have 
sworn to follow the dictates of their own consciences, alone, 
guided to be sure by their oaths to support the Constitution. 
Besides, shall we not in that case plead guilty to a very serious' 
charge of opposing Masonry as a hobby to ride into ofifice upon 
and ought we not to give a clear, unequivocal and full denial of 
such a charge and to act accordingly? It appears to me that 
these questions should be answered in the afifirmative and, if 
so, some measures I think should be taken to bring the minds 
of the convention to the subject and . . . above all 
things avoid acting out the same principles we condemn in 

Feeling on the subject ran high and many unavoidable 
clashes occurred; indeed, the subject was uppermost in the 
minds of the clergy, as well as the laity, as is shown by the 
following extract from a letter from a correspondence committee 
to Ezra Butler asking his presence at a meeting in June, 1830, 
in Randolph : "The object of this meeting is to bring Specula- 
tive Free Masonry, before an ecclesiastical tribunal, for public 
examination. The object is, or ought to be interestingly 
dear to every Christian and one in which the churches, under 
present circumstances are deeply interested. Some of the 
most wealthy and reputable gentlemen in Randolph are afford- 
ing us all aid in their power in making arrangements to ac- 
commodate the meeting, etc., etc." 

Governor Butler's public life practically closed with his 
second term as governor. During a busy political and public 
career he continued pastor of the Baptist Church without 
salary or remuneration until within a few years of his death. 
No authentic likeness of him has been preserved, but he is 
described as having a slightly stooping form, dark and sallow 
complexion, keen black eye, calm, authoritative tone and 
intellectual cast of countenance. When he died, July 12, 
1838, at the age of seventy-five years, he left an invaluable 


bequest to Waterbury in the example of a life well spent in the 
faithful service of the community. 

Governor Samuel C. Crafts, who had been chosen in 1828 
and 1829, was again chosen in 1830, — ^though his choice was 
possible only after thirty- two ballots in the Legislature, and 
this date brings us to the beginning of the last half of Water- 
bury's second historical period. 



Politically, the injection of the anti- Masonic issue was 
directly the cause of three successive failures by the people to 
elect a governor. In 1830, as we have seen, the National Re- 
publican and Masonic candidate was Mr. Crafts; the anti- 
Masonic candidate was Mr. William A. Palmer, and the ad- 
ministration candidate was Mr. Meech. In the Legislature, 
where the choice rested, Mr. Crafts was the successful candi- 
date. The same routine was undergone in 183 1 and Mr. Palmer 
was chosen by the Legislature. Again in 1832 the Legis- 
lature was obliged to intervene and chose Mr. Palmer as 
governor on the forty-third ballot. In 1833 Mr. Palmer was 
again elected, this time by the people, but in 1834 there was 
another failure of election by popular vote and Mr. Palmer 
was reelected by the General Assembly. Apparently the 
elective function of the people had fallen into partial disuse, 
for the year 1835 still found the three parties an obstacle to a 
popular election, excepting that of Lieutenant-Governor Jeni- 
son and the state treasurer. Fruitless attempts were made 
for the greater part of three weeks by joint committees of the 
Assembly to agree upon a governor, but they were finally 
obliged to call on the lieutenant-governor to fill the office of 
chief executive. The year 1836 was important from the fact 
that it marked the abolition of the Council which, with the 
governor, had come perilously near to usurping coordinate 
legislative powers with the House of Representatives. The 
Constitution was so amended as to provide for a Senate in the 
place of the Council, having powers similar to those of the 
senates of the several states. 

Silas H. Jenison was elected this time, by the people, as 
governor and again in 1837 and 1838. Meanwhile the nucleus 
of the Whig party had been formed with the choice of presi- 
dential electors in 1832, under the anti-Masonic designation. 



The combination of the national RepubHcans and the anti- 
Masons formed the Whig party, which soon came into control. 
There had been an acute financial panic, an abortive rebellion 
in Lower Canada which some of our too eager Vermonters 
were reckless enough to support, and the first concerted efforts 
of those who afterwards formed the anti-slavery party. These 
were some of the matters engaging the attention of the people 
of Waterbury during the successive administrations of Gover- 
nor Jenison, down to and including the year 1840. 

Properly of this period, though born in Brimfield, Massa- 
chusetts, October 18, 1792, was the Honorable Henry F. Janes, 
the third son of Solomon and Beulah Fisk Janes. When a 
mere lad he came with his father's family to Calais where his 
boyhood was passed, and from which town his brother. Pardon, 
was representative in the Assembly. Henry F. Janes studied 
law in Montpelier, and it was during his residence there that 
he received his commission as ensign with the Vermont troops 
in the War of 18 12, going with his company to the Battle of 
Plattsburg. He came to Waterbury in 181 7, where he made 
his home and lived for sixty-two years. "Esquire" Janes, as 
he was known, practiced law here, having as a rival practi- 
tioner Judge Dan Carpenter. He was married in 1826 to 
Miss Fanny Butler, the daughter of Ezra Butler, who was 
born in 1800 and died in 1881. 

Mr. Janes received the appointment of postmaster soon 
after coming to Waterbury and held the office till about 1829. 
He was one of the State Council five years, commencing in 
1830; a member of Congress three years, commencing in 1834; 
state treasurer, three years, commencing in 1838; a member 
of the Council of Censors in 1848, and town representative 
in 1854, 1861 and 1862. His postmaster's appointment reads: 

Return J Meigs, Jun. Post Master General 


United States of America 
To All Who Shall See These Presents, Greeting: 

Know ye, That confiding in the Integrity, Ability, and Punctuality of 
Henry F. Janes Esq. I do appoint him a Post-master, and authorize him 
to execute the duties of that Office at Waterbury, Washington County and 

PERIOD 1830-1850 65 

State of Vermont according to the laws of the United States, and such 
Regulations conformable thereto, as he shall receive from me: To Hold 
the said office of Post-master, with all the Powers, Priveleges and Emol- 
uments to the same belonging, during the pleasure of the Post-master 
General of the United States, for the time being. 

In Testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal 
of my office to be affixed, at Washington City, the twenty ninth day of 
March in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and Twenty and 
of the independence of the United States the Forty fourth. 

R. J. Meigs Jr. 
Registered 19th day of April 1820 

Thos. Arbuckle 

Mr. Janes is described as a man who "without avarice 
acquired a competent fortune ; and without lust for power or 
a resort to sinister means, but solely through the solidity of 
his judgment and the unquestioned probity of his character, 
early attained a commanding influence in his town, his county 
and his state." Mrs. Janes is said to have been a lady "of 
the gentlest refinement without the least affectation, or love of 
display, inheriting the religious traits of her father and was 
greatly beloved and esteemed by all who knew her." 

An appreciation of Mr. Janes, by Edwin F. Palmer, Esq., 
sums up his character in the following striking manner: "No 
man ever saw more clearly than he, that in the very nature of 
God's moral government nothing is, or can be even expedient, 
that is not intrinsically just; and no man ever pursued more 
willingly or tenaciously what his conscience, illumined by a 
powerful judgment, taught him was just." 

The Janes home was on the site of the residence so long 
occupied by Doctor Henry Janes and devised by him to the 
Library Association. 

Henry F. Janes was elected to represent the Fourth Congres- 
sional District in Congress for the term of two years, from. 
March 3, 1835, and also to fill the vacancy occasioned by the 
death of Benjamin F. Deming. His certificates of election 
were both dated November 25, 1834, one of which reads: 

State of Vermont. 
Be it remembered that at a freeman's meeting legally warned and 
holden in the fourth Congressional District in said State on the second 


Tuesday of November A. D. 1834, Hon. Henry F. Janes was duly elected 
a Representative to represent this state in the Congress of the United 
States for the term of two years from and after the 3rd day of March 

In testimony whereof I have, as Governor of the State aforesaid, 
[seal] caused the Seal of the State to be hereunto affixed and subscribed 
my name at Danville, this 25th day of November Anno Domini, 
one thousand eight hundred and thirty four. 

H. A. Palmer 
By His Excellency's command 
Geo. B. Manser. 


Honorable Henry F. Janes took his seat in the National 
House of Representatives December 2, 1834. He voted in 
favor of the resolution calling upon President Andrew Jackson 
for all communications between this country and Great Britain 
since the rejection of the advisory opinion of the King of the 
Netherlands relating to the disputed northeastern boundary 
between New Brunswick and Maine. He favored tabling a 
resolution inimical to the abolition of slavery in the District 
of Columbia and was active in the matter of securing pensions 
for soldiers in the War of the Revolution. He presented a 
resolution, March 21, 1836, that the secretary of war be 
directed to lay before the House a report of the United States 
engineer relative to the survey of a canal from Wells River to 
Burlington, Vermont. He voted for a suspension of the rules 
to take up the bill repealing the fourteenth section of the Act 
incorporating the subscribers to the Bank of the United States. 
Mr. Janes made appropriate remarks upon the passing away 
of Honorable Benjamin F. Deming of Vermont, who died July 
II, 1834. Among his colleagues were such men as Hiland 
Hall, Horace Everett and Heman Allen of Vermont, Franklin 
Pierce of New Hampshire, and Rufus Choate, John Q. Adams 
and Edward Everett of Massachusetts. 

After Mr. Pride's term as town representative in 1836, above 
referred to, a poem attributed to William C. Bradley of West- 
minster, was given wide publication. The poem bemoaned the 
departure of the various members of the Legislature from 
Montpelier after the adjournment of the session of 1836 and 
is entitled "A Lamentation." It contains eight stanzas and 

PERIOD 1830-1850 67 

cleverly plays upon the names of the members. Four stanzas 
are given: 

Montpelier mourns — her streets are still, 

Save when the street-yarn ladies spin, 
And scarce a stranger's seen at Mann's 

Or Campbell's, or at Cottrill's inn. 

The guardians of the people's rights 

Have done their work, gone home to prove it; 

And let the State House stand, because 
Barnum and Bailey could not move it. 

if in ie * it 

Their Forest and their Woods are filled, 

The Major who their forces led, 
Has broken up his glittering Camp, 

And friendly Scott and French are fled. 

Yes, all is lost — and those who've gone 

Have long e'er now perchance forgot 'em — 

They've lost their Solace, lost their Child, 
And lost their Pride, and Hyde, and Bottum. 

Mr. Russell Butler, in his supplemental papers to the Water- 
bury sketches in Hemenway's History of Washington County, 
gives some interesting facts about the place filled by Leander 
Hutchins in the town. He was born in Montpelier June 27, 
1798, and there grew to manhood. At an early age he entered 
commercial life in the West and South. In 1822 he came to 
Waterbury; shortly thereafter he associated with him, in a 
mercantile copartnership, Amasa Pride and Roswell Wells, 
under the firm name and style of L. Hutchins & Company. 
The store was in a small wooden building on the site of the old 
"corner store" building on the southeast corner of Main and 
Stowe Streets. This latter was erected by Mr. Hutchins in 
1833, also a dwelling adjoining Knight's block on the east. 
In 1826 the firm name was changed to Hutchins & Pride; 
subsequently to Hutchins, Wells & Company; then L. & Geo. 
W. Hutchins in 1835. In 1845 Mr. Leander Hutchins erected 
and equipped a starch factory near the Center; this was 
destroyed by fire and not rebuilt. 

Mr. Hutchins became interested with Esquire Janes in the 


purchase of a tract of Vermont wild lands owned by the Board- 
man Brothers of New York and, in addition to his other enter- 
prises, undertook the personal management of his farm on the 
hill road to Stowe, about one and one-half miles from Water- 
bury Village. He married Miss Martha Pride January 30, 
1826, who died in December, 1834, leaving two daughters, 
Mrs. C. W. Arms and Mrs. Doctor Woodward. Mr. Hutchins 
remarried, in 1837, Miss Martha Atkins becoming his second 
wife. Mr. Hutchins died February 17, 1879, aged eighty years. 
He was the type of conservative, substantial business man 
whose sound judgment, careful counsel, and strong coopera- 
tion were always sought in matters affecting public interest. 
His sturdy support to any cause to which he loaned his name 
was a reliable prop. A member of the Congregational Church, 
Mr. Hutchins contributed largely to its support. He is 
described as being reserved in manner, opposed to ostentation, 
and modest and retiring in tastes and habits. He preserved 
a consistent aloofness from political office, notwithstanding 
the preferment that was his at his slightest sign. As a busi- 
ness man of ready familiarity with fiscal affairs, he served the 
town as treasurer for twelve years and, when the bank of 
Waterbury was organized, became its president and ceased 
to hold that office only when he requested to be relieved from 
its responsibility. A sketch of Mr. Hutchins may be fittingly 
rounded out by giving at this point some reminiscences of 
Mr. O. A. Seabury relating to the old corner store. 

The "old corner store," a venerated landmark to generations 
of Waterburyites, was built in 1833 by Leander Hutchins and 
occupied by him as a general merchandise store until it passed 
under lease to C. N. Arms who, with J. G. Stimson under the 
firm name of Stimson & Arms, had conducted a general mer- 
chandise business at another stand on the opposite side of the 
street known as the Stimson block, now a fruit store. After 
this firm dissolved, Curtis N. Arms went into business in the 
Leander Hutchins store. Mr. Arms was a very popular man 
and had the rare gift of drawing trade. He rarely refused 
credit and never was obliged to resort to law for his collections. 
In time the old store became a general rendezvous or exchange 

PERIOD 1830-1850 69 

resorted to by the fun-loving element as well as the disputa- 
tious and serious minded of the community. The group of 
daily habitues included lawyers, physicians, merchants and 
men of various occupations, of varied habits of thought and 
trends of mind. 

The fact that marks the old store as worthy of serious regard 
in the community is the part it played as an early training 
school for a remarkably large number of successful men. 
Among those who early came under the notice of Mr. Seabury 
was John F. Henry who afterwards was prominent and success- 
ful in the patent medicine business in this village, Burlington 
and New York, where he bought out Demas Barnes, then at 
the head of the largest patent medicine house in the world. 
He formed the firm of Henry, Curran & Company, with B. H. 
Dewey as cashier and bookkeeper. 

John R. Foster was another whose early training was 
received in the old store. Mr. Foster became the head of the 
Foster Combination Clothing Stores scattered through New 
England and lived and died in Clinton, Massachusetts, where 
he was known as the wealthiest man of the place, having laid 
the foundation for the Foster Besse Company which does a 
large and profitable business throughout New England. F. 
Chickering Stone is another graduate of the old store business 
school. Mr. Stone, familiarly known as Chick, went to 
Saginaw, Michigan, and acquired a fortune in the business of 
lumbermen's supplies associated with ex-Secretary of War 
Alger. The name of Horatio Hutchins naturally suggests 
itself as one of the successful men whose early experiences were 
gained in the old store. Mr. Hutchins became a member of 
the great shoe manufacturing concern, known as the Rice 
Hutchins Company, and left an estate valued at $1,000,000. 
Mr. Hutchins was a brother of Myron Hutchins, now of 
Waterbury Center. 

Henry Smith, another successful merchant and associate of 
J. R. Foster above-named, met a sudden death on the street 
in North Adams, Massachusetts. 

Charles Dillingham, afterwards colonel, was a clerk in the 
old store when the Civil War broke out. Subsequently he 


removed to Houston, Texas, where today he is president of one 
of the prominent banks of that city. Edwin Parker, now the 
proprietor of a large department store in MinneapoHs; George 
Adams, who became the head of Adams & Company, dealers 
in patent medicines in Prescott, Canada; David Warden, 
formerly connected with a department store as buyer in 
Minneapolis and now retired, and Homer Remington of the 
Foster Besse Company in Willimantic, Connecticut, were all, 
in their turn, disciples of business in the old store. 

Among the early frequenters of the place were Elisha Moody 
and Esquire Joseph Smith. Honorable Paul Dillingham's law 
office was in the rear of the store building and accessible by a 
walk between this building and the drug store adjacent. 

This walk was rarely used, however, as visitors much pre- 
ferred walking through the store for the interest its frequenters 
might possess for them ; in this way the roster of the elect was 
augmented. Another of this group was Fred E. Smith, now 
living in Minneapolis, Minnesota, and known as one of the 
most successful salesmen and department heads with the 
Wyman Partridge Company, a large and prosperous business 
concern in that city. Mr. Smith is a brother of Frank N. 
Smith and Mrs. Minard. 

There were also Jesse Perry, Philo Arms, Alpha Atherton, 
Newton Atherton, A. D. Hawley, Major Carpenter, Luther 
Henry, Heman Sherman, Cornelius Sherman, the village 
blacksmith, George H. Lease and others, members of the 
coterie that was wont to assemble in the old store for the 
exchange of views on matters mundane and celestial. Every 
American village worthy the name has its "old store" to 
which innumerable memories grave and gay attach. There 
questions of local, state and federal interest were wont to be 
threshed out, public opinion crystallized, charitable movements 
initiated, and the rights and the wrongs of the community 
canvassed. Who can fix a boundary to the influences that 
have emanated from the "old corner stores" of the villages of 
the nation? While nearly every corner store boasts a similar 
record, differing only in degree of influence from its fellows, 

PERIOD 1830-1850 71 

it is doubtful whether any other village in the country can 
boast one with such a roster of graduates. 

The anti-slavery movement did not lack for propagandists 
in Waterbury, even before the Harrison and Tyler campaign. 
Its chief opponents naturally were aligned with the regular 
political organizations, until such time as the movement itself 
became strong enough to draw to it political strength from all 
parties. The preachments of William Lloyd Garrison found 
ready converts in Waterbury. The State Anti-Slavery 
Society found itself in need of funds and, in response to a call 
made in 1839, one delegate, according to Mr. Russell Butler's 
papers, pledged $100 from Waterbury and Duxbury, the same 
to be raised within a year. This comparatively small sum, as 
such a subscription would now be regarded, was the largest 
from any one town in the state and was one-twentieth part 
of the whole amount required from the state. It is related 
by Mr. Butler that two individuals in Waterbury each sub- 
scribed $100, and other subscriptions increased the total to 
nearly $500. In the light of other praiseworthy instances of 
support to good causes afforded by those individuals, it is not 
surprising to read that they were Amasa Pride and Erastus 
Parker, who later became the chairman of the Anti-Slavery 

In the campaign of Harrison and Tyler, Waterbury, in 
common with other towns in Vermont, was the scene of great 
political activity. There were the "log cabin" rallies, the 
campaign songs, the speech-making and other concomitants 
of the liveliest presidential campaign experienced up to that 
time. Martin Van Buren and Richard M, Johnson were 
candidates for reelection. Then, as now, hard times and 
monetary derangement were the ostensible issues. The 
triumphant election of "Old Tippecanoe and Tyler, too" 
followed. In 1841, the Anti-Slavery party ticket caused 
another failure of a popular election of governor, and the 
Legislature chose Charles Paine by a majority of forty-two 
votes. The candidates were Nathan Smilie on the Democratic 
ticket, Judge Titus Hutchinson on the Anti-Slavery ticket and 
Charles Paine on the Whig ticket. The Legislature of 1841 


was responsible for the ofifset feature of the listing laws of the 

Not for long was the newly elected President Harrison 
destined to occupy the presidential chair. His untimely death 
and the succession of John Tyler were in solemn contrast with 
the exuberant demonstrations of the preceding year. Through 
the courtesy of Mrs. Myrtle (Caldwell) Redmond of Enos- 
burgh Falls, granddaughter of Amasa Pride, extracts from the 
Watchman and State Journal of Montpelier are given: 


Washington City, April 4, 1841. 

The circumstances in which we are placed, by the death of the President, 
render it indispensable for us, in the recess of Congress, and in the absence 
of the Vice-President, to make arrangements for the Funeral Solemnities. 
Having consulted with the family and personal friends of the deceased, 
we have concluded that the funeral be solemnized on Wednesday, the 7th 
inst. at 12 o'clock. The religious services to be performed according to the 
usage of the Episcopal Church, in which church the deceased most usually 
worshipped. The body to be taken from the President's House to the 
Congress burying ground, accompanied by a military and civic procession, 
and deposited in the Receiving Tomb. 

The military arrangements to be under the direction of Major-General 
Macomb, the General Commanding in Chief of the Army of the United 
States; and Major-General Walter Jones, of the militia of the District of 

Commodore Morris, the senior Captain in the Navy now in the City, to 
have the direction of the naval arrangements. 

The Marshal of the District to have the direction of the civic procession, 
assisted by the Mayors of Washington, Georgetown, and Alexandria, the 
Clerk of the Supreme Court of the United States, and such other citizens 
as they may see fit to call to their aid. 

John Quincy Adams, ex-President of the United States, members of 
Congress now in this city or neighborhood, all the members of the Diplo- 
matic body resident in Washington, and all officers of the Government, and 
Citizens generally, are invited to attend. 

And it is respectfully recommended to the officers that they wear the 
usual badge of mourning. 

Daniel Webster, Secretary of State. 
Thos. Ewing, Secretary of Treasury. 
John Bell, Secretary of War. 
J. J. Crittenden, Attorney General. 
Francis Granger, Postmaster General. 

PERIOD 1830-1850 73 


John Tyler, the constitutional successor of the late President, arrived in 
Washington on Tuesday the 6th inst.and took lodgings at one of the hotels. 
He expressed in a becoming manner his sympathy with the bereaved family 
of Gen. Harrison, and desired them to occupy the President's house so long 
as they might choose to remain at the seat of government. It is also stated, 
that at a meeting of the Cabinet, he signified his wish that they should 
retain their respective offices. He subsequently received the oath of office, 
as President, and assumes that title in his official acts. The National 
Intelligencer of the i8th contains his introductory address to the People of 
the United States, which is given in our columns. It will be found to con- 
tain a general outline of the principles which are to guide the Executive 
during the residue of the Presidential term. The new President does not 
allude, in direct terms, to the question of slavery, but the import of the 
last two paragraphs, coming from one who is himself an extensive slave- 
holder and whose views are so well understood, is sufficiently apparent. — 
The official influence of the Executive Department, as heretofore, will with- 
out doubt be thrown into the scale in favor of the Slave Power. 

If anything, the succession of President Tyler stimulated 
the Anti-Slavery party to renewed activity, for we find that 
Waterbury was chosen as a desirable place and July i and 2 
as a suitable time for an Anti-Slavery Convention. The fol- 
lowing advertisement appeared and was widely circulated 
throughout central Vermont: 


The friends of Abolition, in Waterbury and vicinity, apprise their friends 
through the State, that entertainment will be provided for those who come 
from abroad to attend the Anti-Slavery Convention, notified to be holden 
at said Waterbury the ist and 2nd days of July, 1841. Should any come 
into town on Wednesday evening to attend said convention, those coming 
from the North will call on Rev. Mr. Hall at Waterbury Center, who will 
direct them to places of entertainment; and those coming from other direc- 
tions will find some friend at the public house in Waterbury Street, who 
will give them like directions. 

By order of the Executive Committee of the Waterbury and Duxbury 
Anti-Slavery Society. 

Erastus Parker 


It has been truly said that the New England way of propa- 
gating social or political innovations was not at once through 
political parties; that there was necessary just so long a period 


during which the propaganda was committed to societies. 
The Anti-Slavery Society was a fair example. Still, after the 
Tyler and Polk administrations, Vermonters favoring the 
abolition of slavery grew impatient and cast about for swifter 
and more certain results. The Wilmot Proviso was not 
working out in accordance with expectations; the question of 
whether the recently acquired southwestern territory should 
be the home of involuntary servitude arose again. The new 
doctrine of "Squatter Sovereignty" recognizing the power of 
a state to determine its own status as between freedom and 
slavery after admission to the Union, was gaining adherents 
in spite of the Missouri Compromise of 1820. But slavery 
was abhorrent to Vermonters — Democrats and Whigs alike; 
while not approving the arbitrary counsels of the Abolitionists, 
many northern Democrats were ready to resist the sweeping 
away of the Missouri Compromise as affecting the territory 
west of the Mississippi. Vermont was not behind-hand in 
her protest. A State Democratic Convention was held in 
Montpelier in April, 1848, and it was apparent at the outset 
that differences were likely to arise over the relative claims 
of the Wilmot Proviso and "Squatter Sovereignty." Six 
sturdy Democrats held a conference the evening before the 
convention was called; among these, and the spokesman for 
the six on the floor of the convention, was the eloquent Lucius 
Eugene Chittenden. This devoted band sought to stem the 
tide, protesting against the abandonment by the party of its 
principles. Finding protest useless, they withdrew to the 
Pavilion Hotel and organized the Free Soil Party, committed 
to an uncompromising resistance to the extension of slavery. 
This was the first Free Soil Party started as such and antedated 
the Free Soil Party of the Buffalo Convention in August by 
six weeks. According to Mr. Chittenden, it was from the 
loins of the embryonic Free Soil Party, organized by six dis- 
gruntled Democrats at the Pavilion Hotel in Montpelier in 
April, 1848, that the great Republican party sprang. Who 
shall say that it did not originate from the influences at work 
in Waterbury and Washington County ten years earlier and 

PERIOD 1830-1850 75 

from that time on including the date of the Anti-Slavery Con- 
vention in Waterbury July i and 2, 1841? 

(See Personal Reminiscences of L. E. Chittenden, pp. 8-10.) 
The Dillingham family, in Waterbury, begins with Deacon 
Paul Dillingham of the sixth generation in direct line of the 
family that began with Edward who came to Lynn, Massachu- 
setts, in 1630. Deacon Paul came to Waterbury from Shutes- 
bury, Massachusetts, in 1804 and settled at the Center. He 
had served in the militia in the Continental army between 1777 
and 1780. He was married to Hannah Smith in 1784. Of 
this union were born twelve children of whom Governor Paul 
(3) Dillingham was the third son; Deacon Paul (2) died in 
Waterbury, July 14, 1848. 

Governor Paul (3) Dillingham was born in Shutesbury, 
Massachusetts, August 10, 1799, coming to Waterbury when 
he was about five years of age. After attending the public 
schools and the Washington County Grammar School in 
Montpelier, he began the study of law in the office of Honor- 
able Dan Carpenter of Waterbury. He was admitted to the 
bar in 1823 and became a law partner of his preceptor one year 
later, remaining as member of the firm until the senior member 
was elevated to the bench. He continued in practice for 
fifty-two years, retiring in 1875. Mr. Dillingham had essen- 
tially a legal mind; his powers of analysis were singularly 
acute and his ability as an advocate brought him to the head 
of his profession in the state. The town records of Waterbury 
bear witness to the almost incalculable work done by him in 
various official capacities during many years of arduous pro- 
fessional endeavor. He was town clerk from 1829 to 1844, 
town representative in the Legislature in 1833-34, 37-38-39, 
and was state's attorney for Washington County from 1835- 
1837. His services in the Constitutional Convention of 1836 
were so signally valuable that he was selected as member of 
the Constitutional Conventions of 1857 and 1870. He was 
state senator from Washington County in 1841-1842 and 1861. 
In 1840 he was the Democratic candidate for governor but was 
defeated by Silas Jenison. His congressional career, though 
not wholly congenial, was one of intelligent and patriotic labor. 


In 1842 Congress passed a law entitled "an act for the ap- 
portionment of representatives among the several States ac- 
cording to the sixth census." A controversy arose in Congress 
over the construction of the act which, in a later section, 
seemed to be ambiguous. The debate on the floor of the 
House was naturally exhaustive and technical. Paul Dilling- 
ham made an unusually masterly and able presentation of the 
arguments favoring the constitutionality of the act. Indeed, 
the speech in its entirety was a lucid exposition of the inten- 
tion of the framers of the Constitution and, despite its tech- 
nical character, makes excellent reading not only for students 
of constitutional law but also for those interested in the devel- 
opment of our system of representation and apportionment. 

Probably the most important position taken by Mr. Dil- 
lingham in Congress was upon the admission of Texas. Mr. 
Dillingham was of the famous coterie of Vermont Democrats 
in the early 40's that included such men as United States 
Judge David B. Smalley, Chief Justice Isaac Redfield, Tim- 
othy P. Redfield, Charles G. Eastman and the poet, John G. 

Mr. Dillingham's duty as a representative required that he 
should present the petitions forwarded by his constituents 
against the admission of Texas. Abhorring slavery as utterly 
as any of the protestors in his congressional district, he still 
could see no way consistently with the Constitution whereby 
Texas could be admitted as an anti-slavery state. The joint 
resolution, presented December 16, 1845, calling for the ad- 
mission of Texas, was the subject uppermost in the minds of 
men of all parties. The vote upon the main resolution was 
taken after the usual obstructive tactics had been resorted to 
by various members of the House, Mr. Dillingham voting in 
the affirmative. This position on such a question at that 
time was far from being a popular one in Vermont, but it was 
firmly rooted in conscience and logic. 

Believing, as he did, in the doctrine of manifest destiny, he 
foresaw territorial expansion as a logical sequence. These 
considerations moved his support of the admission to state- 
hood of Texas and of President Polk's policy, which brought 

PERIOD 1 830-1 850 ^^ 

on the Mexican War. Mr. Dillingham's close analysis of the 
Federal Constitution confirmed him in his opinion as to the 
retention in the Union in harmonious relations with the South- 
ern States. But, like Stephen A. Douglas, when Fort Sumter 
was fired upon, he uncompromisingly espoused the Union 
party's cause and advocated the preservation of the Union by 
other than merely temporising measures. In the state Senate 
in 1 861 he was foremost in planning and upholding ways and 
means for the support of the government and the organiza- 
tion, arming and equipment of Vermont regiments were due 
largely to his energy and sound judgment. 

At the outbreak of the Civil War the Vermont Legislature 
was called in special session to meet on the 25th ot April. The 
House consisted of 211 Republicans and 25 Democrats, the 
leader of whom w^as Stephen Thomas of West Fairlee. The 
following account of their action is given by Mr. Benedict in 
"Vermont in the Civil War": 

The Democrats in the Legislature, and in attendance upon the session, 
held a private meeting the evening before to decide upon their course. Sev- 
eral were in favor of resisting all war measures from the start. Hon. Paul 
Dillingham of Waterbury told them that would never do. " If the Repub- 
licans propose to raise five regiments," said he, to Mr. Thomas, who was 
the leader of the Democrats on the floor, "do you call for raising lenl If 
they want half of a million dollars for troops, do you move to make it a 
million? " 

Mr. Thomas showed the quality of his Democracy and 
patriotism by promptly acquiescing and the greater appro- 
priation of $1,000,000, authorized by the Vermont Legislature, 
originated with "Union" Democrats. 

Shortly after the special session of the Legislature came the 
so-called Republican Convention. The politics of those par- 
ticipating were varied as, indeed, might have been expected 
from the broad terms of the call. Many Union Democrats 
attended. A resolution offered by Honorable George F. Ed- 
munds was adopted, whose preamble settled the political 
complexion of the convention by using the phrase, "We the 
jreemen of the state of Vermont," instead of "We the Repub- 
licans (or Democrats) of the state of Vermont." The resolu- 
tion pledged to the administration the whole power and 


resources of the state "to aid in putting down the rebellion 
by force of arms, and in bringing its wicked leaders to justice." 

Among the Democrats present at this convention, and tak- 
ing part in the same, was Paul Dillingham. Referring to this 
the Rutland Herald editorially said, " the remarks of Honorable 
Paul Dillingham of Waterbury, and Mr. Carpenter, and 
Nicholson and others in this convention, will be remembered; 
and the day is not far distant when, in Vermont, a proper 
reward of praise will be given to the true patriot from what- 
ever party he may spring." The Montpelier Freeman said, 
"Democrats who came into the convention purely from patri- 
otic motives went away satisfied, while those who came for 
office went away in wrath." 

Honorable Thomas Powers of Woodstock, a Republican of 
the most radical type, was so dissatisfied with the adoption of 
the Edmunds resolution, and the permission to Democrats to 
take part in the convention, that he withdrew from it with 
about thirty followers and held a meeting on the State House 

This was followed by a convention of the Democratic party 
held at Montpelier on the 24th of July, 1861. As in the case 
of the Republican State Convention, considerable discussion 
was had as to what the convention represented. Some under- 
stood that the call was for a "Union" convention, while others 
contended that it was a Democratic Convention in the strict- 
est sense. The significant result of the convention was found 
in the following: ''Resolved, that as loyal citizens we will 
support all constitutional acts of the present National Gov- 
ernment to maintain the Constitution and laws in all the 
states." Paul Dillingham of Waterbury was nominated for 
governor, and Stephen Thomas of West Fairlee for lieutenant- 
governor. Neither of these gentlemen were present, and 
Mr. E. M. Brown, in behalf of Mr. Thomas, withdrew his 

Notices afterwards appeared in the public press that Messrs. 
Dillingham and Thomas declined to accept the nomination 
tendered them by the convention, and the Democratic State 
Committee, who were empowered to fill in any vacancies that 

PERIOD 1830-1850 79 

might occur, nominated B. H. Smalley of Swanton for gov- 
ernor, and Erastus Plympton, lieutenant-governor. 

Early in August the Washington County Republican Con- 
vention placed in nomination Honorable Charles W. Willard 
and Paul Dillingham for county senators, and on the same 
day the Union Convention, held for the avowed purpose of 
"uniting all friends of good government in an unbroken line 
of defense" recommended that "in selecting candidates for 
public office all party lines be disregarded and reference be 
had to only the welfare and safety of our distracted country." 
The Union Convention also nominated the same two men, 
Messrs. Willard and Dillingham, for county senators and they 
were subsequently elected. From that time on Paul Dilling- 
ham acted with the Republican party until his death. 

It was with reference to his own unsuccessful Democratic 
candidacy for governor in i860 that the poet, John G. Saxe, 
indited to Paul Dillingham, Democratic candidate of the con- 
vention of July 24, 1861, the following witty lines: 

Albany, N. Y., July 26, 1861. 
To Hon. Paul Dillingham: 

Dear Paul: I'm extremely delighted at learning 
The recent Convention has proved so discerning, 
And given your servant — an honor indeed — 
At least a successor who ought to "succeed": 
A patriot, orator, gentleman; strong 
In upholding the right, and resisting the wrong; 
And here let me add, while I'm thinking upon't, 
The best looking man in the State of Vermont! 
If they don't put you into the Governor's chair, 
The people will make, I am free to declare, 
A blunder this year which will quite have surpassed 
The similar one they committed the last! 
Yours cordially, 

Jno. G. Saxe. 

P. S. I have sent a copy of the above to the Burlington Sentinel. 

Before publication, however, the poet inserted as ninth and 
tenth lines of the stanza, respectively, the following: 

O eloquent Paul ! venerabile nomen! 
Thy name in itself is an excellent omen; 


In 1 862-1 865 Mr. Dillingham was elected three times suc- 
cessively lieutenant-governor, and to the governorship in 
1865 by a majority of 16,714, and again in 1866 by a majority 
of 22,822. 

Governor Dillingham's first message in 1865 recommended 
the establishment of a State Reform School ; at the Legislative 
session of that year an act was passed providing for the estab- 
lishment of such an institution and for the appointment of 
three commissioners to purchase a farm not exceeding two 
hundred acres, suitable for the purpose. Accordingly Rev- 
erend A. G. Pease, Reverend L. A. Dunn and Charles Reed, 
Esq., were appointed from the Legislature. In their 
report the following year the commissioners detailed the con- 
ditions and considerations, moving them to select a site for 
the Reform School in Waterbury. Among other things they 

Hence as a third condition, we determined that our location be near the 
railroad, and not more than one mile from a depot, and we concluded that 
a thriving business village, and a live depot, were much to be preferred to a 
place of little business, and a depot where ready conveyance for visitors 
could not be found. We thought it very desirable (and have found it so), 
that we should be within easy walk of the station, and the churches and 
business center of the town. Finally, if the place answering these condi- 
tions should be near the center of the state it would be so much the better 
for that. 

Not ten years later the Reform School, so auspiciously 
established, burned to the ground, December 12, 1874. At 
the time there were one hundred and sixty inmates, who 
escaped with their lives. The fire led to the substitution of 
Vergennes as the place for the reestablishment of the institu- 
tion. This was not accomplished without some wire pulling 
and political methods of the sort that smacked of devious 
and reprehensible practices. 

Mr. Dillingham's vote for governor in Waterbury on the 
first Tuesday of September, 1840, was 199 as against Silas 
Jenison's 188. Again in 1847 he received 167 votes as against 
Horace Eaton's 106. In 1841 his vote in Waterbury for state 
senator was 212, Nathaniel Eaton receiving 210 and A. Gush- 
man and O. Smith receiving each 150. Upon his election to 

PERIOD 1830-1850 81 

the National House of Representatives in September, 1843, 
Mr. Dillingham's home town gave him 205 votes, George P. 
Chandler receiving 118. In 1845 Mr. Dillingham was again 
elected to Congress, receiving in Waterbury 201 votes, G. 
Chandler, 153, and G. Putnam, 13. 

In Governor Dillingham was united an imposing presence 
with a grace of person; a magnetic manner with a wonderfully 
modulated voice; these with a command of forceful, apt and 
harmonious language, a resourceful gift of pertinent quotation 
all contributed to his preeminence as an advocate, legislator 
and chief executive. Honorable B. F. Fifield happily phrased 
his impressions of Mr. Dillingham in these words: 

When in his best mood he played upon the strings of men's hearts with 
the facility that a skilled musician plays upon the strings of a guitar, and 
made them respond to emotions of laughter, anger, sympathy or sorrow, 
whenever he pleased, and as best suited the purpose of the case. 

Speaking of Governor Dillingham's ability as a lawyer, 
Honorable Hiram A. Huse, in his Vermont Bar Association 
paper of October 20, 1891, said: 

His strong common sense made him a good adviser, so that his ofifice work 
was well done. . . . The power by which he won verdicts and his 
fame defied analysis. Perhaps much of the secret of his winning speech 
lay in the sympathy his big heart held for all sentient beings. Once on his 
feet in the full advocacy of his client's cause, that client's rights and wrongs 
welled from the depths of his being, and poured in a flood upon the jury, 
who thereupon established the rights and redressed the wrongs. . . . 
Doubtless he who read other men so well was conscious of his own power; 
but consciousness of power does not blind the clear-eyed man to the magni- 
tude of difficulties to be overcome; and, while his method was his own 
and inimitable, he went into each contest with no reckless assurance of 
success but with fixed will to do his best. 

And the more danger threatened, the more brightly burned this resolve, 
as once, when associated with T. P. Redfield in the trial of a cause, and the 
blackness of darkness seemed gathering about their legal bark, he leaned 
over the table and whispered, " Do thou, Timothy, preach; and I, Paul, will 
pray. " Then Timothy Redfield knew that Dillingham was girding himself 
to ask mightily of the jury, and watched with renewed zeal; — and what 
with watchfulness and prayer they saved the case — as, indeed, they did 
every case they ever tried as associate counsel. 

Those now living who recall the peculiar abilities of each of 


these forensic giants appreciate the aptness of the Biblical 
admonition quoted by Governor Dillingham. 

Governor Dillingham was an influential layman in the 
Methodist Church and went as the first lay delegate from the 
Vermont Conference to the Quadrennial General Conference 
in Brooklyn in 1872, in which body he took a high position. 
He lived for fifteen years after his retirement and died in 
Waterbury, July 26, 1891. 

Governor Paul Dillingham married (first) October 4, 1827, 
Sarah Partridge Carpenter, daughter of his former partner, 
Judge Dan Carpenter. She died September 20, 1831, and he 
married (second) September 5, 1832, Julia Carpenter, born 
at Waterbury, December 3, 1812, sister of his first wife, who 
died September 15, 1898. There were children of his first 
marriage: Eliza Jane, born October 21, 1828; Ellen S., Novem- 
ber 22, 1830, married Joshua F. Lamson, died December 15, 
1875. Children of the second marriage were: Caroline, born 
February 21, 1834 (married Honorable Matthew Hale Car- 
penter, a distinguished member of the Wisconsin bar and 
United States Senator, born in Moretown, Vermont, December 
22, 1824). Mrs. Caroline (Dillingham) Carpenter died at her 
home in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, April 10, 1915. The Milwaukee 
Evening Wisconsin said : 

In 1869 when amid a whirlwind of popular enthusiasm he (Hon. M. H. 
Carpenter) was sent to represent this state in the Senate, where he rose 
with incredible swiftness to his place of precedence, his wife was by his 
side and equal to her task as a close friend of President and Mrs. Grant 
and one of the foremost personages in the international society of the 
capital. Her position in her home city was commanding during the 
period of more than half a century in which she was a resident of Milwaukee. 
Since the death of her husband in 1881, she had kept in touch with what 
was best in the city's intellectual and social life. She had served more 
than once as president of the Society of Colonial Dames, and at the time 
of her death was honorary president of that organization and honorary 
regent of the Milwaukee Chapter of Daughters of the American Revolution. 
The house in which she lived is regarded as a historic shrine by all who 
cherish the memories of old Milwaukee. Within its quaint precincts is 
the large and choice library in which Senator Carpenter held high converse 
with the mighty minds of the ages, and also a treasury of manuscripts, 
including, many letters from President and Mrs. Grant. Shortly after 
her husband's death Mrs. Carpenter became a convert to the Catholic 

PERIOD 1830-1850 83 

faith, and for twenty-three years she had been a devout member of the 
congregation of St. John's cathedral. Her passing from life at the ripe 
age of 81, occurred on the 34th anniversary of the burial of her husband, 
and was due to a weakness of the heart from which she suffered for more 
than a year. She is survived by her son, Judge Paul D. Carpenter, her 
daughter. Miss Lillian Carpenter and three grandchildren, Agnes M., 
Matthew A. and Paul V. Carpenter of this city; also by her brothers, 
William P. Dillingham, United States senator from Vermont; Frank 
Dillingham, consul general at Christiana, Norway, and Colonel Charles 
Dillingham of Houston, Texas. 

(Colonel) Charles, February 18, 1837, an officer in the Civil 
War, railroad president and banker in Houston, Texas, mar- 
ried Fanny M. Cutter; Major Edwin, May 13, 1839, a lawyer, 
and officer in the Civil War, mortally wounded at Winchester, 
September 4, 1864; (Senator) William Paul; and Frank, born 
December, 1848, who has been in the United States consular 
service for twenty-five years, married Minnie L. Sneath, June 
3, 1882. 

Rarely has a literary and marital copartnership proven so 
felicitous as that of Hannah Gale (born in Waterbury, the 
daughter of Peter and Hannah Gale, December 28, 1824) and 
Samuel Slayton Luce. This gifted pair has left a small 
volume of verse fairly redolent of Vermont atmosphere and 
homely things of sacred beauty. Samuel Slayton Luce was 
born in Stowe, February i, 1819; of patriotic ancestry, his 
grandfather having served in the Revolutionary War and his 
father in the War of 18 12. He was educated in the Stowe 
public schools and in Craftsbury. Later he studied archi- 
tecture under G. P. Randall. At about the time the 
Vermont Central was being built between Montpelier and 
Burlington, Mr. Luce and Hannah Gale Luce, whom he had 
married December 7, 1847, removed to Waterbury to facili- 
tate Mr. Luce's access to the railway stations, for the building 
of which he was under contract. During his life in Water- 
bury, Mr. Luce had many important building contracts. 
Mr. William Deal speaks of him today as a man of unusual 
mental power and of great kindness and consideration to those 
who worked under him. In 1859 Mr. and Mrs. Luce moved 
to Galesville, Trempealeau County, Wisconsin, where Mr. 


Luce established and edited the Galesville Transcript and 
became interested as owner and editor in various newspapers 
until he was stricken with blindness in 1895. He served as 
county superintendent of schools and as secretary of the 
board of trustees of Galesville University. Their married 
life was broken by the death of Mrs. Luce, December 11, 1907, 
a few days after the sixtieth anniversary of their wedding. Mr. 
Luce survived his wife until February 16, 1908, when he was 

On the occasion of their last visit East, in 1881, they left 
with old neighbors and relatives in Waterbury and Stowe 
copies of a privately printed volume of verse from their respec- 
tive pens. This volume bears the imprint: "Trempealeau, 
Charles A. Leith, Publisher, 1876," and contains fifty-five 
poems by Mr. Luce and thirty by Mrs. Luce. Among the 
more popular of Mr. Luce's poems was "The Hunter of Cha- 
teaugay," wherein appears Tenas Wright, the first settler of 
Stowe, as the doughty hunter. "The Legend of Smuggler's 
Notch" is an epic of the wild days when the Lake Champlain 
smugglers sought a hiding retreat. The proposed state road 
will pass through the gorge described in the poem. "The 
Village Doctor," some stanzas of which are given later in this 
book, refers to Doctor Thomas C. Downer of Stowe, and is much 
in the vein of Whittier's "Snow Bound," being vividly descrip- 
tive of the fidelity of an aged country practitioner who toils 
through snow drifts and impassable roads on his errands of 

There are those now living in Waterbury who recall fugitive 
stanzas of an unpublished song of Liberty written by Mr. 
Luce and sung by one D. Lothian at the Anti-Slavery Con- 
vention at West Randolph in 1845. Among Mrs. Luce's 
contributions to the volume are included "The Green Moun- 
tains," a poem of delicate, graceful sentiment and descriptive 
of the scenery hereabouts; "More Boys for the War," "Mor- 
gan's Retreat," and "The Coming Man." The offerings of 
Mr. and Mrs. Luce deserve a proud place in any anthology of 
Vermont verse. 

The Mexican War was never popular in New England. 

PERIOD 1830-1850 85 

President Polk's policies were scouted as unnecessary and ill- 
advised. Included in the only regiment, the Ninth, recruited 
in New England for the war under the command of Colonel 
Ransom, was a single company (D) from Vermont. In this 
company was Luman M. Grout, father of Don D. Grout. 
With the exception of Major Grout, Levi (Tippecanoe) 
Gleason, John D. Robinson, father of Charles Robinson, who 
went from Williamstown in Company D, but returned to 
Waterbury and Charles S. Allen (son of Horace Allen) who 
died in the service, there are no other known Waterbury 
participants in the war, although, as in one known instance, 
other Mexican War veterans might have come to Waterbury 
after the war. An exhaustive search fails to disclose the 
names of any others who went from the town. In this con- 
nection an interesting letter from ex-Governor Samuel E. 
Pingree is given : 

White River Junction and Hartford, Vt., 

July 2, 1915. 
Theodore Graham Lewis, 
Waterbury, Vt. 

My dear Mr. Lewis: Yours of yesterday received this morning. I 
regret very much that I am unable to give you any information in regard 
to the Waterbury Contingent in the Ninth New England Regiment raised 
by Franklin Pierce. I lived in Salisbury, New Hampshire, at that time and 
was quite familiar with a few volunteers in that vicinity, was one myself 
but my father fired me out because I was a minor and I lost the fun, but 
probably saved my life. 

I think the Adjutant and Inspector General's Office at Montpelier will 
have a record which will show you a list perhaps of every man that went 
from any town in Vermont, and if it cannot be had there I think it could be 
had from the records of Norwich University, as the Colonel Ransom, some- 
time President of Norwich University, was a colonel in command of the 
Ninth Regiment and was killed at the Battle of Chapultepec, so I think 
the record will show the muster roll of every soldier under his command and 
probably where they were from. 

I regret very much that I cannot be of service to you because I can 
appreciate your great desire for a full as well as an accurate history of the 
noble town of Waterbury. I know its record in the Civil War was beyond 
compare with any town, if not in numbers at least in quality of its volun- 

Sincerely yours, 

Sam'l E. Pingree. 


Mr. Lucius B. Peck, a native of Waterbury but resident of 
Montpelier, took his seat in the Hou^e of Representatives 
December 6, 1847. On March 13, 1848, he introduced a 
resolution that the Committee on Military Affairs be instructed 
to inquire into the propriety of passing an act for the settle- 
ment of claims of the Fourth regiment, Second Brigade and 
third division of the Vermont Militia for services at the Battle 
of Plattsburg, and that they report by bill or otherwise. He 
also presented a resolution by the Legislature of the state of 
Vermont approving Asa Whitney's plan of a railroad from 
Lake Michigan to the Pacific Ocean. August 3, 1848, Mr. 
Peck commented on the uncourteous terms in which one de- 
partment of this government (the Executive) was frequently 
spoken of by gentlemen on the floor and then examined into 
the position of gentlemen of the South, that it was unjust to 
them to prohibit their going to the new territories with their 
slaves. He denied that it was unjust. He reminded them 
that slavery existed by municipal laws, and quoted decisions 
of southern judges to show that a slave taken by his master 
voluntarily beyond the jurisdiction of the municipal laws of 
the state in which he lives, becomes a free man. 

On January 22, 1850, Mr. Peck asked unanimous consent 
of the House to introduce a resolution that the Committee on 
Military Affairs be instructed to inquire into the propriety of 
refunding to the state of Vermont the money expended by 
that state in her endeavors to maintain our neutrality in the 
Canadian difficulties; and that the committee report by bill 
or otherwise. Those who believe that the propagandists of 
peace are of recent origin will be interested to know that Mr. 
Peck voted, January 28, 1850, to refer a memorial of the 
American Peace Society to the Committee on Foreign Affairs. 
This memorial prayed Congress to inquire into the expediency 
of entering into international treaties stipulating for the settle- 
ment of international disputes by arbitration and also into the 
expediency of holding a Congress of Nations. 

April 25, 1850, Mr. Peck spoke at length in answer to objec- 
tions urged against the admission of California as a state into 
the Union. He disposed of these objections seriatim as pre- 

PERIOD 1830-1850 87 

senting, in his judgment, no valid arguments against her 
admission, whether considered with reference to their own 
intrinsic weight, or to the prior action of the government in 
the admission of new states into the Union. Mr. Peck, during 
his term, was flooded with petitions and remonstrances against 
the admission of more slave states, the extension of slavery 
generally and the repeal of laws favoring slavery in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia. Then, of course, there were the usual bills 
for pensions and private relief and innumerable petitions for 
cheaper postage from Vermonters. In the autumn of 1846, 
Mr. Peck received 161 votes for Congress in Waterbury and 
again in 1848 he received 102, Mr. John L. Buck getting 61, 
this, though Mr. Peck was then a resident of Montpelier, 
having given up his residence in Waterbury. 

The Free Mountaineer was a newspaper of Waterbury and 
Montpelier, edited by J. A. Somerby, which made its initial 
appearance in 1849. It is regrettable that it scarcely could 
be said to have had even an ephemeral existence, not to men- 
tion a diurnal prosperity, devoted, as it expressed itself to 
"News, Education, Agriculture, Mechanic Arts, The Interests 
of Workingmen, Temperance, Health, Anti-Slavery, Morality, 
Cheap Postage, Literary and Miscellaneous Reading, etc." 

The editor's salutatory of June 14, 1849, addressed to the 
citizens of Waterbury is peculiarly captivating to the twentieth 
century journalistic craftsman. The optimism expressed by 
the devoted publicist might well be indulged by many latter 
day editors with profit. The salutatory is deemed worthy of 
space : 

We lay before you today, the first Newspaper ever printed in Waterbury. 
We have enlisted in the enterprise of establishing a Printing Office and 
publishing a Journal of News, etc., every week, in Waterbury Village, at 
the suggestion and solicitation of a large number of the citizens of Water- 
bury and vicinity — every party and sect uniting together, to a considerable 
extent to bring about the desired result — and we shall consequently, 
depend upon their united influence and assistance for support. We shall 
make every reasonable exertion to obtain the latest intelligence from our 
own country, as well as from abroad, and keep our readers well informed 
in relation to local events. When we have occasion to express our own 
opinions, we shall endeavor to be "Unawed by Influence and unbribed by 


gain" independent alike, of sectarian or party views — seeking to benefit all 
our readers. 

We shall endeavor to promote morality and temperance, and a noble 
forbearance between man and man, that shall be fully equal to the pro- 
gressive spirit of the age. 

Waterbury needs a Fire Engine, an Academy, a Plank Road to Hyde- 
park, and many other improvements, to procure which, we shall gladly 
cooperate with our fellow citizens, and rejoice with them at the success of 
every enterprise that will benefit the community generally. 

Our columns will be open to the free discussion of all topics of general 
interest; but, communications must be short, to the point, and couched in 
respectful language. 

The same issue contains a prospectus of the New York 
Tribune, signed by Greeley & McElrath, reflecting in Horace 
Greeley's inimitable style the policy of his famous journal and 
dealing vigorously with matters of public moment in this 
language : 

A year of change and convulsion draws rapidly to its close — a year 
destined to be memorable in the history of Europe and of America. In 
this country it has witnessed the casting down of that delusive idol which 
made the mantle of Democracy a cloak for the most audacious crimes 
against Liberty and Humanity — against Freedom of thought and action — 
against outspeaking Integrity and fearless Manhood. Come what may in 
the future, we are justified in believing that the power of a Name over the 
Nation's impulses and fortunes — the indolent credulity which empowered 
whatever was called "Democratic" to pass triumphant and almost un- 
questioned — has passed away forever. New circumstances will, doubtless, 
evolve new perils for the country; but the great peril of blind adherence to 
party — of government by the potency of words and names — has passed 
away forever. Europe, too, has experienced unwonted convulsions and 
the signal fires of Freedom, relighted in February by the laborers of Paris, 
have swept over France, Germany, Hungary, Italy and been kindled only 
to be quenched in unhappy Ireland. They still blaze with cheering bril- 
liancy from the watch-towers of dauntless Berlin; they gleam and flash, it 
may be, with dying but surely with glorious radiance, from the battlements 
of heroic Vienna. Throughout the length and breadth of Christendom, 
there are indications not to be mistaken, of the stern uprising of the long 
abused people against the tyrants who have so long oppressed and crushed 
them. Happy were it for all if the despots and aristocrats, so long gorged 
with the plunder of unrewarded toil, would but seasonably realize that the 
old sorceries, whereby nations were lulled to sleep in wretchedness and 
chains, have lost their power and that Liberty and Justice are now de- 
manded with a unanimity and earnestness which will not be over ruled, 
trifled with, nor turned aside from its purpose. But the Few will not see 

PERIOD 1830-1850 89 

what the Many have learned of their rights and wrongs; wherefore blood 
will flow like water and misery and desolation darken the face of the civil- 
ized world. But this will not endure. . . . So, while resisting sternly 
the claim of portions of our people to arrogate to themselves the designa- 
tions "Republican" and "Democratic," plainly implying that those who 
dissent from their view of the current topics of party controversy are 
hostile to Republican Liberty — we shall none the less reverence and uphold 
those great principles of Democracy and Equal Rights which no abuse, 
no perversion to sordid, ignoble ends, can ever render other than vital 
elements of Human Well-being. . . . Hoping much from the New 
Administration [President Taylor's] which the people have decreed, we 
shall yield it a hearty support so far as our judgment shall approve its 
acts; but should we find it in any respect unfaithful, we shall not hesitate 
to expose and denounce its short-comings. We support men for the sake 
of measures not measures for the sake of men. 

Like most prophets', Mr. Greeley's vaticinations were partly 
accurate and partly wrong, as those of us know who lived to 
see the great journalist himself recant in part. For example, 
there is a greater measure of liberty today in "unhappy Ire- 
land" than in either "dauntless Berhn" or "heroic Vienna." 

Even at that early day, in 1849, the Free Mountaineer was 
moved to protest valiantly against our chaotic immigration 
laws, under which an influx of nine hundred foreign immi- 
grants at one port in a single day were permitted. The 
editor called upon the people to see to it that such men be 
sent to Washington to make laws as would protect American 
laborers in their rights. How well the people of Waterbury 
have responded to this appeal is today a matter of national 

The completion of the Vermont Central Railroad into Water- 
bury from Middlesex, and the arrival of the first train, October 
I, 1849, just one year later than the railway's completion into 
Northfield, naturally were hailed with satisfaction by the citi- 
zens, especially those who had purchased stock in the enter- 
prise; to them there was at least ocular evidence of some of 
the concrete results of their investment and the subject of 
dividends was allowed to remain in abeyance. The con- 
ductors and station agents were recruited at first from stage 
drivers and other employes of the old turnpike company. 

Railroading in those days was not the highly specialized 


occupation it came to be within the next quarter of a century 
and train crews were rather a happy-go-lucky lot. 

Prior to the Prohibitory Law, accepted in 1853 by a majority 
vote of 88, there was an Innkeepers and Retailers License Act. 
Under this, the question of voting for license or no license was 
determined each year at the March town meeting. In 1847 
there was a majority of 57 against license. In 1848 license 
prevailed by a majority of 35, and in 1849 the vote was 109 to 
108 in favor of no license. Apropos of the lax conditions pre- 
vailing in Waterbury prior to the passage of the Prohibitory 
Law of 1853, modeled on the Maine Act, Mr. Russell Butler 
once remarked to a friend that there was not a single farm on 
the hill road to Stowe that had not changed hands, within his 
memory, on account of the effects of intemperance. 

The Moody family's place in Waterbury 's history begins 
with the coming of Joseph Moody, Sr., and his wife, Avis, from 
Vershire in 1834. There were six sons and three daughters: 
Daniel Moody who died March 23, 1887, was a farmer. Na- 
thaniel Moody was a successful business man, buying and 
selling stock, and was known as a shrewd, careful trader; he 
died January 9, 1893. William was a prominent resident, the 
keeper of a tavern, real estate operator and trader, industrious 
and energetic; he died in 1865, aged fifty-seven years. Elisha 
was also a trader, real estate owner and promoter. He was 
widely celebrated for his wit, and his sayings were quoted 
throughout central Vermont; he lived to be ninety-four years 
of age and died in 1906. His chief delight was deliberately to 
excite and baffle the ever-ready curiosity of his townsmen. 
He was impervious to the ingratiating hints thrown out in the 
obvious formulae beginning: "I was just a-wonderin'," or 
"I didn't know but what," etc. Such coarse work left him 
unmoved and his interrogators unsatisfied. 

Betsy (Moody) Reynolds, a sister, died in Waterbury 
December 22, 1887; her husband, Samuel Reynolds, died in 
1875. Avis (Moody) Kenny died at the age of twenty-four, 
January 17, 1842. Angelina (Moody) Duncan, a sister, re- 
sided in the West. 

The Moody men are described as being of an average height 

PERIOD 1830-1850 91 

of six feet, one inch, and weight of two hundred and twenty- 
five pounds. They were all keen business men and careful 

Of the present generation, G. E. Moody, Reverend Calvin 
Moody of Oklahoma, and Edward Moody of Waterbury, 
Mrs. WilHam Carpenter of Waterbury, and Miss Nettie 
Moody of Poultney Academy are the children of George 
Moody. George F. Moody of Burlington is the son of Elisha. 
Of William Moody's family there were: Justin W. Moody, 
Mrs. N. K. Brown of Burlington, Jane (Moody) Town, 
Lavina (Moody) Robinson of Stowe, and Mrs. Frances 
(Moody) Atherton of Burlington. 

It is said that Nathaniel Moody was the one of the six sons 
of Joseph Moody, Sr., who was a Republican. All the rest 
were War Democrats, but, with the coming of the third gene- 
ration, there was a sort of political throw-back and the sons 
of Democratic fathers became Republicans. 

Of the six brothers, George was known familiarly as "Gov- 
ernor," it is said, because of his imposing appearance, immense 
girth and ponderous dignity. Ex-Senator George Eugene 
Moody was born in Waterbury, January 6, 1845; he was 
educated in the public schools and entered upon a business 
career in his native town. He has been a successful dealer in 
real estate, live stock, lumber and the promoter and half 
owner of the Waterbury Light & Power Company. He was 
town representative in 1886 and 1900, and state senator in 
1906, Mr. Moody is held in high esteem for his invincible 
courage, his optimistic confidence in humankind, his kindly 
helpfulness and his shrewd business sense. 

Joseph W. Moody was a member of the state senate in 1853. 
Soon after his term expired in 1854, he removed to Sauk 
Rapids, Minnesota, and died there, November 23, 1884. 

Mark H. Moody, a son of G. E. Moody, served the town as 
postmaster twelve years and now is an operator of several 
farms and a breeder of Guernsey stock. 

Justin W. Moody was born in Strafford, Vermont, Novem- 
ber 24, 1844, and died in Waterbury, February 4, 1915. He 
came to Waterbury when he was a child of two years and 


received his early education in the public schools of the village. 
He married Miss Harriet Brown of Montpelier, November 5, 
1868, and of the marriage were born: Mary (Moody) White- 
hill, wife of Mr. Harry C. Whitehill, and Julia (Moody) Perry, 
wife of Mr. C. A. Perry. Mrs. Moody, Justin Moody's 
widow, still lives in Waterbury at the old home. Mr. Moody 
was an ardent Republican and served the village as post- 
master for twenty-four years successively, having received his 
first commission from President Andrew Johnson. Mr. 
Moody was also the proprietor of a book and stationery store, 
but spent the last fifteen years of his life in the place of busi- 
ness of his son-in-law, Mr. H. C. Whitehill, where he held an 
open court and reception for his many warm friends and 
neighbors. For many years Mr. Moody was a director of the 
Waterbury National Bank (now the Waterbury Savings Bank 
and Trust Company), school director, and a member of the 
Board of Listers. Mr. Moody was essentially a home man, 
preferring home associations to the diversions presented by 
social organizations of different sorts. He was, however, 
quick to render aid and counsel to many local organizations, 
particularly the Methodist Church, in which the Moody family 
of Waterbury had been always prominent. An omniverous 
reader, Mr. Moody kept abreast of the publications dealing 
with topics whether of political, governmental, economic or 
industrial interest or of the more intimate sociological problems 
of present day discussion. 

It would be a labor of love for any one of his acquaintances 
to bear testimony to his singular power of drawing to him and 
retaining, as it were, by bands of steel, those who knew him. 
This power was beautifully illustrated in his association and 
relations with small children and young people. Mr. Moody 
was modest and retiring, but, in his quiet way, was quick at 
repartee, showing a keen sense of humor. The Waterbury Rec- 
ord's obituary notice of Mr. Moody closed with these words : 
"After all, what the people of Waterbury and vicinity will 
remember with the greatest comfort and satisfaction were 
those traits of their dead friend which were evidenced by an 

PERIOD 1830-1850 93 

invariable neighborliness, kindliness and thoughtfulness for 
others, especially in times of adversity or trouble." 

For weeks after Mr. Moody's death the sorrow of old friends 
was manifested in a pathetic way, when upon inquiry at his 
accustomed place, they learned first of his passing. Especially 
touching were the inquiries of little children for their old 

One of the old-time residents of Waterbury Center was 
Chauncey Lyon. Mr. Lyon was born October 11, 1835, on 
the same farm that was cleared by his father and grandfather, 
and which is now owned by his son, Arthur Lyon. After he 
began to feel the weight of years he moved from the farm to 
the Center. He married Miss Maria Emeretta Hopkins of 
Enosburgh in 1858. Of this union eight children were born, 
the eldest son dying in infancy. Of the living children Mrs. 
M. A, Thurston (Martha A. Lyon) lives at the Center; 
Arthur on the Lyon farm; Frank "Chancy" is in business in 
Burlington; Mrs. Frank A. Fish, the wife of Superior Judge 
Fish, lives in Vergennes; Mrs. Warren, in Morrisville; Jesse, 
in Chicago, and Mrs. Carsley, in Palmer, Massachusetts. 
By occupation Mr. Lyon was always a farmer. He paid 
especial attention to horse breeding and to this branch of 
farming he ascribed what success he met. Of industrious 
habits, he could not tolerate an idler and was too frugal to 
permit waste or slackness. Strictly honest and upright, he 
held all to the same line. He died May 3, 1914. 

Among Waterbury 's physicians of this period was Doctor 
Thomas B. Downer who came to the Center in 1840, or there- 
about. The circumstances attending his removal from Stowe, 
where he had practiced, to Waterbury Center, well illustrates 
the Doctor's tenacity of opinion. When the County of La- 
moille was carved out and the town of Stowe was included 
within the new boundaries, Doctor Downer declared that he 
would not pay taxes to the substituted county organization; 
rather than to do this, he removed to Waterbury Center. 

Doctor Downer was nothing short of a public institution, 
sometimes called a "character" (as if that word were inclusive 
of all personal peculiarities). He is described as rather cor- 


pulent, with a deep bass voice, brusque and abrupt in manner, 
with a kindly heart and ready sympathy for all. Like most 
country physicians, Doctor Downer set little store by insisting 
upon his professional fees. He rendered service to rich and 
poor with fine impartiality. He died in 1851 and, twenty 
years later, appeared the poem of Samuel Slayton Luce, whose 
beautiful appreciation of the kindly old practitioner remains 
as a fitting tribute to the memory of the friend of the country- 
side. Clarissa Downer, daughter of Doctor Downer, married 
Lyman Smith. Three children of this marriage were John D., 
Clarissa and George Edward Smith. 

John D. Smith married Mary Jane Camp in Stowe and came 
to Waterbury Center in the early 40's. He held the office of 
town clerk from 1851 until his death in 1873. John Downer 
Smith was a type of that class of men known in small commu- 
nities whose sound judgment and temperate counsel are in- 
stinctively sought. 

At perhaps too early a period in life he was invested with 
the responsibilities of a family head, when, after the death of 
his father, he assumed that place in the household. From his 
youth his predilection for books and reading continued to 
grow stronger. He was especially devoted to historical re- 
search and was no mean antagonist in doctrinal discussion, 
having emerged from the confines of orthodoxy into the, to 
him, more congenial fields of Universalism. His frequent 
visits to Boston brought him into contact with the various 
advance movements of the time and he became familiar with 
their progress. He was alert and vigilant to keep abreast of 
advanced thought. The very night before his death he read 
aloud, to a number of his friends, certain extracts from some 
recent publication dealing with psychic phenomena and talked 
far into the night about the possibilities which the opening of 
such a new field of investigation entailed. With all his strong 
convictions and his uncompromising nature, he still was a 
warm friend and comrade of many who differed radically from 
him. He served as town lister, justice of the peace, land sur- 
veyor, conveyancer and general settler of local controversies. 
He represented the town in the Legislatures of 1856 and 1857. 

PERIOD 1830-1850 95 

Mr. Smith was a book-lover and student, possessing one of the 
few really good private libraries in the town. He was an 
avowed Universalist and was logically translated from the 
old-line Whig to the rejuvenated Republican party. 

Frank N. Smith, the son of John D. Smith, succeeded his 
father as town clerk and continued the business of conveyanc- 
ing, settling estates, etc., until he went to Montpelier where he 
is now the treasurer of the Capital Savings Bank. His sister, 
Clarissa (Smith) Minard, still lives in Waterbury Village with 
her daughter. Miss Marguerite Minard. 

Doctor Will F. Minard, husband of Clarissa (Smith) Minard 
was born in Hinesburg, May 13, 1867, the son of R. M. and 
Marguerite (Kenyon) Minard. His preparatory education 
was had in the Hinesburg and Bristol schools and the Green 
Mountain Seminary at Waterbury Center. He spent some 
time in preliminary medical study with Doctor Sparhawk of 
Burlington and as an assistant in a Hanover, New Hampshire, 
drug store. Thereafter he attended the Hahnemann Medical 
College in Philadelphia, from which he was graduated at the 
head of his class in 1887. He practiced in Burlington with 
his old preceptor, Doctor Sparhawk, for a short time coming 
from Burlington to Waterbury within a year. He purchased 
the old Dillingham residence on Main Street and conducted a 
sanitarium there for some years. While still a student in 
Waterbury Center he met Miss Clarissa Smith, a member of 
his seminary class. They were married September 30, 1886. 
Doctor Minard was a man of singularly attractive address, 
winning and courteous manners and agreeable personality. 
He was an enthusiastic student and practitioner, a kind and 
helpful friend and an energetic, public-spirited citizen. 

The best available information about the origin of the Water- 
bury branch of the Henry family begins with Samuel Henry of 
South Hadley and Amherst, Massachusetts. The next in 
line is Sylvester Henry, who married Sybil Proctor about 
1800. This Sylvester Henry was born in Amherst, Massachu- 
setts, November 20, 1776. He followed an uncle, Jason Cady, 
to Vermont. The following biographical sketch by Mrs. 
Sarah (Henry) Jewett, a daughter of Sylvester Henry and 


Sybil (Proctor) Henry, is taken from Eldridge's "Henry 
Genealogy" (191 5): 

Of my father's early 3'ears we know very little. At fourteen he left 
home to learn the carpenter's trade, and served an apprenticeship of seven 
years, having three months' schooling each year. During this time his 
food and clothing were very scanty. His evenings were spent in studying 
and reading history by torch-light made of pine knots; and such was his 
love of knowledge and diligence that he became well informed for those 

At the age of twenty-one he took what little he had, and in company with 
his brother, Samuel, started for Vermont. The country was nearly a 
wilderness with few settlements and few people. The roads were marked 
trees. He came to Waterbury. There were two or three framed houses 
and several log cabins. He liked the country, but as he could not obtain 
work here, he pushed on to Burlington, Vermont. There he had all the 
work he could do and remained there four or five years, often visiting 
Waterbury in that time, and finally bought a house and several acres of 
land where William Carpenter's house stands (1876). There are two 
houses yet standing in Burlington that he and his brother, Samuel, built. 
He was married to Sybil Proctor, daughter of Isaac Proctor, a kind hearted 
and excellent man. They were poor in purse but rich in good health, in 
industrious and frugal habits and a disposition to overcome obstacles. 

In March, 1807, he traded his home in the village for this (Henry) farm 
and moved into a poor cabin situated where the garden now is. The snow 
was very deep and father made steps down into the cabin, and his youthful 
wife went down with her baby and all her dishes in her arms. She thought 
it was like going out of the world to come way down here in the woods to 
live. She was, however, cheerful and hopeful, and set about making her 
home as comfortable as possible. She pinned sheets and towels against 
the logs; washed the one window; scrubbed the floor; and by night, as the 
fire blazed up in the big fireplace, her cabin seemed quite cozy and home- 

In this humble home there were born to them a son and a daughter, 
James M. and Betsey. In the course of time they got up a frame house and 
moved into the kitchen, — that, with the bedroom and buttery, being all 
that was finished. She spun and wove her sheets, towels, and tablecloths, 
her coverlets and blankets, to furnish her new house, and made full clothes 
and flannels to clothe her husband and children. She brought water from 
the brook, and in a hurrying time would help on the farm. Father was 
ever busy, working at his trade winters, and on the farm summers. He 
built the house, woodshed, and barn; built the church and many of the 
houses at the village, cleared the land, planted the orchard, made roads, 
bridges, and fences. He also had much town business to do, and some for 
the state. He was elected to the Legislature. He was a Whig in politics 
and a great lover of his country. He attended the Congregational Church, 

PERIOD 1830-1850 97 

He was dignified and stern in manner, and not at all familiar with his 
younger children. He was ever adding to the farm, always in debt for 
land, and when mother wanted anything for the house, the answer was, 
"Wait until we are out of debt." Mother had a cheerful, hopeful disposi- 
tion, a hand and heart ready to help those who wanted help, and was 
very useful among the sick. She brought up her girls to spin, weave, make 
cheese and butter, make their own clothes and knit their own stockings. 
These industrious habits and frugal ways have been a rich legacy to them, 
and now, after she has been dead thirty-six years, they rise up and call her 

Sylvester with his brother Samuel, both carpenters, came 
to Burlington and built the two Englesby houses on the corner 
of St. Paul and College Streets about 1800. He was paid off 
in silver quarters and with that money came to Waterbury 
and bought the tract known since as the Henry farm above 
referred to. 

Sylvester Henry, son of Samuel, was for many years a 
prominent citizen of Waterbury. He served for several years 
as a selectman, justice of the peace, and town representative 
in the Assembly for two years (1812-1813). He is described 
as a man of wide reading and literary taste, added to which 
was a singularly shrewd and accurate knowledge of land 
values. He died in 1840. Sybil (Proctor) Henry, wife of 
Sylvester, was a woman whose delight it was to be of service to 
those of her neighbors needing assistance of a practical kind 
when in trouble or illness. An unusual coincidence occurred 
in the fact that of this family of four sons and four daughters, 
two sons each reared a family of the same size, one of these 
being a family of four sons and four daughters. These were 
the families of Sylvester (second son of Sylvester, Sr.) and 
James M., respectively. 

James M., eldest son of Sylvester, was born in Waterbury in 
1809. His early education was obtained in the public schools. 
He, like his father, was a diligent reader and close observer. 
His philosophy of life, born of reading and observation, seemed 
to be to take men as he found them and not to undertake the 
impossible task of recreating them. Mr. Henry found farm 
life unsuited to his tastes and disposition and attempted with 
success endeavors in other fields. He identified himself in 


middle age with the cause of temperance and, like his father 
again, served the town as a justice of the peace, and town 
representative in the Assembly (i 859-1 860). He died, aged 
about fifty-five years. James M. Henry had eight children: 
William Wirt, (General) Henry, Delia M., John F,, Eliza, 
Sybil Proctor, James Edwin, Sarah and George. 

John F. Henry, brother of General Henry, went from Water- 
bury to Brooklyn, New York. He married for the first time 
Josephine Barrett. Two children were born of this marriage, 
William and John. His second wife was Lydia Delphine 
Hart. A son, John F. Henry, resides at Saranac Lake. Delia, 
sister of General Henry, married Doctor Anderson Miller of 
North Carolina, who fought on the side of the Confederacy 
during the Civil War. She had five children: Eliza Henry 
married Emery Scagel. They had two children, Dora and 
Flora. Sybil Henry married Lyman Hinkley, one-time 
lieutenant-governor of Vermont; they had one child. James 
Edwin was killed fighting for the Union in the Battle of Peters- 
burg. Sarah married Salmon Green of Richmond; their 
children were Henry, William, Edwin, Sybil, Harriet, Sarah, 
Nellie, Delphine, Roscoe and Lyman. George Henry, young- 
est brother of General Henry, died comparatively young after 
serving through the Civil War. 

In the family of Sylvester Henry, Sr., besides James M., 
there were Mary (Mrs. Newton Atherton), Ann (Mrs. Corne- 
lius Sherman), Sarah (Mrs. Jewett) and Luther. John F. 
Henry went to Brooklyn and built up a large business in drugs 
and medicines from small beginnings in Waterbury; he was a 
candidate for the mayoralty and is said to have run ahead of 
his party strength. 

Sylvester, second son of Sylvester, Sr., accumulated a 
modest fortune; was, for a time, constable in Waterbury. 
Three of his sons served in the Union army in the Civil War. 
He died in 1871, aged about fifty-eight. 

Luther, fourth son of Sylvester, Sr., was born in Waterbury 
in 1826. When he was fourteen years of age his father died, 
leaving his minor son's guardianship to the village selectmen, 
whose fidelity and ability in administering trusts were well 

PERIOD 1 830-1 850 99 

established. Luther's education was had at Newbury Semi- 
nary. Upon attaining his majority he made some unsuccess- 
ful speculations in dealing in patent rights. In common with 
many other young law students, he entered the office of Hon- 
orable Paul Dillingham and was admitted to the bar of 
Washington County in May, 1849. He is described by a 
fellow member of the bar, L. L. Durant, in this language: 
"As a lawyer, he was never learned in the books; but in a 
knowledge of men and things, he was not to be excelled. With 
keen discrimination and quick discernment, he readily grasped 
the strong points of a case, and, bringing all his efforts to bear 
upon them, could not easily be led away. He was, so to 
speak, a natural lawyer, as all who entered the lists with him 
can testify," Mr. Henry was instrumental in building the 
Waterbury and Duxbury bridge across the Winooski. He 
was twice married; the first time to Miss Flora Taplin; the 
second, to Miss Kate Royce. Three children were born to 
him. He died January i, 1867, aged forty. 

Franklin Sylvester Henry was the son of Sylvester Henry, 
second, and brother of Mrs. Albert Spencer. He served with 
the Seventeenth Regiment of Vermont Volunteers which went 
to the war in 1864. In the same regiment was Lieutenant J. 
Edwin Henry, his cousin, who was killed at Petersburg. 
Franklin Sylvester Henry was the loyal son of Waterbury who 
carried into effect the long discussed project of erecting a 
suitable monument to the memory of the brave soldiers of 
the town, whose deathless glory it was to outnumber any 
other town in the state in her ever-ready quotas of men. Pres- 
entation of this noble gift of Mr. Henry devolved upon Gen- 
eral William W. Henry (his cousin). Senator William P. 
Dillingham, O. A. Seabury and H. C. Whitehill, as a Board 
of Trustees in response to a request made the preceding year 
by Mr. Henry, before his death. Franklin Sylvester Henry 
became associated as traveling salesman with Henry, Curran 
& Company of New York, large dealers in drugs and medicines, 
after his return from the Civil War. He made his home in 
Cleveland, Ohio, and later engaged in business on his own 
account in that city, where he soon demonstrated his ability 


to handle large affairs. A few months after preferring his 
request that a monument committee be appointed, his health 
failed and he was obliged to seek relief at Hot Springs, Arkan- 
sas. A telegram was received in Waterbury, February ii, 
1914, announcing his death from pneumonia, just four days 
after the setting of the beautiful monument, so near his heart. 
Mr. Henry was a fine type of business man and was peculiarly 
adapted to cope with undertakings of magnitude. He was a 
strong man, of kindly impulses and sympathetic nature. He 
died at the age of sixty-eight years, leaving a wife, Mrs. 
Franklin Sylvester Henry (Mary Kirkpatric Wilson), a sister, 
Mrs. Albert Spencer of Waterbury, and a brother, Frederic 
Henry of Cleveland. 

Stiles Sherman properly belongs to an earlier period. He 
was the father of twelve children, several of whom died in 
early youth. His youngest daughter was Mrs. Lyman Beebe 
of Burlington; her daughter, Mary Jane Beebe, became the 
wife of General Henry. The youngest son was Seth Chandler 
Sherman who was graduated with honors from the University 
of Vermont in 1829, and removed to Quincy, Illinois, where 
he married and died. Besides a brother of Seth Chandler, 
who went to central New York early in life, there was Heman 
Sherman, who died in Ogdensburg, New York, and was buried 
in Waterbury. An elder sister married Elam Carpenter, 
brother of Judge Dan Carpenter, and, on his death, married 
Luther Cleaves. There were a son (Sherman) and two daugh- 
ters of this family, who, with their parents, removed to St. 

Many interesting stories are told of the old time festivities, 
incidental to corn huskings, sugar parties and the like, enjoyed 
by the young blades and damsels of Waterbury at the hospita- 
ble Beebe farm. 

Among the famous wheelwrights of this region was Jesse 
Perry, whose daughter is Mrs. B. R. Demeritt. 

"Perry Hill" is named for Benjamin Perry, the founder of 
the Waterbury family. 

One of the eccentric village institutions was Sayles Hawley, 
keeper of a hotel on the site of the old Pride tavern. He was 

PERIOD 1830-1850 lOI 

an incorrigible wag, whose wholesome good humor fairly radi- 
ated from his countenance. Two prominent politicians were 
once engaged in a wordy wrangle, which bade fair to end in 
fisticuffs, when Sayles Hawley, then a mischievous youngster 
of eighty years, quelled the row by quoting in his inimitable 
fashion the old rhyme admonishing little children "not to let 
their angry passions rise." Mr. Hawley married Miss Hub- 
bard of Montpelier. 

Two postmasters were Thomas B. Scagel and his son, Emery 
D. Scagel. The first named lived where Doctor Bid well's 
house stands. The son engaged in the drug business. 

Daniel Demmon, a farmer, was the father of two sons. 
Daniel, Jr., and Jared Demmon, for a short time a law partner 
of Paul Dillingham. 

The Atkins family was a numerous one and boasted several 
giants. They were locally known and sometimes feared as 
wits and jokers, particularly Henry and Albro. Horace and 
Henry were house builders and carpenters. Captain George's 
name is in the list of the famous forty volunteers recorded as 
being at the Battle of Plattsburg. David was a deacon and, 
like most deacons, a town officer. John very early incurred 
the reputation of being "queer" because he was said to gather 
sap with one pail, whereas most sugar makers used two if 
working without a team. John's method was too revolu- 
tionary to escape comment. Jerum Atkins, son of John, was 
by way of being a mechanical genius. He put in his early years 
with Henry Carter, a wheelwright; then he went West and 
became the inventor of the first grain raking attachment to 
the famous McCormick reaper. Like many inventors, 
Jerum Atkins sowed for others to reap. Lack of means, ill 
health, bad business management and sordid over-reaching 
on the part of patent pirates, all contributed to deprive Atkins 
of the fruits of his genius. 

One of the old time medical practitioners was Doctor 
Oliver W. Drew, who came from South Woodstock to Water- 
bury in 1820. His father before him was a physician and his 
son, Frederic, also. Doctor Oliver Drew practiced medicine 
in Waterbury for fifty-five years and, upon his retirement, 


took up his residence with his only daughter, the wife of a 
clergyman in Acton, Massachusetts. He died in Massachu- 
setts in 1878, and his remains were interred in the cemetery 
here. His first wife was Lucretia Arms, the mother of Doctor 
Frederic Drew and one daughter; his second wife was Mar- 
garet Woodward, daughter of Doctor Woodward of Mont- 
pelier, and one time resident of Waterbury; his third wife was 
Olivia L. B. Atherton. 

Doctor Frederic Drew pursued a classical course in Burling- 
ton at the University of Vermont and acquired his professional 
training at the Woodstock Medical College and the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons in New York, from which he was 
graduated in the spring of 1857. He started in practice in 
Attica, Indiana; thence he removed to Junction City, Kansas, 
in 1859. After two years he was made postsurgeon at Fort 
Riley, where he remained until his death at the age of thirty- 
five years, during the Civil War. He left a widow, Nelly 
(Cheney) Drew, whom he had married in Attica, Indiana, in 
December, 1861. 

The elder Doctor Drew was one of Waterbury 's sturdy 
oaks; dependable, sensible, practical, trustworthy, conscien- 
tious and industrious, he realized to the full the highest type 
of physician, adviser and public-spirited resident. Doctor 
Frederic Drew's reputation as a surgeon had already become 
widely known in Kansas when he died. He was also regarded 
as a man of well-disciplined, scientific mind, gentle culture, 
kind sympathy and generous heart. 

Among the lawyer graduates from the office of Paul Dilling- 
ham was Columbus F. Clough, son of Thaddeus and Clarissa 
(Morse) Clough, formerly of Stowe, but latterly of Waterbury. 
Thaddeus Clough was a farmer and man of affairs. He served 
as selectman twelve successive years and was town representa- 
tive in the General Assembly in 1836, 1847 and 1848. He died 
November 28, 1883, aged eighty-two years. His wife died 
September 30, 1876, at the age of eighty-four. Columbus, the 
son, was born June 28, 1833. His early life and training was 
much the same as that of his boy companions, — doing farm 
work and attending school. Later he attended Bakersfield 

PERIOD 1 830-1 850 103 

and Morrisville Academies in preparation for college. He was 
dissuaded from pursuing a college course and began his law 
studies in the office of Paul Dillingham. The four years spent 
under the tutelage of so experienced a preceptor fitted him for 
admission to the bar at the age of twenty. He was obliged to 
wait until he attained his majority before applying for admis- 
sion. After being admitted to practice, March 11, 1856, 
Mr. Clough became immersed in business and legal practice 
until he removed to Waitsfield January 26, 1861. Here he 
remained attending to a growing practice in Washington, 
Windsor, Orange, Chittenden and Lamoille Counties, until 
October 17, 1867, when he returned to Waterbury. At differ- 
ent times he was associated in legal partnerships with Judge 
Hiram Carleton and Edwin F. Palmer, Esq. Mr. Clough 
married Persis L. Allen (daughter of Charles S. and Nancy 
Allen, and granddaughter of Deacon Asaph Allen) July 29, 
1861, who now lives in Randall Street, Waterbury. Mr. 
Clough was a painstaking, careful adviser and soon acquired 
prominence as an advocate. He was a man of strong con- 
victions and belonged to the then justly celebrated group of 
Union Democrats. He was accidentally killed by an electric 
car near Mill Village, July 27, 1899. 

It were almost supererogatory to ascribe to the climate and 
environment of Waterbury the great longevity of its residents 
when the same might with equal truth be predicated of every 
other town in Vermont. At all events, Waterbury has not 
derogated from the reputation of the rest of the state in that 
respect. Among the early families, Betsy (Partridge) Car- 
penter, widow of Judge Dan Carpenter, lived to the age of 
93 years; a Mrs. Woodward, to the age of about 95; Elizabeth 
Corlis, 94; Mr. Heaton, 96; D. Stowell, about 92; John Mont- 
gomery, over 85; Enoch Coffran, over 87; Moses Nelson, over 
85; Nancy Frink, 86; Mrs. Daniels, about 97; Henry F. Janes, 
87I ; Mrs. Janes, nearly 82 ; Doctor Henry Janes, over 83 ; John 
Seabury, 87 ; L. Hutchins, about 80. (These ages are taken for 
the most part from Hemenway's History of Washington 
County, p. 871.) At this writing, George W. Randall is 90 
years of age. Governor Paul Dillingham was 92 at the time 
of his death. 



From a population of 1,992 souls in 1840, the growth of 
Waterbury in the decade of 1 840-1 850 was not especially en- 
couraging. The town with a grand list of $5,304.78 showed a 
population of 2,352 in 1850. During the Taylor- Fillmore ad- 
ministration (i 848-1 852), the Anti-Slavery, Free Soil and 
Abolition agitation continued locally as in other towns of the 
state. Business recovered slowly from the stringent period of 
the late 30's. The merchants of the town were Goss & Delano, 
S. C. Hutchins, Stimson & Arms, James Cristy, E. G. Scott 
& Company, J, D. Smith, D. Tarbell & Company, A. Prime, 
W. H. Woodward, J. C. & S. Brown, S. D. Sturtevant. The 
manufacturers were Thompson, Seabury & Blanchard, woolens. 
V. R. Blush, S. S. Spicer, leather. Lucius Parmelee, S. G. 
Howe, E. W. Bates, boots and shoes. Hutchins & Wade, 
starch. A. A. Atherton, Horace Atkins, furniture. C. 
Graves, stoves and tin ware. O. Howe, G. H. Lease, trunks 
and harness. H. W. Wells, A. Hills, G. P. Hills, D. D. Wood- 
man, C. Simmons, wagons and sleighs. D. Stowell, planing 

Mill Village, lying at the lower falls of Thatcher's Branch 
on the Stowe road, derives its name from the early mill sites 
located there. The water power has its source in a succession 
of three falls within a quarter of mile, affording an equal num- 
ber of mill privileges. The first mill is now a flour and feed 
mill, owned by and conducted for the E. T. Seabury estate, 
under the management of W. H. Seabury. There is no 
authentic record showing who the first builder was, but it is 
believed that Isaac Woolson built it in about 1807; a deed 
from him of a mill of its description to Oliver C. Rood, dated in 
1810, is still in existence. William W. Wells bought the prop- 
erty of Dutton and improved it inside and out, remodeling it for 
a flour mill. The chain of title appears to be as follows : Isaac 

8 105 


Woolson to O. C. Rood, 1810; O. C. Rood to Carpenter & 
Eddy, 1826; Carpenter & Eddy to David Dutton and Atkins, 
1827; David Atkins to William W. Wells, 1835; Wells estate 
to John Q. and E. T. Seabury, 1870. In 1857 new model 
waterwheels were installed in place of the huge old twenty- 
four foot over-shot wheel ; these were soon replaced by others. 
Mr. Wells undertook to do a large business in manufacturing 
and dealing in flour and feed without a suitably adapted 
water-power. His successors, J. Q. and E. T. Seabury, ran 
the mill for ten years. J. Q. Seabury then sold his share to 
his brother and went to California, where he died in 1908. 
E. T. Seabury died in 1899, since which time the mill has been 
conducted as above described. The village found it necessary 
to take certain springs for its water supply from the sources of 
the mill stream and thereby lessened its flow. It soon became 
necessary to build a dam for the conservation of the water, to 
replace the water-wheels with others better adapted to small 
streamsand to increase the head by several feet to offset the loss 
of the spring sources ; these improvements were made in 1903. 

The first grist mill in Waterbury is said to have been erected 
by Caleb Munson, the third settler in the town, about fifty 
rods above the Seabury mill and on the opposite side of the 
stream. This mill was destroyed by fire sometime in the 30's. 

I. C. & S. Brown began business, in a small way, in a con- 
fectionery and grocery shop immediately after the advent of 
the railroad in a part of the old Washington House on the old 
site of the present inn. Thereafter they built a store on Park 
Row, which burned in 1857, but was rebuilt. The firm dealt 
largely in flour, food stuff's and produce, and was the first to 
ship fruit from Vermont markets to Montreal. They also 
shipped large consignments of fresh fish there. Sidney Brown 
was a shrewd buyer. On one occasion he cornered the New 
England market for salt salmon. The brothers came from 
Williamstown and began very early to deal in fresh fish, which 
they would freeze and supply to the surrounding markets. 
Apples were bought in standing crops by the buyer for the 
firm — an innovation that compelled the wonder and admira- 
tion of the growers. 

PERIOD 1850-1875 107 

At a town meeting, February 21, 1850, it was voted: 

That the town will surrender to the Lamoille County Plank Road Com- 
pany the present travelled road from Winooski Turnpike, northerly by 
Dea. Parker's, the Methodist Chapel and Silas May's to Stowe; and that 
Harvey Prescott, Henry F. Janes, James Greene, E. S. Newcomb and 
Richard Demeritt be a committee on the part of the town, to agree with 
said Plank Road Co. on the conditions upon which the surrender shall be 
made and that the said agreement when made, reduced to writing and 
recorded, shall be final. 

Final action by the town was not taken until the March 
meeting 1857 when it was voted: 

That this town will pay to the Lamoille County Plank Road Company 
at the end of each year from this date the sum of $450.00 while said Com- 
pany keep their road open for travel on condition and in consideration that 
the inhabitants of this town be allowed to travel except staging and per- 
manent teaming on said road its entire length free of toll and also that said 
Company from year to year keep the town harmless from damages for 
want of repair and further that they repay to those who have purchased 
passes for 1857 in proportion for the unpaid (unused?) time of said passes* 

At the March (5th) meeting in 1850 it was voted "that the 
selectmen be instructed to take charge of the liquor business- 
and procure pure liquor and employ an agent to sell the same 
at a low price, if the state vote is ' no licence' this year." This 
Utopian state of affairs could not last; in the first place, the 
vote raised an unexpected difficulty regarding the necessary 
qualifications of selectmen. Doubtless, the Doctor Wileys of 
the day would have scouted the very possibility of a select- 
man's knowing pure from impure liquor whatever he might 
know about low prices; added to this, there was the growing 
Washingtonian temperance influence everywhere throughout 
the state. So it was that all previous experiments in dealing 
with the liquor traffic were merged in the operation of the 
modified Maine Prohibitory Law which was enacted in 1853. 

Owing to the pronounced anti-slavery sentiment in Water- 
bury, the election of Franklin Pierce to the Presidency and his 
administration were distinctly unpopular. Brave, indeed, 
would that protagonist have been who dared to point out the 
disinterested character of President Pierce's public service. 
There were those who suspected the motives of a man who 


not only resigned from the United States Senate but declined 
an appointment to fill a vacancy in that body, declined the 
nomination as governor of New Hampshire, declined an 
appointment as attorney-general of the United States, the 
Secretaryship of War and accepted, under protest, the nomina- 
tion of the Baltimore Convention for the Presidency. Water- 
bury, however, even in those days of smoldering political ani- 
mosities, was not without her heroes of peace who were willing 
to lend their support to the administration and, incidentally, 
enjoy the usual emoluments. 

After President Pierce had become fairly settled in the 
White House, the burning question in Waterbury was that 
relating to the probable successor of Rufus C. Smith as post- 
master. Among the ardent Democrats of the town was O. C. 
Howard. The popular proprietor of the Washington Hotel, 
Mr. Howard boasted a wide acquaintance with all sorts and 
conditions of men; in fact, he had repeatedly qualified as a 
charter member of the " I-Knew-Him-When" Club. Mr. 
Howard claimed a close acquaintance with President Pierce 
and told tales of how he and "Frank" Pierce used to take 
fishing and other excursions in New Hampshire, long before 
General Pierce had become a figure in national life. So great 
was Mr. Howard's admiration of the President that he caused 
the walls of his hotel rooms to be decorated profusely with 
portraits of his distinguished friend and, by this means, inci- 
dentally he himself appeared by a reflected light. 

To those interested in securing the influence of some local 
person with the appointive power in Washington, Howard 
appeared as a god-send; here, obviously, was the very man. 
Accordingly Mr. Howard made the trip, nothing loath to 
renew his acquaintance and intimacy with the Chief Execu- 
tive and, quite casually, prefer his modest request. Upon 
arrival in the Presence, to his incredulous dismay and hopeless 
mortification, President Pierce not only failed to recognize 
him but declined to recall the fishing and other excursions 
cherished in memory so dearly by Mr. Howard. Returning 
home mortified and chagrined, Mr. Howard ripped the Pierce 
portraits from the walls of his hotel and, walking to the head 

PERIOD 1850-1875 109 

of the cellar staircase, kicked each picture into the cellar, in a 
frenzy of righteous indignation. Thomas B. Scagel was made 

Waterbury has not been able to boast many latter day 
Democrats of prominence. In the case of Joseph Warren, 
born in Waterbury, July 24, 1829, it must be said that he left 
his native town before taking up his life work as a journalist. 
Mr. Warren was graduated at the University of Vermont with 
the class of 1851 ; going to Albany, he became assistant editor 
of the Country Gentleman, a widely-read publication of high 
class. As early as 1853 he became associate editor of the 
Buffalo Courier. Five years later he became editor-in-chief 
and continued in that capacity until his death. Mr. W'arren 
succeeded that old Democratic war horse. Dean Richmond, 
as leader of the Erie County Democracy in New York. He 
was on the board of managers and chairman of the Executive 
Committee of the State Asylum for the insane, a member of 
the Board of State Normal School Trustees, a projector of the 
Buffalo Fine Arts Academy, a president of the BulTalo 
Y. M. C. A., member of the Council of Buffalo Medical School, 
president of the New York State Associated Press, and a 
member of Ancient Landmark Lodge of Masons. He left a 
wife and son. 

It would be poor requital to Reverend Charles Carroll 
Parker, to whom we are indebted for his interesting historical 
address on Waterbury, even to seem to minimize his proper 
place in these pages. He it was who first urged the erection 
of a suitable monument as a memorial to the soldier dead of 
Waterbury. That this plan was not carried out until many 
years after Mr. Parker's death long remained a matter of 
keen regret, though the omission has since been nobly re- 
paired. Mr. Parker was born in Underbill, September 26, 
1814, the son of Edmond and Hepzibah (Curtis) Parker. His 
early life was much the same as that of all farmers' boys, 
working on the farm and attending school during the winter 
and spring until he attained to eighteen years of age. At 
nineteen he began a long period of school teaching; for eight 
successive winters his work was that of a country school 


teacher. He prepared for college at Jericho Academy, Brad- 
ford Academy, and under the private tutelage of Reverend 
Samuel Kingsbury in Underhill. 

After a four years' course at the University of Vermont, 
during which Mr. Parker received no pecuniary aid from 
sources other than his own efforts, he was graduated in 1841, 
taught in the boys' high school of Burlington two years, 
entered Union Theological Seminary, New York, in the 
autumn of 1843, and taught the following year in Burlington. 
He acted as financial agent of the University until 1847; 
resumed the study of theology, and was ordained in Tinmouth 
in 1848. 

Coming to Waterbury upon an invitation to preach, in the 
spring of 1853, he gave up his connection with the Tinmouth 
church and was installed as pastor of the Congregational 
Church in Waterbury, June 7, 1854. In the autumn of 1866 
he was elected principal of the Ladies' Seminary in Gorham, 
Maine, and left Waterbury to take up his duties there. Mr. 
Parker's historical address on Waterbury was delivered Feb- 
ruary 10, 1867, within a month after his dismissal by the local 
Congregational Council. 

After preaching three years in the Congregational Church 
in Gorham, Maine, he labored as a pastor successively in the 
Congregational Church in Orient, Long Island, and the Presby- 
terian Church in Passippamy, New Jersey. Mr. Parker was 
married, November 28, 1844, to Elizabeth McNiel Fleming of 
Burlington, and by her had one son and three daughters. He 
died at Passippamy, New Jersey, February 15, 1880. 

Mr. Parker's name will always be held in grateful remem- 
brance not only for the intelligent service he rendered his 
townsmen in the preparation of his historical address but for 
many other acts flowing from his all-embracing public spirit. 
Official notice was taken of Mr. Parker's recommendations 
regarding a soldiers' monument in the following way: At 
the March (5th) town meeting in 1867, a vote of thanks was 
given Reverend C. C. Parker "for his able remarks favoring 
the erection of a soldiers' monument in this town," and also 
it was voted "to perpetuate the sentiments contained in the 

PERIOD 1850-1875 III 

remarks of Reverend C. C. Parker favoring the erection of a 
soldiers' monument." Beyond this formal official action 
nothing was done toward carrying out the long cherished 
project until Mr. Franklin Sylvester Henry of Cleveland, Ohio, 
infused new life into the plan and, by his own personal interest 
and munificence, accomplished in 1914 what was first proposed 
in 1867. 

A political rally in the Fremont campaign was held in the 
large hall of the Washington House, at which the new Repub- 
lican doctrines were expounded. Many who had been Demo- 
crats were present; among the speakers were Luther Henry, 
Esq., and E. P. Walton of Montpelier, candidate for Con- 

If Franklin Pierce's election were received in Waterbury 
with mistrust and foreboding, James Buchanan's choice as 
President aroused bitter enmity. His non-coercive policy was 
regarded as little short of treason. To one reading Buchanan's 
messages and protests of the last year of his administration it 
is apparent that, though he stood with his back to the wall 
and buttressed by the decisions of the United States Supreme 
Court regarding powers of a territorial legislature, yet popular 
clamor and factional resentments were too strong for him on 
the question of the right of the Southern States to secede. 
Waterbury was no exception regarding this attitude. 

The convenience of the voters at the March meetings had 
not received the attention so important a matter as the sub- 
ject demanded. Farmers residing at the farthest removed 
point from the "Street" and Center had been obliged to drive, 
ride horseback or walk to the single polling place at the Center 
each year in order to record their wishes and preferences at 
town and freemen's meetings. It may be said that this duty 
for the most part was uncomplainingly performed in all kinds of 
weather and under all kinds of difficulties in the way of bad 
roads and inadequate transportation. The same spirit might 
well prod our latter day electorate into a similar sense of public 
obligation. With this matter of convenience in view at the 
March meeting in 1859 it was voted : " That the town and free- 
men's meetings be hereafter held alternately at the Street 


and at the Center — that is, one year at the Street and one 
year at the Center, commencing at the Street at our next 
March meeting." At a town meeting. May 14, i860, it was 
voted: "To instruct the selectmen to act in conjunction with 
the selectmen of the town of Duxbury in building and estab- 
lishing a good and substantial Arch Bridge across Onion River 
(at the south end of the public highway on H. F. Janes' land), 
provided that the town of Waterbury shall be subject and 
obliged to pay only five hundred dollars for building said 
bridge and for the land damage of Albert Stern." 

The decade of 1 850-1 860 marked no changes of importance 
in the business life of the town. The merchants in 1859 were: 
J. G. Stimson, C. N. Arms, Leland & Ashley, dry goods and 
groceries. I. C. & L. Brown, D. M. Knights, O. A. & C. C. 
Morse, groceries. W. W. Wells, flour and grain. C. & J. S. 
Graves, hardware, stoves, etc. J. F. Henry, drugs. D. E. 
Lucy, jeweller. J. M. Henry & Sons, wholesale patent medi- 
cines. Miss J. M. Cooke, millinery, Waterbury Village. 
W. W. Wells, Woodworth & Lyon, dry goods and groceries, 
Waterbury Center. Manufacturers: Thompson and Seabury, 
woolens. V. R. Blush, Henry Kneeland, leather. Hewett & 
Jones, stoves and hollow ware. James Crossett, lumber. 
M. W. Shirtliff, clapboards. E. W. Ladd, marble. Daniel 
Stowell, T. P. Glover, machinists. J. G. & E. A. Colby, 
machine shop, willow peeling machines and willow ware. 
J. M. Henry & Sons, Down's Elixir. There were five lawyers, 
four physicians, one dentist and six clergymen in the village 
and Center. 

The daily village life was outwardly serene and undisturbed, 
but a slowly growing undercurrent of anxiety was felt among 
the groups of friendly disputants in the "old corner store" 
and other places where the townsmen gathered to talk over 
the ever- widening breach between the North and the South. 
It was as if the first faint, distant premonitions of what Water- 
bury would so soon be called upon to undergo were becoming 
gradually insistent. Nor was this anxiety allayed by the 
Buchanan administration. The Lincoln-Douglas debates 
had been eagerly followed by the people of Waterbury and 

PERIOD 1850-1875 113 

gave rise to minor local schisms as the grave issues of the day 
were unfolded. And so the decade ended, while the thought- 
ful were gravely considering the signs of the times and the 
wise-acres, no less in evidence then than now, were vociferously 
predicting disaster. 

A resume of Waterbury's vote at Freeman's meetings will 
indicate the revulsion of feeling from the comparatively indif- 
ferent Whig attitude to the solidified Republican or new party 

In 1852 at the September meeting, Governor John S. Robin- 
son received 135 votes in Waterbury; Erastus Fairbanks re- 
ceived 106, and Laurence Brainard the same number. The 
presidential electoral vote in November of that year gave the 
Franklin Pierce electors, in Waterbury, 66 as against Winfield 
Scott's Whig electors' 92, and this in spite of Pierce's unpopu- 
larity. A third set of electors received each, 55. 

In 1853 Governor Robinson succeeded himself, receiving 
locally 217 votes, to Erastus Fairbanks' 105 and L. Brainard's 


In 1854 Governor Stephen Royce received 191 votes, as 

against Merritt Clark's 129. 

In 1855 Governor Royce succeeded himself, receiving Water- 
bury's 238 votes, to Merritt Clark's 158. 

In 1856 Governor Ryland Fletcher had 260 votes locally, 
to Henry Keyes' 125. At the November meeting, 1856, the 
Fremont Republican presidential electors received each 289, 
as against 113 for the Democratic group representing the 
local strength of James Buchanan, the successful Democratic 

In 1857 Governor Ryland Fletcher received 210 votes, to 
Henry Keyes' 121. 

In 1858 and 1859 there are apparently no records in the town 
clerk's office of the gubernatorial votes of those years. 

With the approach of the spring of i860 the Anti-Slavery 
sentiment had become so strong that the nomination of Abra- 
ham Lincoln in May and his election in November caused dark 
forebodings among the more radical of the Abolitionists in 
Waterbury and the surrounding towns. They remembered 


that Mr. Lincoln had declared: "I have no purpose, directly 
or indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery in the 
states where it exists. I believe I have no lawful right to 
do so, and I have no inclination to do so." This was not at all 
to the taste of those who had been fed up with William Lloyd 
Garrison's propaganda — and there were many such in this 
town and Washington County. 

It is hardly possible at this day to give an adequate idea of 
how high party feeling ran among Waterbury's 2,198 souls 
during the early part of Lincoln's first administration. In 
some instances the radical Abolitionists were even louder in 
their denunciation of the President than the Democrats. 
When the first company of troops was about to leave Waits- 
field for the front, a certain Abolitionist Lincoln-hater was 
ridden on a rail by the boys of the company. Realizing that 
the state of public feeling at the time precluded any form of 
substantial legal redress, he waited until the war was over and 
then sued the captain of the offending company and recov- 
ered damages in $700. In the old "corner store" in Water- 
bury a merchant became involved in a wrangle with a com- 
mercial traveler, in which the merchant made some slighting 
reference to the President. He was promptly knocked down 
by the irate drummer. Being a very dignified man he con- 
sulted with a friend about seeking legal redress for the assault. 
His friend advised him to do nothing because it would be 
impossible to find an unprejudiced jury in the community at 
that time. He saw the reason and swallowed the afifront. 

The first call for troops by the President was for 75,000 
militia of the several states to suppress the combinations 
against the execution of the laws of the United States in South 
Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana 
and Texas. This call was made in the form of a proclamation, 
dated April 15, 1861, in which Congress was called to convene 
in special session July 4, "then and there to consider and 
determine such measures as, in their wisdom, the public safety 
and interest may seem to demand." How promptly Water- 
bury responded to the call for troops may be gathered from the 
fact that a company was recruited and drills were begun in the 

PERIOD 1 850-1 875 115 

early days of May. This was one of the ten companies se- 
lected by Adjutant-General Baxter to make up the Second 
Regiment, the first of the three years regiments. This first 
move at raising troops in Waterbury was made by Captain 
Charles Dillingham, afterwards lieutenant-colonel of the 
Eighth Vermont. Through his efforts the first company was 
raised and drilled which should have been Company A, 
by reason of its priority, but which went out as Company 
D in the Second Vermont Regiment of Infantry, owing to 
delay in the adjustment of the minutiae of the official national 
muster. The ten companies comprising the Second Regiment 
were recruited from the towns of Bennington, Brattleboro, 
Burlington, Castleton, Fletcher, Ludlow, Montpelier, Tun- 
bridge, Vergennes and Waterbury. The history of this famous 
regiment makes stirring reading, taking part, as it did, in 
twenty-eight engagements from Bull Run, July 21, 1861, to 
Sailor's Creek, April 6, 1865, inclusive. 

Mr. Franklin Carpenter, a mere lad of between fifteen and 
sixteen years when the war broke out, relates how, after 
obtaining the consent of his parents, he enlisted as a drummer 
with Company D. Drills were had first in Waterbury, then 
for a short time in Northfield and finally at the mobilization 
camp in Burlington, known as "Camp Underwood" on the 
old fair ground. Here the oath of allegiance was administered 
to the troops by United States District Judge Smalley. One 
unfortunate recruit declined to take the oath at the last minute 
and was given a taste of military sentiment in the practical 
form of being drummed out of camp. From Burlington the 
regiments were transported to Washington with stops in Troy, 
New York, and New York City. On the 26th of June the 
regiment went into camp on Capitol Hill, Washington, where 
it remained two weeks occupied in daily drills. 

Mr. Carpenter recalls the impressions made on his youthful 
mind by the magnificent appearance of the New York Zouaves 
under Colonel Ellsworth at Alexandria, Virginia, where the 
Vermont Second was quartered at Bush Hill. The aggregate 
number of officers and men, including gains in recruits of the 
Second Regiment, was 1,858; there were killed in action, 4 


officers and 134 enlisted men; of those dying of wounds there 
were 2 officers and 80 enlisted men ; deaths from disease were 
139; deaths in Confederate prisons, not of wounds, were 22, 
and deaths from accidents were 3. 

The history of the various Vermont regiments in which 
Waterbury was represented has already been written with such 
telling force as might well be inspired by the deeds the histo- 
rian chronicled. The list of officers and men who entered the 
service as from Waterbury numbers approximately 250. These 
were divided up among the Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth, 
Sixth, Seventh, Eighth, Ninth, Tenth, Thirteenth, Fifteenth 
and Seventeenth Regiments of Infantry, also C Cavalry. As 
we shall see, there were more Waterburyites in the Second, 
Tenth, Thirteenth and Seventeenth Regiments than in the 
others named. The number of engagements in which the 
Third Regiment had honorable part between Lewinsville, Sep- 
tember II, 1861, and Petersburg, April 2, 1865, were twenty- 
eight — with two exceptions the same battles in which the Sec- 
ond Regiment was also engaged. This is true also of the Fourth 
Regiment, the Fifth Regiment and the Sixth Regiment. The 
Seventh Regiment's list of engagements included Siege of 
Vicksburg, Baton Rouge, Gonzales Station, Mobile, Spanish 
Fort, and Whistler. The Eighth's list numbered eleven 
between the occupation of New Orleans, May, 1862, and 
Newtown, November 12, 1864. The list of the Ninth's battles 
included Harper's Ferry, September 13, 1862; Newport Bar- 
racks, Chapin's Farm, Fair Oaks and Fall of Richmond, April 
3, 1865. The Tenth Regiment was made up of companies 
recruited in Bradford, Burlington, Waterbury, Rutland, 
Swanton, St. Albans, Derby Line, and Ludlow. Company 
B was from Waterbury and was organized August 4, 1862, by 
Captain Edwin DiUingham. 

As a spur to the gaining of recruits, large bounties were 
personally pledged by private individuals and premiums 
offered of $2.00 per capita of recruits by the general govern- 
ment to recruiting officers. By the first of September, 1862, 
the Tenth Regiment of 1,016 officers and men was mustered 
into service in the camp at Brattleboro. Several of the 

PERIOD 1850-1875 117 

officers had already seen service, notably Colonel Jewett, who 
had previously served as first lieutenant with the First Regi- 
ment, Major William W. Henry, who had been lieutenant of 
Company D, Second Regiment, and Surgeon Child of the 
First Regiment. From the time when the Regiment went into 
its first engagement (Orange Grove, November 2"], 1863) until 
it emerged from its last (Sailor's Creek, August 6, 1865), its 
record was unvarying as to its readiness, courage and efficiency. 
The esprit de corps remained intact throughout the inevitable 
epidemic of regimental politics. The total deaths of the 
regiment, including those killed in action (83), those who died 
of wounds (58), who died of disease (153), those who died in 
Confederate prisons (38) and deaths by accident (2), were 332. 

The Battle of the Opequon on the 19th of September will 
long remain in the memory of loyal sons of Waterbury as the 
historic engagement in which the brilliant, gallant young 
Major Edwin Dillingham was struck by a solid shot and killed. 

The Battle of Cedar Creek on the 19th of October was a 
decisive engagement in which Colonel William W. Henry, 
though hardly convalescent from a sharp illness, was in com- 
mand. At the critical point in the ebbing and flowing of 
advantage to the Union forces, and when, hardly pressed 
along the whole line, they began to retreat slowly, exposed to a 
cross-fire of musketry and artillery, Captain Lucien D. Thomp- 
son of Waterbury was killed. Captain Thompson assisted 
Major DiHingham in the recruiting of Company B. In 
December, 1862, he was promoted to a first lieutenancy in 
Company G. He was reserved and retiring and his almost 
painful modesty made him hesitate to accept promotion, but 
it came when he was made captain of Company D, after a 
baptism of fire in a dozen battles. His body was allowed to 
remain on the battlefield for several hours and when found it 
had been partially stripped by the enemy. It was brought to 
Waterbury for burial. Speaking of the morale of the regiment 
in this battle, Colonel Henry says in his report: " It is impossi- 
ble to particularize any officers or men, where all so fully per- 
formed their duty and behaved so nobly." 

The Seventeenth Regiment, although the last recruited in 


Vermont and necessarily having the briefest history in point 
of time, nevertheless crowded into its eleven months of active 
service in the field 13 fiercely fought battles, in which of the 
aggregate of 1,118 officers and men, 70 were killed in action; 
61 died of wounds; 57 died of disease; 279 total wounded, and 
32 died in Confederate prisons. Of the twenty-two men from 
Waterbury in the Seventeenth Regiment two were commis- 
sioned officers, Second Lieutenant J. Edwin Henry of Com- 
pany K, and Second Lieutenant Wilbur E. Henry of Com- 
pany K. In the final assault on Petersburg, April 2, 1865, 
the regiment had about three hundred men in line in com- 
mand of Major Knapp. It made a first assault on the works 
at the right of Fort Mahone but was compelled to fall back 
to the rifle pits. Rallying for the second time the regiment 
advanced to a second assault. During this battle, which was 
the last the regiment was to engage in. Second Lieutenant 
J. Edwin Henry of Waterbury was killed. He was a brother 
of General William W. Henry and is described in these words 
by the historian, Benedict: "Though a youth of but nineteen 
years, he had already shown himself to be a capable and gal- 
lant officer. " His body was brought back to Waterbury and 
buried April 30, 1865. 

The Waterbury contingent in the single cavalry regiment 
from Vermont appears to have numbered less than a dozen 
men. The history of the regiment shows that it comprised 
from the beginning to the last 2,297 officers and men and was 
raised under the direct authority of the United States, instead 
of being recruited under the state authorities. Company C 
was recruited in Washington County and was captained by 
William Wells whose genius as a cavalry commander was 
afterwards extolled by such chieftains as General Sheridan 
and General Custer. The number of killed in the regiments' 
seventy-five engagements were 63 officers and men; those 
dying of wounds were 39; those dying of disease were 112; 
those dying unwounded in Confederate prisons were approxi- 
mately 130. The regiment averaged participation in two 
engagements each month between Mount Jackson, April 16, 
1862, and Appomattox Court House, April 9, 1865, inclusive. 

PERIOD 1850-1875 119 

The rapid rise to promotion and distinction of Captain William 
Wells will be noted later in a brief sketch of that intrepid leader. 
Time has softened many asperities and mellowed many a 
disposition to criticise and find fault. If President Lincoln 
found it in his heart to make allowances for dereliction in 
military duty and to intercede for unfortunate offenders, 
it ill becomes us at this late day, without any knowledge of the 
merits of each case, to condemn those Waterbury soldiers 
whose shortcomings have been officially recorded. "There 
was glory enough to go 'round, " as Admiral Schley said of the 
naval battle of Santiago in 1898. The frailties of the brave 
men who went from Waterbury have been bathed in the lustre 
of their achievements as a whole. A far abler panegyrist has 
eloquently spoken on Waterbury 's soldiers in the language of 
affectionate regard that can be commanded only by one having 
had intimate and neighborly association with them. Indeed, 
when all is said, the Memorial Day offering of May 30, 1914. 
will stand as a masterpiece in that regard. 

List of Commissioned Officers 

Brevet Major-General William Wells, age twenty-three, 
C Cavalry. (Com. ist Lieut. Co. C, Oct. 14, '61; Capt., 
Nov. 18, '61; Maj., Oct. 30, '62; Col., June 4, '64; Bvt. Brig. 
Gen., Feb. 22, '65; Brig. Gen., May 19, '65; Bvt. Maj Gen.; 
wounded, July 6, '62; Sept. 13, '63.) 

Brevet Brigadier-General William W. Henry, age thirty. 
Company D, Second Regiment. (Com. 1st Lieut., May 22, 
'61; Maj. loth, Aug. 26, '62; Lieut. Col., Oct. 17, '62; Col., 
April 26, '64; Bvt. Brig. Gen., March 9, '65; wounded, Cold 
Harbor, May, '64; res. Dec. 17, '64.) 

Colonel Henry Janes, Surgeon, age twenty-nine. (Com. 
surg. 3rd, June 24, '61; Surg. U. S. V., March 26, '63; Bvt. 
Lieut. Col. U. S. V., March 13, '65.) 

Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Dillingham, age twenty-four. 
Company D, Second Regiment. (Com. Capt., May 21, '61; 
Maj. 8th, Jan. 18, '62; Lieut. Col., Dec. 24, '62; res. Dec. 12, 
'63.) ^ 

Major Edwin Dillingham, age twenty-two, Company B, 


Tenth Regiment. (Com. Capt., Aug. 4, '62; Maj., June 17, 
'64; killed in service at Winchester, or Opequon, Sept. 19, '64.) 

Major Frederic P. Drew, Surgeon. (Died in service.) 

Major James B. Woodward, Surgeon. 

Captain George H. Carpenter. 

Captain Lucien D. Thompson, age thirty-one, Company 
B, Tenth Regiment. (Com. 2nd Lieut., Aug. 4, '62; ist 
Lieut. Co. G, Dec. 27, '62; Capt. Co. D, June 17, '64; killed 
at Cedar Creek, Oct. 19, '64.) 

First Lieutenant Charles E. Bancroft, age thirty-two, 
Company I, Thirteenth Regiment. (Com. 1st Lieut., Sept. 
23, '62; res. Jan. 8, '63.) 

First Lieutenant Mason Humphrey, Company — , N. H. 
Fifth Regiment. (Killed at Cold Harbor, June, '64.) 

First Lieutenant Don D. Stone. (Died in service.) 

Second Lieutenant Justin Carter, age twenty-three, Com- 
pany B, Tenth Regiment. (Com. 2nd Lieut., Jan. '63; res. 
Feb. 4, '64.) 

Second Lieutenant Charles G. Gregg, age twenty-one, 
Company D, Second Regiment. (Com. 2nd Lieut., May 21, 

Second Lieutenant J. Edwin Henry, age nineteen. Company 
K, Seventeenth Regiment. (Com. 2nd Lieut., Sept. 22, '64; 
killed at Petersburg, April 2, '65.) 

Second Lieutenant Wilbur E. Henry, age twenty. Company 
K, Seventeenth Regiment. (Prom. 2nd Lieut., July 2, '65.) 

List of Non-Commissioned Officers 

Asa C. Atherton, age twenty-four. Company I, Thirteenth 
Regiment. (Serg.; dis. Jan. 15, '63.) 

Quincy A. Green, Company B, Tenth Regiment. (Wounded, 
Cold Harbor; prom, serg., April ii, '65.) 

Charles C. Guptil, age twenty-one. Company I, Thirteenth 
Regiment. (Reenlisted 3rd, Bat. serg.; red. Sept. i, '64; 
prom. Corp., Oct. i, '64.) 

Thomas Brudenell, age eighteen. Company I, Ninth Regi- 
ment. (Corp.; red.) 

George Center, age twenty-four. Company D, Second Regi- 

PERIOD 1 850-1875 121 

ment. (Corp.; wounded at Fredericsburg; transferred to 
invalid corps.) 

Augustus L. Fisher, age twenty-two, Company I, Thirteenth 
Regiment. (Corp.) 

Warren C. Oilman, age twenty-nine. Company D, Second 
Regiment. (Corp.) 

Darius A. Gray, age twenty-one. Company E, Sixth Regi- 
ment. (Drafted; corp.) 

Allen Greeley, age twenty. Company B, Tenth Regiment. 
(Corp.; wounded at Cold Harbor; died in service July i, '64.) 

Hugh H. Griswold, age nineteen. Company I, Thirteenth 
Regiment. (Corp. red.; prom, serg.; reenlisted Co. E, 17th 
Reg't.; serg.) 

Lorenzo B. Gubtil, age twenty- two, Company I, Thirteenth 
Regiment. (Reenlisted Co. K, 17th Reg't.) 

Frank Hart, age eighteen, Company D, Second Regiment. 
(Reenlisted April 19, '64; corp.) 

Willis G. Hawley. (Corp.) 

Daniel J. Hill, age thirty-one, Cavalry C. (Serg.; wounded 
at Gettysburg; transferred to invalid corps.) 

Pliny H. Moffitt, age twenty-one, C Cavalry. (Reenlisted 
Dec. 28, '63; prom, serg., Nov. 19, '64; prom. com. serg., Jan. 
21, '65; transferred to D.) 

Henry G. Phillips, age twenty-six, C Cavalry. (Serg. red.; 
prom, serg.) 

Charles O. Humphrey, age twenty-three. Company I, 
Thirteenth Regiment. (Corp.) 

Charles B. Lee, age twenty-three. Company B, Tenth Regi- 
ment. (Corp.; died in service in 1863.) 

Henry L. Marshall, age twenty-four, Company B, Tenth 
Regiment. (Corp.; wounded, Cold Harbor, June i, '64.) 

James W. Marshall, age thirty-five, Company I, Thirteenth 
Regiment. (Corp.) 

Tabor H. Parcher, age twenty-four, Company B, Tenth 
Regiment. (Corp. ; dis. July 6, '64.) 

Edwin Parker, age eighteen, Company B, Tenth Regiment. 


Edward N. Phelps, age twenty-two, Company I, Ninth 
Regiment. (Corp. red.; transferred to veteran corps.) 

Tilton C. Sleeper. (Corp.) 

Sidney H. Woodward, age eighteen, Company B, Tenth 
Regiment. (Wounded, Cold Harbor, June, i, '65; prom. 
Corp., April 3, '63.) 

List of Privates 

Charles Arms. 

Eli Ashley, age twenty-four. Company I, Ninth Regiment. 

Alfred Y. Ayers, age nineteen. Company D, Tenth Regiment. 
(Prisoner, June 12, '64; died at Salisbury.) 

Asa C. Atherton, age twenty-four. Company I, Thirteenth 
Regiment. (Serg.; dis. Jan. 15, '63.) 

Dennis A. Bickford, age eighteen. Company A, Eighth 
Regiment. (Died in service, Oct. 6, '62.) 

Hiram R. Bickford, age forty, Company D, Tenth Regi- 

Riley M. Bickford, age twenty-four. Company D, Second 

Dennis Bissonnette, age thirty, Company K, Seventeenth 
Regiment. (Wounded.) 

Alonzo Bragg, age twenty-six, Company B, Tenth Regi- 

Edmond C. Bragg, age twenty-two. Company G, Second 
Regiment. (Killed at Cold Harbor, June 3, '64.) 

James Bragg, age twenty-eight, Company G, Second Regi- 

James Briggs, age forty, Company B, Tenth Regiment. 
(Dis. May 15, '65.) 

Consider W. Brink, age twenty-six. Company I, Thirteenth 

William F. Brink, age twenty, Company D, Second Regi- 
ment. (Reenlisted Dec. 21, '63.) 

Carmichael A. Brown. 

Christopher B. Brown, age twenty-two, Company D, 
Second Regiment. 

George Brown, age thirty-eight, Company B, Tenth Regi- 
ment. (Died in Anderson ville, July 26, '64.) 

PERIOD 1850-1875 123 

George W. Brown, age twenty-eight, Cavalry C. 

Haverhill S. Burleigh, age thirty-nine, Company B, Tenth 
Regiment. (Died of wounds at Cold Harbor, June 20, '64.) 

Henry B. Burleigh. Killed.) 

Martin Cane, age eighteen, Company B, Tenth Regiment. 
(Died in service at Danville, Jan. 29, '65.) 

Oscar Camp, age twenty-eight, Company G, Eighth Regi- 

William C. Canning. 

Franklin Carpenter, age seventeen. Company D, Second 

Michael Carr, age eighteen. Cavalry C. (Reenlisted Dec. 
28, ^63.) 

Patrick Carver, age twenty, Company D, Fifth Regiment. 

Ransom Chaffee, age twenty-five, Company A, Second 
Regiment. (Drafted.) 

Amos C. Chase, age forty-four, Company C, Seventeenth 
Regiment. (Lost arm at Weldon R. R., Sept. 30, '64.) 

Cassius G. Chesley. 

William Clark. 

Charles N. Collins, age sixteen. Company D, Second Regi- 
ment. (Died in service, Dec. 17, '61.) 

Ezra W. Conant, age nineteen. Company B, Tenth Regi- 
ment. (Wounded, Nov. 27, '63.) 

Joseph B. Conant, age twenty-one, Company C, Fifteenth 
Regiment. (Died in service, April 12, '63.) 

George Colby, age nineteen. Company D, Second Regiment. 
(Corp.; reenlisted Dec. 21, '63; wounded; dis. Feb. 5, '65.) 

James Crawford, age twenty-two. Company I, Thirteenth 

S. Evander Cree, age twenty-one. Company I, Thirteenth 

Edwin C. Crossett, age eighteen. Company B, Tenth Regi- 

Willis H. Crossett, age eighteen, Company B, Tenth Regi- 
ment. (Wounded; reenlisted in Regulars.) 

Daniel Dalley, Company B, Tenth Regiment. (Transferred 
to D.) 


Edwin H. Dana, age thirty- two, Company B, Tenth Regi- 
ment. (Wounded, Nov. 31, '64.) 

Oliver W. Davis, age twenty-eight, Company C, Fifteenth 

Albert Deline, age twenty-five, Company 13, Second Regi- 

John Deline, age twenty-five, Company E, Seventh Regi- 
ment. (Dis. Oct. 15, '62.) 

Joseph H. Demeritt, age twenty-one, Company I, Thir- 
teenth Regiment. 

Harper A. Demmon, age forty-two, Company I, Thirteenth 
Regiment. (Transferred to C, Oct. 11, '62.) 
Henry B. Demmon. 

Henry Dillingham, Company E, Seventeenth Regiment. 
(Died in service, July 13, '64.) 

Richard D. Dodge, age forty, Company K, Seventeenth 

Alba D. Dutton. 

Thomas F. Dwyer, age thirty, Company B, Tenth Regi- 

Wilber Foster, age twenty-one. Company D, Second Regi- 
ment. (Dis. Oct. 20, '62.) 

Patrick Flaherty, age thirty-four. Company D, Second 
Regiment. (Dis. Dec. 18, '62.) 

Joseph O. Freeman, age twenty-one. Company B, Tenth 
Regiment. (Wounded, July 9, '64.) 

Daniel N. French, age twenty-eight, Company I, Thirteenth 

Henry E. French. 

Martin E. French, Company I, Thirteenth Regiment. 

Joseph Gabaree, age thirty-three, Company K, Seventeenth 
George Gale. 
Benjamin Gagnon. 

Isaac Godfrey, age twenty-two, Company B, Tenth Regi- 

Jacob Godfrey, age nineteen. Company B, Tenth Regiment. 

PERIOD 1850-1875 125 

Lyman Godfrey, age twenty-five, Company C, Fifteenth 
Regiment. (Reenlisted in Co. C, 17th Reg't; died in service, 
Salisbury, Oct. 2, '64.) 

Nobles Godfrey, age twenty-five. Company C, Seventeenth 

Timothy C. Godfrey, age thirty-one, Company D, Second 
Regiment. (Dis. June 2, '62.) 

William Goodwin, age thirty-four. Company K, Seventeenth 

Hamilton Glines, age forty, Company B, Tenth Regiment. 
(Wounded, Cold Harbor, Va.; died in service, June 18, '64.) 

Ira S. Gray, age twenty-four, Company D, Fifth Regiment. 
(Killed, Savage Station, June 29, '62.) 

Milo K. Gray, age twenty-two, Company I, Thirteenth 

Charles Greeley. 

Almon D. Grififin, first S. S. F. Music. 

Horace M. Grifhth, age eighteen, Company K, Seventeenth 

Emery Guptil, age eighteen. Company D, Fifth Regiment. 
(Reenlisted ; wounded.) 

Edmund Guinan, Third Battery. 

George Hakey, age eighteen. Company K, Seventeenth 

William Hall, age twenty-six, Company D, Second Regi- 

Isaac Harris, Jr., age thirty- five. Company C, Fifteenth 
Regiment. (Dis. June 19, '63.) 

Leonard Hart, Company C, Fifteenth Regiment. 

Alonzo Hart, age thirty-seven, Company D, Second Regi- 

Frederic A. Hart, age twenty- five, Company D, Second Regi- 

Benjamin L. Hawley, age twenty-two, Company H, Seven- 
teenth Regiment. 

Franklin S. Henry, age twenty, Company K, Seventeenth 


George S. Henry, age nineteen, Company K, Seventeenth 

Martin L. Henry, age nineteen. Cavalry C. (Reenlisted, 
4th Hancock Corps.) 

Franklin J. Hill 

George W. Hill, age forty-four, Company G, Fourth Regi- 
ment. (Dis. June 3, '62.) 

Martin Hogan. 

James O. Hovey, age twenty. Company D, Second Regi- 
ment. (Reenlisted Dec. 21, '63.) 

George Hubbard, age twenty-two. Company D, Second 
Regiment. (Reenlisted Jan. i, '63; killed, Spottsylvania, 
May 12, '64.) 

Robert Hunkins, age twenty-two, Company D, Second 
Regiment. (Reenlisted Jan. 31, '63; killed. Wilderness, May 

5. '64.) 

Frank Huntley, age eighteen. Company D, Second Regi- 

Charles A. Hutchins, Company E, Seventeenth Regiment. 
(Reenlisted Feb. 15, '64.) 

Henry D. Hutchins, Company D, Second Regiment. 

William H. Hutchins, age nineteen, Company K, Seven- 
teenth Regiment. 

Andrew Jackson. 

John Jerome, age thirty-two. Company B, Tenth Regiment. 
(Dis. April 16, '63; reenlisted Co. K, 17th Reg't.) 

Allen Jewitt, age eighteen. Company G, Fourth Regiment. 
(Dis. March 2, '62.) 

Cornelius Jocko. 

Marcellus B. Johnson, age twenty-one, Company G, Fourth 
Regiment. (Died Oct. 7, '62, of wound received Sept. 15, 
'62, South Mountain.) 

Daniel Jones, age twenty-nine, Company E, Eleventh Regi- 

James W. Jones, age thirty-five, Company B, Tenth Regi- 
ment. (Wounded and dis. May 15, '65.) 

Edwin Joslyn, age seventeen, S. S. E. 2, (Died in service, 
July II, '62.) 

PERIOD 1850-1875 127 

John Kellogg, Company I, Thirteenth Regiment. (Dis. 
Nov. 28, '62.) 

Edward Kirby, age twenty-two, Company A, Seventh 
Regiment. (Mustered out, Aug. 30, '64.) 

Charles La Page, Company K, Seventh Regiment. 

Henry Lee. (Died in service.) 

James Linnehen, age forty-four, Company D, Fifth Regi- 
ment. (Mustered out, June 29, '65.) 

Henry L. Locke. 

Burton G. Locke. 

Sayles H. Locke, age twenty-three. Company D, Second 
Regiment. (Died in service, April 26, '62.) 

Austin J. Loomis, age thirty-four, Company B, Tenth Regi- 

Orlin W. Loomis. 

James Madigan, age eighteen, Company I, Ninth Regiment. 

Ira A. Marshall, age thirty-eight, Company D, Second Regi- 
ment. (Dis. July 16, '62.) 

Dennis Martin, age eighteen. Company H, Sixth Regiment. 
(Reenlisted March i, '64.) 

John Martin, age twenty-one. Battery 3. 

Patrick Martin, Company H, Sixth Regiment. 

William P. Mason, Jr. 

Harrison Maynard. 

John McCaffrey, Company A, Sixth Regiment. 

Luther Merriam. 

Charles Moody, age twenty-one, Company K, Seventeenth 

Dexter Moody, age twenty-seven. Company B, Tenth Regi- 

Hartwell Moody, age thirty-one, Company D, Second Regi- 

Samuel Morey, age twenty-three, Company D, Second Regi- 

Michael Morrisey, age eighteen. Company G, Second Regi- 
ment. (Reenlisted in Cowans Battery.) 

Joseph B. Morse. 


Thomas Morway, age twenty-nine, Company H, Thirteenth 

Lucian M. Murray, age twenty-one, Company G, Fourth 
Regiment. (Died in service, Nov. 8, '62.) 

Walter H. Nelson, age eighteen. Company B, Tenth Regi- 
ment. (Wounded, Nov. 27, '63, June i, '64.) 

James Nichols. (Died in service.) 

John O'Connor, age eighteen, Company I, Fourth Regiment. 

Patrick O'Connor, age sixteen. Company K, Seventeenth 
Regiment. (Music.) 

Henry F. Parker, age twenty-one. Company D, Second 
Regiment. (Dis. May 29, '62.) 

Lucius L. Pollard, age twenty-five, Company G, Third 
Regiment. (Drafted.) 

Philander A. Preston, age twenty-seven, C Cavalry; born 
in Waterbury, Nov. 27, 1833. (Enlisted Vt. Cav., Sept. i, '61 ; 
with Reg't till July 6, '63; wounded; in hospital till Dec; 
returned to duty; reenlisted Jan. '64; taken prisoner, Stony 
Creek Station; thence to Andersonville and Charleston; 
finally to Florence where he was literally starved to death.) 

Carlos Prescott, age twenty-three. Company D, Second 
Regiment. (Dis. July 24, '62; died of disease contracted in 

Leroy Prescott, age nineteen. Company I, Thirteenth Regi- 

George Ray, Company D, Fifth Regiment. 

George C. Rice, age eighteen. Company G, Tenth Regi- 
ment. (Died at Alexandria, before joining regiment in 

Winslow C. Rollins, age twenty-six. Company D, Second 

Alva Rowell, age twenty-six. Company I, Thirteenth Regi- 
ment. (Reenlisted; killed at Wilderness.) 

John W. Sawyer, age twenty-nine, Company B, Tenth 

Calvin E. Seaver, age twenty-seven. Company I, Thirteenth 

Henry G. Sherman. 

PERIOD 1850-1875 129 

Curtis C. Sleeper, age nineteen, Company C, Second Regi- 
ment. (Dis. Nov. I, '62; wounded, June 29, '62.) 

David D. Sleeper. 

James W. Sleeper. 

John R. Slowcum. 

Clifford Smith, age twenty-one, Company A, Seventh Regi- 

Charles Smith, age forty-five, Company B, Tenth Regiment. 
(Transferred to invalid corps, July i, '63.) 

Jerry Smith, age twenty-six, Company A, Seventh Regi- 

George E. Smith, age nineteen. Company D, Second Regi- 

Herschall F. Smith, age twenty-six. Company I, Thirteenth 

William C. Smith, age eighteen, Company I, Thirteenth 

William D. Smith, age twenty-two, Company I, Thirteenth 

William H. Stimson, age twenty-four. Company C, Third 
Regiment. (Jan. 29, '62; dis. Feb. 3, '63; wounded, June 29, 

Frank Stearns, age eighteen, Company C, Seventeenth 
Regiment. (Died Jan. 6, '64, of wounds received in action 
May 12, '64.) 

Benjamin F. Stone. (Died in service.) 

Horatio G. Stone, age nineteen. Company D, Second Regi- 
ment. (Died of wounds received at Wilderness, May 4, '64.) 

John Stone, M Cavalry. (Saddler.) 

Orvand A. Stone, age thirty-two. Company I, Thirteenth 

Willard S. Stone, age twenty-four. Company D, Second 
Regiment. (Killed at Wilderness, May 5, '64.) 

Way land A. Strong, age twenty-two. Company K, Seven- 
teenth Regiment. 

Edward Taylor, age eighteen. Company B, Tenth Regi- 

Joseph Tate, Company D, Fifth Regiment. 


John Toban, Company D, Fifth Regiment. 

George Tatro, age twenty-eight, Company B, Tenth Regi- 
ment. (Died Dec. 28, '64.) 

Burton C. Turner, age eighteen. Company D, Second Regi- 
ment. (Died in service, Nov. 5, '64.) 

Chauncey Turner, age twenty. Company D, Second Regi- 
ment. (Drafted.) 

Alexander Warden. 

Charles Wells. 

Edward Wells, age twenty-five, Fifth Regiment. (Band; 
dis. Feb. 20, '62.) 

Edwin H. Wells, age twenty-two. Company K, Seventeenth 

Henry Wells, age twenty-five. Company A, Seventh Regi- 
ment. (Died Aug. 9, '62, in service.) 

Liberty White, age forty-four. Company B, Tenth Regi- 

George S. Whitney. 

George I. Wilson, Company D, Second Regiment. 

Henry M. Wood, age eighteen, Company E, Eighth Regi- 
ment. (Died in service, Sept. 13, '63.) 

William W. Wood, age nineteen. Company E, Eighth Regi- 
ment. (Died in service, July 14, '63.) 

Theodore Wood. (Killed in service.) 

George S. Woodward, age twenty-two, C Cavalry. (Killed 
in service, April 3, '63.) 

Ira S. Woodward, age eighteen, Company B, Tenth Regi- 

William Woodward, age nineteen. Company B, Tenth Regi- 

William Charles Woodruff, age twenty-six, Company I, 
Thirteenth Regiment. 

Charles B. Wooster. 

B. Franklin Wright, age eighteen. Company D, Second 

Hiram P. Wright, age twenty-eight, C Cavalry. (Wounded 

Charles S. Wrisley, age twenty-eight. Company C, Fifteenth 

PERIOD 1850-1875 131 

Jacob Wrisley, age nineteen, Company D, Second Regiment. 

Warner W. Wrisley. 

George W. York, age thirty-three. Company K, Second 
Regiment. (Drafted ; died of wounds received at Wilderness.) 

John W. York, age twenty-one. Company D, Second Regi- 
ment. (Reenlisted as color bearer for Gen. Wright com'd'g 
6th Corps.) 

Gustavus S. Young. 

Hiram Young, age forty-four. Company B, Tenth Regiment. 
(Died in service.) 

Joseph E. Young, age thirty-six. Company B, Tenth Regi- 
ment. (Wounded at Spottsylvania.) 

Nathaniel J. Young. 

At the May (6th) town meeting in 1861 it was voted : " That 
the selectmen are hereby authorized to draw orders on the 
town treasurer for the purpose of defraying the expenses of 
the drill now going on in Waterbury and for furnishing an out- 
fit and necessary clothing of such volunteers from said town 
as shall be mustered into the military service of the state or 
the United States not to exceed the sum of six hundred dollars 
in the whole. Said selectmen to examine and audit all accounts 
presented and allow such as they deem just and equitable." 

At the town meeting, September, 1862, it was voted : "That 
the town do pay to each man who has or shall volunteer and 
who is accepted, mustered in and shall serve as a nine months' 
militia man to the number that is the town's quota under the 
call of the President for three hundred thousand militia to 
serve nine months in the present war, the sum of twenty-five 
dollars each bounty and seven dollars per month for such time 
as they serve provided the State or General Government does 
not assume the payment of the same." 

At a town meeting, October 27, 1862, it was voted: "To 
pay Isaac Harris, Jr., Oliver W. Davis, Charles S. Wrisley, 
Joseph Conant, Leonard Hart and Lyman Godfrey seventy- 
five dollars each in addition to the twenty-five dollars already 
voted by the town or county for enlisting into the military 
service of the United States from the town of Waterbury." 


At a town meeting, November 30, 1863, it was voted: "To 
pay each volunteer from this town a bounty of three hundred 
dollars when mustered into the United States service." 

At a town meeting, December 14, 1863, at which W. W. 
Wells presided as moderator, it was voted: "That there be 
raised, levied, collected and paid into the town treasury on or 
before the ist day of January, 1864, one hundred and fourteen 
cents on the dollar of the Grand List of the town for 1863 to pay 
the bounties to volunteers," and "Voted: That the selectmen 
are instructed in their discretion to borrow not to exceed seven 
thousand five hundred dollars for the purpose of paying the 
bounties to the volunteers." 

At a town meeting, June 18, 1864, it was voted: "That the 
selectmen be instructed to raise men sufficient to fill the 
expected call at a sum not exceeding three hundred dollars 
each and that the selectmen raise the money to pay said sum 
on the credit of the town, provided said persons are accepted 
and mustered into the service of the United States." 

At a town meeting, August 4, 1864, it was voted: "That 
the selectmen pay to the men enlisting and are accepted and 
mustered into the United States service the sum of two hun- 
dred dollars each in addition to the three hundred dollars 
heretofore voted for the same purpose and that they pledge 
the credit of the town in such manner as they deem best to 
meet said expense," also "Voted that the above sum of five 
hundred dollars be paid to such volunteers only as are mus- 
tered into the United States service for three years and all 
those that are mustered in for a less time are to be paid in that 
proportion for the time that they are mustered in for and that 
the selectmen borrow the money for four months at six per 
cent interest of individuals or the bank as in their discretion 
they shall deem best for the interests of the town." 

At a town meeting held August 4, 1864, it was voted : " That 
the selectmen be and they are hereby instructed to deposit 
twenty seven hundred dollars in the Bank of Waterbury to the 
credit of the adjutant general of the state of Vermont to be 
paid for men enlisted by the commissioner from this state, in 
states in rebellion under the late act of Congress and mustered 

PERIOD 1850-1875 133 

into the United States service and credited on the quota of 
this town." 

At a town meeting held January 26, 1865, it was voted: 
"That the selectmen be and they are hereby authorized to 
raise the quota of the town under the call of December 19, 
1864, and to pay such bounties as in their discretion they may 
think proper and also that the selectmen be and are hereby 
authorized to enlist men at any time and to pay such bounties 
as in their discretion they may think proper." 

Between the town meeting of June 18, 1864, at which it was 
voted to raise men to fill the expected call at a sum not exceed- 
ing $300 each, and authorizing the selectmen to raise the money 
on the town's credit, and the meeting of August 4, 1864, when 
it was voted to pay $200 in addition to the $300 already voted, 
an indemnity agreement was circulated in Waterbury for the 
signatures of those willing to save harmless the selectmen, 
each in the sum of $200, until the next town meeting August 
4, 1864. This indemnity agreement, bearing date July 22, 
1864, was signed by one hundred and two substantial citizens. 

At a town meeting November 25, 1865, it was voted: "To 
instruct the selectmen to proceed and build the bridge recom- 
mended by the Courts' committee and ordered by the Wash- 
ington County Court to be built across the Winooski River, in 
conjunction with the town of Duxbury, by contract or other- 
wise as in their judgment will be the best for the town." 

What adequate eulogies can there be of the patriotic spirit 
which permeated large Waterbury families; of that devo- 
tion animating men like the Wells brothers, to lay every- 
thing on the altar of the Union's cause? Four sons of William 
W. Wells responded to the call for troops, Edward William, 
Curtis and Charles. The common schools of Waterbury, 
Barre Academy and Kimball Union Academy of Meriden, 
New Hampshire, afforded such educational opportunities 
as were available to William Wells outside of the practical 
training he received in making a survey of Washington County 
and as assistant to his father in his extensive business. At 
the age of twenty-three, September 9, 1861, William Wells 
enlisted as a private soldier and busied himself in helping to 


raise Company C, First Regiment, Vermont Cavalry. He 
was sworn into service October 3, 1861 ; on the 14th he received 
a first lieutenant's commission; on the i8th of November he 
attained his captaincy and the following day mustered with 
the Field and Staff of the First Regiment, Vermont Cavalry, 
to serve for three years. His commission as major came 
December 30, 1862, and he was mustered the same date. A 
unanimous recommendation of the officers of his regiment 
resulted in his being commissioned colonel June 4, 1864. 
Then came his appointment as brevet brigadier-general of 
volunteers, February 22, 1865, and brevet major-general, 
"for gallant and meritorious service," March 13, 1865. Prob- 
ably the most authoritative cavalry officers in that branch 
of the service were Generals Sheridan and Custer. It was 
upon their joint recommendation that General Wells received 
his commission as full brigadier-general May 19, 1865, Gen- 
eral Sheridan characterizing him as his "ideal of a cavalry 
officer." In March, 1864, he was placed in command of the 
Seventh Michigan Cavalry, by order of General Kilpatrick, 
and continued in command for several weeks on Kilpatrick's 
Raid, near Richmond. 

As major on Wilson's Raid, south of Richmond, he was 
in command of his regiment from date of muster as colonel 
until September 19, 1864, at which time he was placed in com- 
mand of the Second Brigade, Third Division, Cavalry Corps, 
Army of the Potomac. He was still in command of this 
brigade when Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox, 
Virginia, April 9, 1865, remaining so until he took over the 
command of the Third Cavalry Division, May 21, 1865. He 
had taken this same command several times between Septem- 
ber 19, 1864, and April 9, 1865. Trouble in Texas took both 
cavalry generals, Sheridan and Custer, away from Virginia; 
their departure left General Wells as ranking officer of the 
cavalry corps from June i, 1865, to June 24, 1865. He was 
the last commander of Sheridan's Corps. He was in com- 
mand of the First Separate Brigade, Twenty-Second Army 
Corps, from June 24, 1865, to July 24, 1865, and was mustered 
out of service January 15, 1866. 

PERIOD 1850-1875 135 

General Wells had to his credit an active and foremost 
participation in the following battles and skirmishes while 
campaigning with the First Regiment Cavalry: Middletown, 
Winchester, Luray Court House, Culpeper Court House, 
where he charged the enemy's artillery, captured a gun and 
was wounded for the second time by a shell. Orange Court 
House, where he was in the thickest of the fight, Kelly's Ford, 
Waterloo Bridge, Bull Run, Warrenton, Hanover, where he 
commanded the Second Battalion of Cavalry of the First 
Vermont in a repulse of J. E. B. Stuart's Cavalry, Hunters- 
town, Gettysburg, where July 3, 1863, he commanded the 
leading battalion charge on Round Top, riding by the side of 
General Farnsworth, the Brigade commander, who was 
killed. How General Wells escaped was miraculous as the 
charge penetrated the opposing lines for nearly three quarters 
of a mile. Other engagements in which General Wells took 
part were Monterey, Leitersville, Hagerstown, Falling Waters, 
Port Conway, Somerville Ford, Raccoon Ford, James City, 
Brandy Station, Gainesville, Bucklam Mills, Falmouth, 
Morton's Ford, Mechanicsville, Piping Tree, Craig's Meeting 
House, Spottsylvania, Yellow Tavern, Meadow Bridge, White 
Oak Swamp, Riddle's Shop, Ashland, Hawe's Shop, Bottom 
Bridge, Malvern Hill, Ream's Station, Nottoway Court House, 
Roanoke Station, Strong Creek, Summit Point, Charlestown, 
West Virginia, Kearneysville, Boonsboro, where he was 
wounded by a sabre cut. He was in command of a battalion 
of General Sheridan's Cavalry Corps at Yellow Tavern, Vir- 
ginia, May II, 1864, when his great cavalry opponent. General 
Stuart, was killed. He commanded a brigade of Custer's 
Division at Tom's Brook October 9, 1864. 

The momentous and decisive battle of Cedar Creek, im- 
mortalized in the poem "Sheridan's Ride," and the war melo- 
drama of Bronson Howard, "The Shenandoah," was another 
of the great battles in which General Wells took part. In 
this battle, fought October 19, 1864, his brigade took a 
leading part in turning the rout of the Federal troops in the 
morning into a victory at night. Of General Early's forty- 
five pieces of artillery captured, the First Vermont took 


twenty-three, this being the heaviest capture attributed to a 
single regiment during the war. Other engagements were 
Middle Road, Lacey's Springs, Waynesboro, Five Forks, 
Scott's Corner, Namozine Creek, Winticomack, Appomattox 
Station and Appomattox Court House. On the morning 
of Lee's surrender, his brigade had started on its last charge 
and was stopped by General Custer in person. The total 
number of his engagements of cavalry were seventy, in eighteen 
of which he led either a brigade or division. He was a prisoner 
of war in Libby Prison, Richmond, Virginia, from March 17, 
1863, to May 6, 1863. His biographer says of his record: 
"The official record speaks for itself, and General Wells's 
military career throughout four years and a half in the War of 
the Rebellion evinces the highest personal qualities of a 
cavalry commander, combining coolness, promptness, and 
daring intrepidity with most thoughtful consideration for his 

The Vermont Legislature of 191 2 appropriated $6000 to 
commemorate the services and perpetuate the memory of 
Major-General William Wells and the officers and enlisted 
men of the First Regiment, Vermont Cavalry, near the spot 
where the regiment began its desperate charge July 3, 1863, 
on the battlefield of Gettysburg. A heroic bronze statue of 
General Wells, surmounting a base of two boulders, each inset 
with appropriate bronze tablets, now marks the historic spot. 
The unveiHng of the statue, July 3, 1913, was an occasion 
of elaborate ceremony, to which was invited a long roster of 
distinguished guests. Among the speakers was Senator Wil- 
liam P. Dillingham who tellingly pointed out that in a period 
of less than five years and at a time in life when young men 
are commonly found in colleges and universities. General 
Wells had passed from the rank of private to that of 
brigadier-general and brevet major-general of Volunteers of 
the United States Army; and that "at an age when most men 
are but entering the activities of life, he had made a record, 
the brilliance of which fifty years of time have failed to lessen, 
and which is now recognized by those not then born." 

A second statue of General Wells was dedicated at Battery 

PERIOD 1850-1875 137 

Park, Burlington, May 30, 1914. The bronze figure is a 
replica in bronze of the statue at Gettysburg. A replica of 
the cavalry charge in bas-relief was presented by Mr. Frank 
Richardson Wells, a son of General Wells, for placing upon the 
pedestal. October 5, 1910, a bronze medallion portrait of 
General Wells was dedicated in the State House at Mont- 

General Wells was married, January 18, 1866, to Miss 
Arahanna Richardson, who was born July 20, 1845, in Fitch- 
burg, Massachusetts. Children of the marriage were Frank 
Richardson and Bertha Richardson. Frank Richardson Wells 
was born February i, 1871, in Burlington, and was married 
in California November 7, 1900, to Miss Jean Mary Hush of 
Oakland, California. Bertha Richardson Wells was born 
April 23, 1873, and was married in Burlington July 6, 1899, 
to Doctor Horatio Nelson Jackson, of Burlington. Mrs. Wells 
died suddenly in Burlington, June 12, 1905. 

With characteristic energy General Wells threw himself 
into the pursuits of peace after the Civil War. He entered a 
firm of wholesale druggists in Waterbury, which soon removed 
to Burlington in 1868. He was town representative of Water- 
bury in the Legislature of 1 865-1 866. In 1866 he was elected 
adjutant-general of Vermont and held the office until 1872. 
In 1872 he was appointed collector of customs for the District 
of Vermont; in the thirteen years of his incumbency he did 
much to increase the importance of the post and brought to 
his administration rare efficiency and system; at the expira- 
tion of thirteen years he returned to the firm of Wells, Rich- 
ardson & Company. He was state senator from Chittenden 
County in 1886, and at dififerent times became identified or 
associated with such large interests as the Burlington Trust 
Company (president), Burlington Gas- Light Company (pres- 
ident), Burlington Board of Trade (president), Burlington 
Cold Storage Company (director), Rutland Railroad Company 
(director), and Champlain Transportation Company (direc- 
tor). He was a member and a vestryman of St. Paul's 
Church, a trustee of the Y. M. C. A. of Burlington, and one 
of its enthusiastic supporters. He died of angina pectoris 


in New York April 29, 1892, and was buried in Lake View 
Cemetery, Burlington. 

William Wirt Henry, son of James M. and Matilda (Gale) 
Henry, wa§ born November 21, 1831, in Waterbury. His 
school training was confined to the district schools and one 
term in People's Academy of Morrisville. He was fired with 
the same ambition that sent so many Argonauts from New 
England to California in 1852. He returned to Waterbury in 
1857 and joined his father and brother in business. He 
disposed of his interest in 1861, and promptly enlisted as a 
private in Company D, Second Vermont Volunteers. Soon 
he was promoted to a first lieutenancy and took part in the 
first battle of Bull Run. Mustered out on a surgeon's cer- 
tificate a few months afterwards, he returned to the service 
August 26, 1862, as major of the Tenth Infantry, Vermont 
Volunteers. His gallant and meritorious service advanced 
him rapidly to the grades of lieutenant-colonel, colonel and 
finally brevet brigadier-general. He commanded his regi- 
ment at the battles of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, North 
Anna, Totopotomy Creek, Cold Harbor, Petersburg, Cedar 
Creek, Virginia, and Monocacy; he was hit four times at 
Cedar Creek. Congress granted him a medal for gallantry 
at Cedar Creek. 

While in California General Henry was appointed constable 
in White Oak township, Eldorado County, in 1856. He was 
chosen state senator from Washington County twice after 
the war, and once from Chittenden County in 1874. He was 
appointed United States marshal for the district of Vermont, 
during the administration of President Hayes; he retained this 
office for seven years. In 1887- 1888 General Henry served 
as mayor of Burlington and was appointed immigrant in- 
spector in 1892. 

General Henry was married August 5, 1857, to Mary Jane, 
daughter of Lyman and Mary Beebe. Five children were 
born to them: Bertram, Mary Matilda, Ferdinand Sherman, 
Katherine and Carrie Eliza. General Henry was married 
for the second time to Valera, daughter of Timothy J. and 
Susan (White) Heaton, December 3, 1872. Coming back to 

PERIOD 1850-1875 139 

Waterbury after his military service and career, General 
Henry reentered the old firm which removed from Waterbury 
to Burlington. From the dissolution of this firm in 1870, 
sprung the firm of Henry, Johnson & Lord. General Henry 
was prominent in Masonic affairs and was a member of the 
Loyal Legion, the Society of the Army of the Potomac, and 
Knights of Pythias. He received his first degrees in Masonry 
in Aurora Lodge, Montpelier, in 1 858 ; he was a charter member 
and past master of the lodge at Waterbury; also charter 
member of the Burlington Lodge. He was past grand 
master of the lodge of the L O. O. F. and department com- 
mander of the G. A. R. of Vermont. General Henry was a 
resident of Burlington for many years. 

General Henry's love for outdoor life and the vigorous 
sports of hunting and fishing was well known and shared 
among his intimates. He was one of the first to discover the 
possibilities of Cedar Beach as a camping ground and, with 
such kindred spirits as Senator Proctor, General Foster, 
General Wells, General James Peck of Montpelier, J. G. Reed 
and others, he developed the possibilities of the Quebec 
wilderness as a fruitful fishing region for Vermonters. The 
St. Bernard Club which General Henry helped to found and of 
which he was honorary president was the outcome of his fishing 
excursions to those streams. 

General Henry's career as United States Consul at Quebec 
called forth ungrudging praise and appreciation from our 
neighbors across the border. At the time of his resignation, 
the Quebec Chronicle had this to say editorially: "His twelve 
years' service has been marked by singular ability and energy, 
and by a tact and courtesy which have won golden opinions 
from all with whom he came into official contact. In his 
private capacity he has attracted the esteem and cordial good 
will of all who have had the pleasure of his acquaintance. 
Genial and unassuming, and of great kindliness of disposition, 
he has entered heartily into our private life, and has become 
one of ourselves. The government of the United States will 
lose a valuable servant here." 

It was quite apparent during a brief visit to Waterbury in 


the spring of 191 5 that General Henry's health was breaking 
rapidly. He was confined to his home in Burlington during 
the summer, suffering from jaundice, but cheerful and genial 
in his intercourse with old friends and acquaintances who 
called to see him. The end came at his home, 29 Wilson 
Street, Burlington, Tuesday, August 31, 191 5. The funeral 
was held from St. Paul's Church, Thursday, September 2. 
Many friends from Waterbury were in attendance. 

Of the five children of General W. W. Henry and Mary 
Jane (Beebe) Henry who died in 1871, Mary Matilda (Henry) 
Pease, wife of F. S. Pease of Burlington, alone survives. 
General Henry's second wife, Valera Y. (Heaton) Henry, 
whom he married in 1872, survives, together with an adopted 
daughter, Mrs. G. W. Benedict of Providence, Rhode Island. 

Major Edwin Dillingham, second son of Honorable Paul and 
Julia (Carpenter) Dillingham, lives in the affectionate regard 
and the loving memory of those still with us who were wont to 
meet him in his daily avocations and intimate village life. 
He was born in Waterbury May 13, 1839. His early life was 
spent in and about his native town until he left to pursue his 
academic education in preparation for his ultimate study of 
law, his chosen profession. Before beginning his legal studies 
he, in common with many another young man in Waterbury, 
had the practical benefit of a business training in the "old 
corner store." Here he was accustomed to meet all sorts and 
conditions of people and it is related of him that he preserved 
the same courteous, chivalrous demeanor in dealing or speaking 
with some humble countrywoman as with the fashionable 
wives or daughters of the more fortunately circumstanced. 

He studied law in the office of his brother-in-law. Honorable 
Matthew H. Carpenter, afterwards United States Senator 
from Wisconsin, beginning under his preceptorship in the 
Milwaukee office of the Senator in 1858. From this office Mr. 
Dillingham entered a law school in Poughkeepsie, New York, 
from which he was graduated with honor the following year. 
Supplementing these preliminary studies by a term of service 
in the law office of his father (Dillingham & Durant) in Water- 
bury, he was admitted to the Washington County bar in Sep- 

PERIOD 1850-1875 141 

tember, i860, and was then known to be the youngest though 
one of its most promising members. His all too brief period 
of practice was spent as a professional associate of his father. 
Not for long, however, was Edwin Dillingham destined to 
pursue the peaceful pursuits of congenial professional life. 
Like the loyal son of Waterbury he was, he made prompt and 
intelligent response to the President's call of July, 1862, for 
300,000 troops. 

His work as a recruiting officer in the western part of Wash- 
ington County bore fruit in the forming of Company B of the 
Tenth Regiment of Volunteers, of which he was elected captain. 
Not long after the Tenth had taken its place in active service, 
Captain Dillingham was detailed as assistant inspector-general 
on the staff of Brigadier-General Morris, commanding the 
First Brigade, Third Division, Third Army Corps, Army of 
the Potomac. 

While serving as aide-de-camp to General Morris at the 
Battle of Locust Grove, November 27, 1863, and while carry- 
ing orders to his own regiment, his horse was shot under him 
and he was taken prisoner, marched to Richmond and shut up 
in Libby Prison. After four months of prison life, amid sur- 
roundings and in an atmosphere trying to the stoutest hearts 
and souls, he was paroled, exchanged and finally returned to 
his regiment. Soon he was placed in command of a battalion 
of exchanged prisoners and enlisted men to be restored to their 
respective commands at the front between the Rapidan and 
Petersburg. Having completed this task he reported for 
duty June 3, 1864, at Cold Harbor — the name fraught with 
such fatal significance to so many Waterbury homes. Here 
he found that Colonel Jewett had resigned and his townsman, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Henry, with Major Chandler, had been 
promoted to the first and second places in command , respec- 
tively. Both Colonel Henry and Major Chandler were dis- 
abled, the former by a wound received early in the campaign 
and the latter by illness. The command of the regiment then 
devolved on Captain Dillingham who held it until the return 
of Lieutenant-Colonel Chandler to duty and his own (Dilling- 
ham's) promotion to his majority. He accompanied his regi- 


ment as major successively to the James River, Bermuda 
Hundreds and (July 8, 1864) Frederic City, Maryland. At 
the Battle of Monocacy, fought on the 9th, Major Dillingham 
was second in command, with Lieutenant-Colonel Chandler 
detailed to command the skirmish line and Colonel Henry 
in command of the regiment. 

The regiment was called upon to march about six hundred 
miles between July 21, 1864, and August 22, 1864. On the 
2ist, Major Dillingham was invested with full command of 
the regiment at Charlestown and remained in command until 
the day of Winchester or Opequon, September 19, 1864, when 
he led a regiment of about three hundred and fifty men (sadly 
reduced by a sick list of over three hundred) into action. At 
about noon, in the advance of the brigade and division to the 
assault, the troops were exposed to a raking fire of Braxton's 
Artillery. Here the intrepid major was struck by a solid shot 
which almost tore off his left leg. He was borne, bleeding, to 
the rear and died in three hours, not, however, before he had 
found strength and courage to say: "I am willing to give my 
life for my country and I am not afraid to die." 

After all, it were better, perhaps, to give here the words of 
one of Major Dillingham's comrades, who knew whereof he 
spoke, when he described the dead officer thus : " He was young, 
handsome, brilliant, brave amid trials, cheerful under dis- 
couragements, upright and with the kindness of heart which 
characterizes the true gentleman, combined with firmness and 
energy as a commander; respected by all his command and 
loved by all his companions." Major Dillingham's body was 
brought home for interment to the Waterbury cemetery, to 
which spot repaired members of the Tenth Regiment on the 
4th of September, 1893, at their eighth annual reunion to pay 
appropriate honors to their dead comrades. 

During the preparation of this compilation Doctor Henry 
Janes, Waterbury's foremost citizen, passed away June 10, 
1915. Though not unexpected, the death of Doctor Henry 
Janes came as a shock to all ages and classes of his townspeople 
by whom he had always been venerated and beloved. The 
last of a distinguished family on both the maternal and pater- 

PERIOD 1850-1875 143 

nal sides, his life has ever been one reflecting that family's 
best traditions. The love he bore his native town amounted 
almost to a passion and this devotion was returned in full 
measure by the people of Waterbury so that when the end 
came Thursday night June 10, 191 5, after weeks of his rapidly 
waning vitality, the people's grief was in no sense mitigated by 
reason of its expectancy. 

Henry Janes was born in Waterbury January 24, 1832, 
the son of Honorable Henry F. and Fanny (Butler) Janes. 
His father was an early resident in Waterbury, coming to the 
town in 1817; he was one of the two lawyers the town then 
boasted, the other being Judge Dan Carpenter. "Esquire" 
Janes served as state treasurer and was elected to fill the 
unexpired term of Benjamin F. Deming in Congress in 1834. 
Doctor Janes' mother was the daughter of Governor Ezra 
Butler, the second settler of Waterbury, the town builder, 
clergyman, judge, presidential elector, town representative, 
congressman and Chief Executive of Vermont. 

Doctor Janes received his academic education at Morris- 
ville and St. Johnsbury Academies. He commenced his 
medical studies under Doctor J. B. Woodward in 1852 at 
Waterbury. He attended medical lectures at Woodstock 
College in 1852, and two years after at the College of Physi- 
cians and Surgeons in New York City where he was graduated 
an M. D. in 1855. He served there as an assistant physician 
and house physician in Bellevue Hospital for nearly one year. 
He removed to Chelsea, Massachusetts, in 1856, and returned 
to Waterbury in 1857, where he soon acquired a large and 
lucrative practice. 

In 1 861 Doctor Janes entered the army, surgeon of the 
third Vermont Volunteers; he was commissioned surgeon 
of the United States Army in 1863. In 1865 he was bre vetted 
lieutenant-colonel. By far the greater part of his military 
service was in hospital duty successively at Burkettsville, in 
the fall of 1862, where he was placed in charge; at Frederic, 
Maryland, in the winter and in charge of the hospitals of the 
Sixth Army Corps the following spring. In the summer and 
fall of 1863 he was in charge of the army hospitals in and about 


Gettysburg and the Letterman General Hospital, where 20,000 
wounded soldiers from the field of Gettysburg were being 
cared for. Here he was afforded an opportunity of studying 
treatment of fracture and amputations. He spent the winter 
and spring of 1864 in the South Street General Hospital in 
Philadelphia. In the summer of 1864 he was in charge of the 
hospital steamer Maine. Going to the Sloan General Hospital 
at Montpelier in the autumn of 1864, he remained there until 
the close of the war. He left the army in 1866 and spent a 
short time in New York, studying injuries to the bones and 
brain. He returned to Waterbury in 1867 and resumed his 
practice there, which he interrupted long enough to enable him 
to travel abroad during a part of 1874. He published in the 
Transactions of the Vermont Medical Society, a paper on the 
treatment of gun-shot fracture, especially of the femur; in 
1 87 1, 1872 and 1873 various papers on some of the incidents 
following amputations; in 1874 other papers on amputations 
at the knee joint followed; in 1877 he wrote a paper on spinal 

Doctor Janes was a member of Washington County Medical 
Society, the American Medical Association, the Vermont 
State Medical Society, of which he was president in 1870 and 
whose representative he was at the meetings of the American 
Medical Association in i860, 1866, 1871 and 1880. He was a 
member of the Massachusetts Medical Society and an honor- 
ary member of the California State Medical Society. He 
served as consulting surgeon at the Mary Fletcher Hospital 
in Burlington, Heaton Hospital in Montpelier, surgeon-general 
of Vermont National Guard, chairman of Vermont State 
Board of Medical Censors, president of Vermont State Board 
of Medical Registration, trustee of the University of Vermont 
and president of the Board of Waterbury Village Trustees. 
He also served a term as a member of the Vermont Legislature 
in 1890. He was a member of Bellevue Alumni Association, 
the G. A. R., the Loyal Legion, and Sons of the American 

Doctor Janes was actively interested in the Congregational 
Church of Waterbury and for a long time took pride in personal 

PERIOD 1850-1875 145 

efforts at maintaining good music there. His charming home 
in Waterbury was a delightful storehouse of many historical 
documents of pecuHar interest to people of his native town. 
He was an affable host, an entertaining conversationalist, 
cheerful companion and staunch friend. His self-effacing 
modesty was so pronounced that the successive honors which 
came his way were only discovered by his friends when con- 
cealment was no longer possible. To a certain few of his life- 
long friends he would occasionally mention striking incidents 
of his military life such, for example, as his being present on 
the speaker's platform when Mr. Lincoln delivered his mem- 
orable address at Gettysburg. 

Doctor Janes is survived by no near relatives. One cousin, 
George Butler, and his son, I. Butler, live at Battle Creek, 
Michigan. Other cousins are Mrs. Ella Roscoe, formerly of 
Wisconsin and Minnesota, who has made her home at Doctor 
Janes' residence for the past four years, and the Misses Thomas 
of Stowe. Mrs. Henry Janes, who was born Frances Bergin 
Hall, of Boston, Massachusetts, died in 1909. 

On Sunday afternoon, June 13, brief but impressive funeral 
services were had in the old Congregational Meeting House. 
Rev. W. L. Boicourt spoke of the devotion of Doctor Janes to 
science and his long life of untiring professional and social 
endeavor. Senator W. P. Dillingham and ex-Governor 
Samuel Pingree each paid eloquent tributes to their departed 
friend, the former foreshadowing the generous intentions of 
Doctor Janes as to the town's participation in his estate. 

Cold type never emphasizes its utter inadequacy so markedly 
as when its aid is sought to set forth the emotions of a common 
grief such as was felt in Waterbury and yet the reasons for 
this grief and sense of loss are not far to seek. The record a 
good man leaves in a community may be mute but it has an 
insistent eloquence that tongue or pen cannot compass. 

From the remarks of ex-Governor Pingree and Senator W. 
P. Dillingham at Doctor Janes' funeral it was apparent that 
each speaker felt with their hearers; the words they chose 
instinctively brought them at one with all other friends of 
the man who had gone. Senator Dillingham's allusion to the 


practical form Doctor Janes' devotion to his townspeople 
might develop was afterwards illuminated by the splendid 
provision made in his last will and testament. After certain 
specific bequests to legatees named, Doctor Janes gave all his 
real estate, including the residence on Main Street, to the 
Waterbury Public Library Association, subject to a life interest 
in certain portions designated under certain conditions. He 
also named the Waterbury Public Library Association as 
residuary legatee. The gift to the Library Association, was, 
to use the language of the will, "in pursuance of a long-cher- 
ished desire to aid such association in its educational work and 
as a tribute to the memory of my wife, Frances B. (Hall) 
Janes, whose earnest interest in the maintenance of the library 
and whose educational influence in the community ceased 
only when she departed this life. And I have done this in the 
hope that eventually the entire premises devised to such asso- 
ciation may come under the wise management of its trustees 
and be so utilized as to promote a higher culture and an increas- 
ing intellectual and moral development among the people of 
Waterbury and adjacent towns for generations to come and 
that the scope of its work may be enriched and enlarged by 
gifts from other citizens." That latest evidence of devotion 
coming as it did made it appear as if the dead hand of the 
generous donor continued its lifelong accustomed deeds of 

It was the editor's never-to-be-forgotten privilege to see and 
talk with Doctor Janes in his home several times during May, 
1915. Indeed, his kindly interest in this present undertaking 
was evinced in many ways. On one occasion he alluded 
feelingly to a poem from the collection of S. S. & H. C. Luce, 
already spoken of in these pages, and insisted upon rising 
from his place and getting the volume from the book case. 
The poem's title is "The Village Doctor," and was written in 
January, 1871 , by Samuel Slayton Luce. The four last stanzas 

Far up the winding mountain road, 

Through forest dark and blinding snow, 

He reached the desolate abode 
Of sickness, poverty and woe. 


Blush Hill Road ix Winter 

THE NEV; ^"J' - „! 

PERIOD 1850-1875 147 

Long years have passed ; yet oft I ask, 

As howls the tempest in its might, 
While sitting by the evening fire, 

"What faithful doctor rides tonight?" 

Yes, faithful; though full well I know 

The world is sparing of its praise; 
And these self-sacrificing men 

But seldom tempt the poet's lays. 

And yet, I trust, when at the last 

They leave the world of human strife. 

Like him "who loved his fellow men," 

Their names shall grace the "Book of Life." 

It is as if the writer of the lines had prophetically epitomized 
the great Hfe service of Doctor Janes to the community, no 
less than that of Doctor T. B, Downer of Waterbury Center, 
the particular person held in mind by the poet. 

The march of events was rapid after the capitulation of 
General Lee in the historic McLean house at Appomattox 
Court House April 9, 1865. Coincidently with this decisive 
act the fierce and unnecessary Battle of Mobile was 
raging. Johnston surrendered April 26. President Lincoln 
made his last public address to a company gathered in the 
White House, Tuesday evening, April 11. The tragic hap- 
penings at Washington of April 14 came with a benumbing 
shock to the whole country. When the news of President 
Lincoln's assassination reached Waterbury, Saturday, April 15, 
it found a community almost apathetic through the dull 
insistence of rapidly recurring bereavements in the war just 
ended. It is said by one recalling the incident that there was 
really more excitement over the killing of Colonel Ellsworth 
at Alexandria in 1861. It was as if the town had suffered so 
much that it received what came with a sort of despairing 
fatalism and sense of hopeless impotency, but this inability to 
give expression to a profound grief at the President's hideous 
murder did not argue that it was felt the less keenly. 

But the war was over; the Vice-President had been installed 
in office and Waterbury, like all other towns, pulled herself 
together to take account of stock; to readjust herself to the 


immediate demands of peace ; and to repair the indirect ravages 
caused by the war so far as possible. This meant a recogni- 
tion of certain grave conditions. The town was not growing 
by an encouraging ratio. Between the years i860 and 1870, 
there was an increase of from 2,198 to 2,634 — only 436 souls — 
whereas the population of the town in 1850 was 2,352. So 
work commenced. 

Johnson's administration was regarded in Waterbury as a 
sort of judgment upon the Republican party for having taken 
even a loyal Democrat from the South so closely into the 
councils of the nation. The war governors of Vermont had 
all been uncompromising and unswerving in their sentiments 
of loyalty to the Union, but with them that meant something 
more than a hasty reconstruction policy that would unwisely 
put too much power into the hands of the so recently defeated 

It was reasonably feared that the Democratic party's haste 
to restore all the states to their former status in the Union 
was ill-timed and badly advised. General amnesties were still 
regarded with suspicion in New England. Regulation by 
the Southern States of their several elective franchises seemed 
to the Northern Republican the height of folly, or worse. 
The unrestrained expressions of leading Democrats regarding 
"the debt of gratitude owing Andrew Johnson by the American 
people" found no answering chord in Vermont or Waterbury. 
Yet all these pronouncements were found in the Democratic 
platform in 1868, so that, when the electors or Freemen of 
Waterbury were called upon to register their choice of electoral 
candidates in November, it was not at all surprising that 
they should have given the Ulysses S. Grant Republican 
electors 419 votes as against the Horatio Seymour Democratic 
electors' 99. 

As may have been intimated before. Democrats were not 
numerous in Waterbury, at least they were not so many as 
to be taken by their political opponents as a matter of course. 
Among these was John Montgomery. Mr. Montgomery 
owned Duxbury as his birthplace and November 19, 1794, 
as the date of his birth . His father was Thomas Montgomery, 

PERIOD 1850-1875 149 

also of Duxbury ; his mother was Lucy (Blanchard) Montgom- 
ery. John married Miss Tryphena Towle and settled on the 
homestead. He gave up Duxbury for Waterbury where he 
came to live on Perry Hill in 1836. From this farm site he 
moved again to a much larger place at the mouth of Cotton 
Brook on Waterbury River, where he passed the remainder of 
his days, dying May 7, 1887, at the advanced age of nearly 
ninety-two and one-half years. As the Nestor of his party 
in the community his judgment was respected and valued 
highly. His life-long record as a citizen and neighbor, how- 
ever, was far from being bound by party limitations. His 
retentive memory is said to have remained practically un- 
impaired at the close of his life. There were born to Mr. and 
Mrs. Montgomery, Lucy (Mrs. Samuel Lewis), John E., George 
R., who married Sylvia Farr, Mary A. (Mrs. Doctor Huse), 
Eliza (Mrs. Silas Perry) , deceased, and Charles C, who married 
Carrie Lewis. Charles took over the farming operations on 
his father's estate but removed to Hadley, Massachusetts, 
where he died. 

Another Democrat was Charles C. Robinson, son of Noah 
and Calista (Russell) Robinson, who was born in Stowe, No- 
vember 21, 1833. Mr. Robinson went through the usual 
routine of common schools and finished at the academy of 
Bakersfield. He married Mary Jane Prescott of Waterbury, 
February 18, 1864, and went to live at the Center on a farm. 
Mr. Robinson served his fellow citizens as selectman, overseer 
of the poor, and auditor. He was candidate for town repre- 
sentative and ran ahead of his ticket. Children of the mar- 
riage were Harvey P., Carrie E., Ethel C. and Charles C. 

Memories of by-gone political campaigns in the town and 
the incidental rallies of early post helium days are not so easily 
evoked as might seem possible. This is probably due to the 
matter-of-course results of those campaigns. A citizen, who 
would instantly resent the imputation that his memory is 
anything but photographic, expresses wonder why one should 
be interested in knowing about the various national and state 
administrations succeeding the war. Yet interesting inci- 
dents occurred. Once Honorable Edward J. Phelps, later 


ambassador to the Court of St. James, delivered a political 
speech from the steps of the Congregational Church, in which 
his disparaging remarks on the subject of the negro as a possi- 
ble citizen aroused much rancor and disapprobation, even 
among the Democrats in the audience, and afforded an oppor- 
tunity to an interested auditor, Mr. O. A. Seabury, to make an 
inimitable and speaking cartoon of the orator. 

Some reminiscent citizens recall the advent to the town of a 
typical South Carolinian ex-Confederate officer and spell- 
binder. Now ex- Confederates were not popular in Water- 
bury, whatever their oratorical powers might be. The par- 
ticular speaker was one whose reputation as an orator had 
preceded him and it was readily admitted on all sides that he 
deserved it, but to the bewilderment of the people this ex- 
Confederate did not seek to win them by oratory; moreover, 
he actually did win them by his natural courtesy, charming 
manners and liberal give-and-take attitude in argument. To 
many this first rebel seen out of captivity or hostile engagement 
was an agreeable disappointment. 

The baseball enthusiasts of today in Waterbury may be 
interested to know that the national game was not overlooked 
locally forty-eight years ago. There is now in existence a re- 
port of a game between the Green Mountain team of Bolton 
and the Annulet team of Waterbury, played at Bolton on the 
31st of May, 1867. It goes without saying that the team from 
Waterbury won, but the grotesque score of 115 to 46 runs is 
not quite understandable. In the Annulet roster are found 
such names as William Deal, pitcher; Fullerton (Judge), 
first base; J. J. Colby, second base (now of Los Angeles, Cali- 
fornia) ; Charles Atherton, catcher (now of Essex) ; Leander 
Kirby, center field; Proctor, short stop; Canning, third base; 
William Guptil, right field; and E. Hutchins, left field. 

The year 1870 found Waterbury with a population of 2,633. 
The town government included such tried officials as John D. 
Smith, clerk; Horace Fales, C. C. Robinson and S. R. Huse, 
selectmen; C. N. Arms, treasurer; Daniel Hopkins, constable, 
and Melville E. Smilie, superintendent. The listers were 
Nathaniel Moody, John D. Smith, and Andrew J. Brown; 

PERIOD 1850-1875 151 

overseer, P. L. Muzzey; agent, Noah Robinson; postmasters 
were Justin W. Moody and (Center) John D. Smith. The 
bar was represented by Paul DilHngham, WilHam P. DilHng- 
ham, C. F. Clough, E. F. Palmer, George W. Kennedy and 
M. E. SmiHe. Physicians were Henry Janes, Horace Fales, 
J. E. Frink, L. H. Thomas, G. T. Flanders, and P. W. Thomas, 
oculist. E. F. Skinner was the local dentist. There were 
about thirty merchants of all sorts and dealers in staple arti- 
cles. The manufacturers numbered about a dozen. The 
hotels were the Waterbury Hotel, kept by W. H. Skinner; 
Village Hotel, by J. Brown, and Green Mountain House, by 
H. J. Campbell. There were eight churches in the Village 
and the Center. Leander Hutchins was president of the 
Waterbury National Bank, and Curtis Wells was cashier. 

Few changes occurred between 1870 and 1875 in the business 
life of the town. There was a change in the roster of bank 
ofificials when Paul Dillingham succeeded Leander Hutchins as 
president of the Waterbury National Bank. The leading 
names of those in professional, commercial and manufacturing 
circles were much the same as those given before. 

The list of manufacturers included B. F. Peckett, boots 
and shoes; A. H. Selleck, cassimeres and flannels; Fairbanks 
& Smith, chair seats; O. E. Scott, clocks and watches; Colby 
Wringer Company, clothes wringers, etc.; H. W. Smith & 
Company, inks; C. C. Warren, leather; G. W. Randall, Shurt- 
leff & Fullerton, leather. The merchants were : M. M. Knight, 
Richardson & Fullerton, C. E. Wyman; books and stationery, 
J. W. Moody; boots and shoes, L. Parmalee; butter and pro- 
duce, J. A. Burleigh; drugs and medicines, W. E. Carpenter, 
M. O. Evans; flour, meal and grain, Zenas Watts; furniture, 
A. A. Atherton, F. B. Taylor; hardware, Cecil Graves; milli- 
nery, Mrs. H. J. Parker, Mrs. A. C. Stebbins; picture frames, 
caskets, etc., G. H. Atherton; wholesale groceries. Arms & 
Haines. There were about four stores at the Center at this 
time, 1875. 

A recapitulation of the town vote in gubernatorial and 
presidential elections between i860 and 1875 is given: the 
Freeman's meeting in November of i860 gave, respectively, 


Governor Erastus Fairbanks 240 votes as against John G. 
Saxe's 140, and the Abraham Lincoln RepubHcan electors 227, 
as against the John C. Breckenridge Democrats' 116. 

In 1 86 1 the town polled 195 for Governor Frederick Hol- 
brook, as against Andrew Tracy's 102, Benjamin H. Smalley's 
II, and Paul Dillingham's i. 

In 1862 Governor Holbrook was reelected, receiving from 
Waterbury 183 votes to Benjamin H. Smalley's 12. 

In 1863 Governor John Gregory Smith received Waterbury's 
offering of 226 votes, to Timothy P. Redfield's 88. 

In 1864 Governor John Gregory Smith succeeded himself, 
obtaining from Waterbury 237 votes, as against Timothy P. 
Redfield's 109. 

Waterbury repeated her emphatic testimony in favor of 
the Abraham Lincoln Republican electors by giving them 316 
votes, as against 115 for the McClellan Democrats at the 
November election in 1864. 

In 1865 Waterbury, the home town of the (Union) RepubH- 
can gubernatorial candidate, Paul Dillingham, gave him 289 
votes to 62 for Charles N. Davenport. 

In 1866 Governor Paul Dillingham succeeded himself, 
receiving in Waterbury 239, to Charles N. Davenport's 52. 

In 1867 Governor John B. Page received in Waterbury 237 
votes, to John L. Edwards' 77. 

In 1868 Governor Page was reelected, Waterbury giving 
him 387 votes, as against J. L. Edwards' 128. This being 
the presidential year, the vote was heavier at the September 
elections than ordinarily. 

In 1869 the town gave Governor Peter T. Washburn 228 
votes, as against 57 for Homer W. Heaton. 

In 1870 Governor John W. Stewart received 203 votes, 
against Homer W. Heaton's 78. 

In 1872, the first biennial gubernatorial election. Governor 
Julius Converse received from the town 327 votes, as against 
121 for A. B. Gardner. 

The political wiseacres argued from these figures, as usual, 
a substantial ballot for the Republican Grant electors in No- 
vember, nor were they disappointed; but this vote exceeded 

PERIOD 1850-1875 153 

the Republican gubernatorial vote by only 2, the Grant elect- 
ors receiving 329, as against the Greeley (Liberal Republican) 
electors' 80. President Grant at this time was at the very 
apex of his personal popularity. The unfortunate scandals of 
his first administration made possible by designing politi- 
cians had not served to alter Vermont's loyalty toward him. 

It was not surprising that the candidacy of Horace Greeley, 
running as a Liberal Republican on the Democratic ticket, 
should have caused some anxiety to old-line Republicans in 
Waterbury. The New York Tribune, either in its weekly or 
semi-weekly edition, had long been accepted as a sort of po- 
litical bible by many subscribers who had followed Greeley's 
uncompromising hostility to every thing Democratic, up to 
1872, with unconcealed approval. They argued that if 
Greeley, whose honesty and purity of motives were unassail- 
able, should desert the regular organization there must be 
some good reason for it, but when the candidate in his Maine 
speeches called for Southern support, the inevitable reaction 
set in. Waterbury did not hold Southern support in high 
esteem in 1872. 

In 1874 Governor Ashael Peck received 259 votes in Water- 
bury, as against W. H. H. Bingham's 113. It was during 
Governor Peck's term that William P. Dillingham served as 
Secretary of Civil and Military Affairs and this administration 
brings us to 1876. 

All this while Waterbury was largely dependent for her news 
service on semi-weekly New York and Boston newspapers for 
outside news. Nearer at home were the daily and weekly 
Burlington Free Press, Burlington Times, St. Albans Daily 
Messenger, Montpelier weeklies. Watchman and State Journal, 
Argus and Patriot, Green Mountain Freeman, Burlington Sen- 
tinel and St. Albans Transcript. These newspapers, for the 
most part, were repositories of political and miscellaneous 
information; they were well edited and some gained wide cir- 
culation beyond the state boundaries. A few were indelibly 
stamped with the characteristics of their editors and were 
sources of much entertainment as well as bald information. 


I 876-1900 

This period, beginning with Centennial year, brought little 
to disturb the placid serenity of Waterbury. Quite naturally 
the fall Freeman's meetings remained the never-failing boon 
for public interest in dry times — dry in the non-technical 
sense, be it said. The people of Waterbury did not permit 
themselves to become aroused over the presidential campaign. 
It remains very distinctly to the everlasting credit of the sound 
sense of village communities like Waterbury that they were 
able to discount such inflammatory matter as was put before 
the people in the platforms of both leading parties of that year. 

The Tilden Democracy on the one hand was denouncing 
the Republican administrations for a profligate waste of public 
lands, the failure to make good legal tender promises, the 
financial "imbecility" which had made no advance toward 
resumption of specie payments, attempts at enkindling sec- 
tional hatred by false issues regarding the public schools, and 
all efforts at blocking a national reform "necessary to estab- 
lish . . . the Union now to be saved from a corrupt cen- 
tralism." They cried aloud that "all these abuses, wrongs 
and crimes, the product of the sixteen years' ascendency of 
the Republican party, create a necessity for reform, confessed 
by the Republicans themselves." 

On the other hand, the Hayes Republicans were declaring 
for the permanent pacification of the Southern section of the 
Union, vaguely for duties from which revenue must be largely 
derived which should be adjusted to promote interests of 
American labor and advance the prosperity of the whole 
country; that the honest demands of women for additional 
rights, privileges and immunities should be treated with 
respectful consideration. While "sincerely deprecating" sec- 
tional feeling, the Republicans noted "with deep solicitude" 
that the Democratic party counted upon the electoral vote of 


a united South and charged that party with "being the same 
in character and spirit as when it sympathized with treason." 

Here were two great parties, each vying with the other in 
seeking expression for thankfulness for a reunited country, and 
each apparently doing its best to undo everything that had 
been accomplished in that regard at terrible cost of life and 
property. There was nothing abnormal, then, in the vote 
given by Waterbury of 358 for Governor Horace Fairbanks and 
163 for W. H. H. Bingham at the September meeting, nor was 
this normality disturbed in November when the Tilden Demo- 
cratic electors received 194 votes, to the 345 for the Hayes Re- 
publican electors. Well within the memory of many citizens is 
the tense national situation immediately succeeding Novem- 
ber elections and during the electoral count of the returning 
board and the sittings of the electoral commission. With that 
sense of justice characteristic of composite village sentiment, 
political opponents in Waterbury generously accorded to Mr. 
Tilden unqualified admiration for his indignant rejection of 
corrupt and venal overtures for the sale of Louisiana's elect- 
oral vote and for his dignified acquiescence in an ofificial 
finding that remains questionable to this day. They realized 
how that acquiescence prevented a recurrence of the horrors 
of civil war — an eventuality that Waterbury had good reason 
for dreading, if ever an American town had. 

The town had held its usual March meeting on the 13th, in 
the Centennial year, 1876, with the result of electing W. P. 
Dillingham as moderator; Frank N. Smith, town clerk; 
Luther Davis, John B. Parker and George W. Warren, select- 
men; James K. Fullerton, treasurer; James A. Burleigh, over- 
seer of the poor; Oscar W. May, constable and tax collector; 
Oscar W. May, A. B. Remington, L Remington, listers; Daniel 
Hopkins, W. P. Dillingham, S. R. Huse, auditors; William 
Carpenter, public trustee; Noah Robinson, George W. Moody, 
Horace Fales, fence viewers; John S. Batchelder, E. F. Palmer, 
Daniel Hopkins, grand jurors; Lucius Parmalee, inspector of 
leather; E. H. Wells, pound keeper; twenty-five surveyors; 
Edwin F. Palmer, agent; George C. Washburne, superintend- 
ent of schools; George W. Randall, inspector of lumber. 

PERIOD 1876-1900 157 

Governor Redfield Proctor's vote in the town at the Septem- 
ber meeting in 1878 was 253 to W. H. H. Bingham's 94, while 
Mr. C. C. Martin polled 104 in the same race. The two suc- 
cessful candidates for state senate were William P. Dillingham 
and Albert Dwinnell, each receiving 254 votes; James K. Tobey 
and Goin B. Evans each received 88, and George W. Randall 
and Medad Wright each 104, Waterbury furnishing three of 
the six senatorial candidates. 

Governor Roswell B. Farnham's vote at the Freeman's 
meeting in September, 1880, was 327; his opponent, Edward 
J. Phelps, later to become ambassador at the Court of St. 
James, receiving 130. Messrs. Dillingham and Dwinnell were 
reelected state senators, receiving 325 votes, as against 129 
for Homer Heaton, and 128 for L. A. Joslyn. At the Novem- 
ber Freeman's meeting in 1880, the five Garfield Republican 
presidential electors received a town vote of 346. The two 
other groups of electors receiving 59 and 173 votes respectively, 
showing a remarkable disparity between the Democratic and 
Greenback vote in the town. 

Governor John L. Barstow drew from Waterbury 206 votes, 
as against George E. Eaton's 48 in September, 1882. On the 
county ticket, Hiram A. Huse received a town vote for state's 
attorney of 206, to John H. Senter's 48, and C. F. Clough's 61, 
the latter a Waterbury lawyer. It is not without interest to 
note that in the Congressional election the town vote gave 
Luke P. Poland 184, George L. Fletcher 47, William W. 
Grout 20, William P. Dillingham 12, and H. D. Dunbar 54. 

Governor Samuel E. Pingree polled 266 town votes in Sep- 
tember, 1884, to Lyman W. Redington's 96. Mr. C. F. Clough 
of Waterbury was again a candidate for state's attorney, 
receiving 29 votes, the successful candidate, Harlan W. Kemp, 
receiving 263. Frank Atherton, candidate for sherifif, received 
263 votes. 

The historic Blaine-Cleveland campaign of 1884 found and 
left Waterbury characteristically imperturbable. The Blaine 
Republican electors received a town vote of 308 to the 
Cleveland Democratic electors' 158. The two remaining 
groups of electors received 18 and 22 votes, respectively. This 


was the first presidential election under the new apportionment 
which gave four electors to the state, instead of five as hereto- 

Governor Ebenezer J. Ormsbee polled 244 town votes in 
September, 1886, to Stephen C. Shurtleff's 114. 

Naturally the gubernatorial campaign of 1888 possessed, 
for Waterbury, something far greater than a perfunctory 
interest. The candidates were William P. Dillingham, who 
received a town vote of 319 ; Stephen C. Shurtleff , who received 
97; Henry Seely and C. C. Martin, each receiving 2. Gover- 
nor Dillingham's election was duly and appropriately cele- 
brated in the town with a torchlight procession, speech making 
and music. 

The Harrison Republican electors received a town vote that 
year of 296, to the Cleveland Democratic electors' 103. 

The early part of President Garfield's administration, in the 
first part of the decade 1880-1890, brought the usual confidence 
to Waterbury that the nation's affairs were in good hands. 
Besides Mr. Garfield's many qualifications as a statesman, he 
was known in Waterbury to have been a brave soldier and the 
soldier-suffrage habit was naturally strong locally. When, for 
the second time in sixteen years, the town was called upon to 
mourn the loss of a stricken President and to deplore its 
impotency against the assassin's stealth, it was with poignant 
sorrow and regret that the people turned again to the demands 
of the workaday world. 

At the September Freeman's meeting in 1890, Governor 
Carroll S. Page received 174 votes, as against Herbert L. 
Brigham's 100. 

The next candidate on the Republican side was Levi K. 
Fuller who received a gubernatorial vote at the September 
(1892) Freeman's meeting of 295, as against 154 for Bradley 
B. Smalley. 

At the November Freeman's meeting of the same year, 
1892, Waterbury gave the Harrison Republican electors an 
average of 255, as against the Cleveland Democratic electors' 
105, this year marking the first presidential election in Ver- 
mont under the modified Australian ballot system and a de- 

PERIOD 1876-1900 159 

parture from the custom of voting for the several groups of 
electors as unit groups. 

At a special town meeting, April 30, 1894, a resolution was 
passed granting the petition of the Columbian United Electric 
Company for a franchise to occupy a portion of the side of 
the right of way of the highway and for crossings, widening, etc. 

The gubernatorial vote in September, 1894, at the Free- 
man's meeting gave a town vote of 239 to Governor Urban A. 
Woodbury, as against George W. Smith's 75. 

The successor to Governor Woodbury was Governor Josiah 
Grout, who received a town vote in 1896 of 381, as against 
John Henry Jackson's 115. 

At the November (1896) Freeman's meeting, the McKinley 
Republican electors received 327 J votes, as an average, against 
67 for the Democratic electors. 

At the September Freeman's meeting, 1898, Governor Ed- 
ward C. Smith received 237 town votes, as against 93 for 
Thomas W. Maloney. 

Governor William W. Stickney in 1900 received 351 votes, 
to John H. Senter's 100 in the town. 

At the November Freeman's meeting the McKinley Repub' 
lican electors received 272 town votes, as against 93 for the 
Democratic electors. Again, in 1901, Waterbury was called 
upon to mourn the untimely death of a President taken off 
by the bullet of a madman. 

The village of Waterbury remained unincorporated until 
the Legislative session of 1882 when it obtained a charter 
entitled "An Act to Incorporate the Village of Waterbury," 
approved November 20, 1882, under which fire district 
Number i was embraced within the designation "Village of 

At a meeting of the fire district, December 20, 1882, it was 
voted to accept the charter passed and approved as above. 
The first roster of village officers were elected at this meeting 
as follows: president, C. F. Clough; trustees, George F. Ran- 
dall, Joseph Somerville, John Seabury, G. E. Moody; clerk, 
George C. Washburn; treasurer, James K. FuUerton; collector, 
Zenas Watts; auditors, William Wade, W. P. Dillingham, 


George W. Morse; chief engineer, Andrew J. Brown; first 
assistant, Charles D. Robinson; second assistant, William 
Deal; fire wardens, C. N. Arms, C. E. Richardson, Edward 
Shiple, Edward Farrar. It was voted that a committee of 
three be elected to draft by-laws for said village. The com- 
mittee elected consisted of C. F. Clough, William P. Dilling- 
ham and Henry Janes. The village next was duly divided 
into four wards by the fire wardens. The first included that 
part between the bridge at east line of the village and D. C. 
Caldwell's and the depot east; the second included Park Row 
to the east side of Stowe Street to the dry bridge; the third, 
from the west side of Stowe Street to the dry bridge including 
all west of the railroad and Thatcher's Brook to the tannery; 
the fourth included all east of the railroad and Thatcher's 
Brook from the tannery. 

The question of aiding the construction of the Mount Mans- 
field Railroad under its charter passed by the Legislature in 
1888 arose at a duly called town meeting February 11, 1889. 
The following was voted: "That the sum of seven thousand 
dollars be appropriated to aid in the construction of the Mount 
Mansfield Railroad under the charter granted to the Mount 
Mansfield Railroad Company by the Legislature of Vermont 
at its October session, A. D, 1888, such road to be constructed 
from Waterbury Village to Stowe Center Village by way of 
Waterbury Center Village. And that the selectmen are hereby 
authorized and directed to draw their orders in favor of said 
company, its successors or assigns, on the treasurer of the 
town for the said sum of seven thousand dollars, the same to 
be payable in two installments of thirty-five hundred dollars 
each, one in thirty days after regular passenger trains shall 
run to Waterbury Center Village and the other in one year 
thereafter. And that said selectmen, on the payment of such 
aid and in satisfaction therefor, are directed to subscribe for 
and take in the name of said town the capital stock of our 
said Railroad Company to the amount of said seven thousand 

For many years prior to the incorporation of the village the 
tax rate was about $1 .05 on the grand list of the town. After 

PERIOD 1876-1900 161 

the incorporation of the village the rate by degrees ran from 
$1.50 to $2.00 on $1.00 of the list. This increase cannot be 
said to be due wholly to the incorporation of the village but 
coincidently with it began a steady rise in farm products and 
outside values increased. Within the corporate limits of the 
village, moreover, the real estate valuations have increased 
by more than 50 per cent. The increase of about the same 
amount on farm property within the town limits, though not 
due to village incorporation, has been coincident with the 
village realty increase. Naturally, the practical efTorts at 
securing good roads and their maintenance and the erection 
of new bridges within and without the corporate limits have 
had their effect. Concrete sidewalks received attention at 
the village meeting, August 16, 1889, at which it was voted to 
begin "on Main Street, north side from B. Barrett's Hotel, 
to corner of C. E. Wyman's store, and one or more crossings 
and as much more as in their (trustees') judgment the appro- 
priation will warrant." 

At a special town meeting, April 30, 1894, a resolution was 
passed granting the petition of the Columbian United Electric 
Company for a franchise to occupy a portion of the side of the 
right of way of the highway and for crossings, widening, etc. 

The village had been inadequately lighted by oil lamps, 
requiring a disproportionate amount of care and attention so 
that when the Vermont Electric Company submitted four 
different propositions for lighting the streets, March 9, 1891, 
there was little opposition at this meeting to the acceptance 
of a proposition calling for sixteen arc lamps, each of 1,200 
c.p. to burn from dusk until 11 p. m. At a subsequent meet- 
ing (March 23, 1891), however, it was voted to rescind the 
authorization of the trustees to contract with the Vermont 
Electric Company, passed March 9, and further consideration 
of electric street lighting was deferred temporarily. 

An elaborate and exhaustive report was submitted at a 
special village meeting August 27, 1895, touching on water 
supply in and about Waterbury, the cost and feasibility of 
bringing water to the village for fire, domestic and other pur- 
poses. Appropriate resolutions were thereafter (December 9, 


1895) adopted authorizing the village to take and hold, under 
Act 195, Laws of 1894, certain springs and streams, in the 
towns of Waterbury and Stowe, to issue bonds to the amount 
of $20,000, payable in twenty years, redeemable in five years, 
bearing 4 per cent interest, and authorizing the treasurer to 
borrow on temporary loans not exceeding $14,000. 

The rules and regulations governing the Village Water 
Works were adopted September 24, 1896. 

In a communication dated May 10, 1897, the Mount Mans- 
field Electric Railroad Company gave notice of its purpose to 
begin construction from Waterbury to Stowe and described 
therein the section to be built in the village. 

On April 12, 1898, notice was given by the village, through 
the village clerk, to the Vermont Telephone and Telegraph 
Company of its authorization to erect and maintain poles and 
wires thereon in certain streets. 

At a special village meeting, April 13, 1900, a resolution 
was adopted empowering the trustees to contract with the 
Consolidated Lighting Company to furnish two arc lights of 
2,000 c.p. each and one hundred or more incandescent lamps 
of 32 c.p. each as they find necessary at a price not to exceed 
$50 each for arc lights and $6 for each incandescent light 
per year for a period of five years, the lights to burn from dusk 
until one o'clock a.m., three hundred nights in the year. 

Permits were granted by the Village Trustees to the New 
England Telephone and Telegraph Company and the New 
England Telephone Company to erect poles, wires and supports 
in Stowe, Main, Randall and Foundry Streets, February 9, 
and March 2, 1901. 

Thirteen applications by land owners for the admission of 
their several tracts to the village of Waterbury were filed for 
record March 3, 1902. It was voted to admit and set over to 
the village certain described lands of: Edward Farrar, F. W. 
Powers, L. F. Ricker, Moses Labell, A. P. Foster, William P. 
Mason, F. A. Grout, I. H. Ather, William M. Strong, J. W. 
Keefe, H. DilHngham, W. L. Moody, Mrs. K. A. Demmon. 

Under due authority, the trustees advertised for sealed bids 
until May 8, 1915, at 12 m. for $38,000 of the village of Water- 

PERIOD 1876-1900 163 

bury, Vermont, four per cent coupon or registered bonds 
issued to retire a previous issue of water bonds, also to retire 
orders paid for water system extension and permanent road 
and sidewalk construction, under authority of No. 281, Acts 
of 1908, approved December 18, 1908. This issue was taken 
by the Boston house of N. W. Harris & Co. 

The village officers elected December 26, 1883, for the fol- 
lowing year were: President, Henry Janes; trustees, George 
W. Randall, George E. Moody, Charles C. Warren, James A. 
Burleigh; clerk, George C. Washburne; treasurer, James K. 
FuUerton; collector of taxes, Zenas Watts; auditors, George W. 
Morse, Luther Davis, M. O. Evans; chief engineer, William 
Cooley; first assistant, O. E. Scott; second assistant, Edward 
Farrar; fire wardens, John J. King, Edward Wells, Charles 
Keene, L. Morse. 

The village officers for 1885 were: President J. W. Moody; 
trustees, J. A. Burleigh, L. P. Morse; clerk, George C. Wash- 
burne; treasurer, N. Moody; collector, Zenas Watts; auditors, 
George W. Morse, G. E. Moody, C. F. Clough; chief engineer, 
William Conley; first assistant, Edward Farrar; second assis- 
tant, J. J, King; wardens, J. E. Sheple, T. B. Crossett, Charles 
Keene, S. H. Stowell. C. F. Clough was elected president in 
place of J. W. Moody who asked to be excused from service. 
Nathaniel Moody resigned as treasurer and J. E. Sheple was 
appointed by the trustees in his place. 

The village officers for 1886 were: President, George W. 
Randall; trustees, C. F. Clough, A. J. Brown; clerk, George C. 
Washburne; treasurer, James E. Sheple; auditors, G. E. 
Moody, M. O. Evans, George W. Kennedy; chief engineer, 
G. E. Moody; first assistant, Joseph Somerville; second assis- 
tant, Edward Farrar; wardens, G. E. Moody, E. Towne, George 
C. Demmon, Charles Keene. 

For the year 1887 the village officers were: President, C. F. 
Clough; trustees, M. O. Evans, Curtis N. Arms; clerk, George 
C. Washburne; treasurer, J. E. Sheple; collector, S. H. Stowell; 
auditors, G. E. Moody, J. A. Burleigh, C. D. Robinson; chief 
engineer, G. E. Moody; assistants, C. D. Robinson, Edward 


Farrar; wardens, E. Farrar, John Carroll, Charles Keene, G. C. 

For the year 1888 the village officers were : President, C. N. 
Arms; trustees, J. A. Burleigh, George W. Atkins, C. E. Wy- 
man; collector, W. B. Clark; auditors, G. E. Moody, L. H. 
Haines, H. Hazeltine; chief engineer, M. O. Evans; assistants, 
C. D. Robinson, Edward Farrar; wardens, Edward Farrar, 
John Carroll, Charles Keene, G. C. Demmon; clerk, G. C. 

For the year 1889 the village officers were : President, C. F. 
Clough; clerk, G. C. Washburne; trustees, James A. Burleigh, 
J. E. Sheple; treasurer, C. E. Wyman; collector, W. B. Clark; 
auditors, J. W. Moody, H. Hazeltine, C. N. Arms; chief engi- 
neer, M. O. Evans; assistants, C. D. Robinson, Ed. Farrar; 
wardens, Ed. Farrar, Charles Keene, Charles H. Lease, G. C. 

For 1890 the village officers were: President, Frank H. 
Atherton; trustees, George W. Atkins, John C. Griggs, C. E. 
Wyman; treasurer, George C. Washburne; clerk, W. B. Clark; 
collector, C. N. Arms; auditors, J. W. Moody, C. F. Clough; 
chief engineer, C. D. Robinson; assistants, Edward Farrar, 
William Deal ; wardens, Edward Farrar, Charles Keene, C. H. 
Lease, G. C. Demmon. 

For 1 89 1 the village officers were: President, Frank H- 
Atherton; trustees, George W. Atkins, J. C. Griggs; clerk, 
George W. Morse; treasurer, C. E. Wyman; collector, H. 
Sheple; auditors, C. N. Arms, J. W. Moody, C. F. Clough; 
chief engineer, C. D. Robinson; assistants, William Deal, E. H. 
Farrar; wardens, Charles Lease, J. H Carroll, E. H. Farrar, 
G. C. Demmon. 

For 1892 the village officers were: President, William 
Cooley; trustees, John J. King, George H. Dale; clerk, George 
W. Morse; treasurer, C. E. Wyman; collector, H. S. Sheple; 
auditors, G. E. Moody, George W. Randall, C. F. Clough; 
wardens, Edward Farrar, George C. Demmon, William Deal, 
M. O. Evans. Vacancies occurring in the offices of president 
and treasurer, at an election held at a special village meeting 

PERIOD 1 876-1900 165 

January 22, 1892, the vacancies were filled by electing G. E. 
Moody, president, and George W. Morse, treasurer. 

The village officers for 1893 were: President, George H. Dale; 
trustees, John C. Griggs, Doctor D. D. Grout; clerk, George 
W. Morse; treasurer, same; collector, H. S. Sheple; auditors, 
C. F. Clough, G. E. Moody, M. O. Evans; chief engineer, 
Edward Farrar; assistants, Erwin Cooley, L. H. Atherton; 
wardens, C. D. Robinson, C. S. Wrisley, J. C. Griggs, H. E. 

The village officers for 1894 were: President, C. D. Rob- 
inson; trustees, J. W. Moody, William Cooley; clerk and 
treasurer, George W. Morse; collector, H. S. Sheple; auditors, 
C. F. Clough, J. A. Burleigh, G. E. Moody; chief engineer, 
Edward Farrar; assistants, Erwin Cooley, L. H. Atherton; 
wardens, J. H. Carroll, Edward Farrar, Charles Bailey, James 

For 1895 the village officers were: President, George W. 
Randall; trustees, O. E. Scott, G. E. Moody; clerk, J.J. Colby; 
treasurer, H. S. Sheple; collector, C. C. Graves; auditors, 
J. S. Batchelder, Henry James, L. H. Atherton; chief engineer, 
Edward Farrar; assistants, Erwin Cooley, L. H. Atherton; 
wardens, Joseph Hutchinson, Edward Farrar, J. C. Griggs, 
G. W. Randall. 

For 1896 the village officers were: President, C. F. Clough; 
trustees, H. D. Brown, John Deal; clerk, J.J. Colby; treasurer, 
George W. Morse; collector, C. C. Graves; auditors, H. James, 
L. H. Haines, Charles Keene; chief engineer, Edward Farrar; 
assistants, Erwin Cooley, L. H. Atherton; wardens, Seth 
Jones, G. E. Moody, Joseph Hutchinson, James Somerville. 

For 1897 the village officers were: President, J. A. Bur- 
leigh; trustees, H. D. Brown, Edward Farrar; clerk, J. J. 
Colby; treasurer, J. W. Moody; collector, C. C. Graves; 
auditors, G. E. Moody, G. W. Randall, W. V. Bryan; chief 
engineer, Edward Farrar; assistants, L. H. Atherton, Erwin 
Cooley; wardens, Joseph Hutchinson, James Somerville, 
Charles Keene, Will Seabury. 

For 1898 the village officers were: President, James A. 
Burleigh; trustees, H. D. Brown, Edward Farrar; clerk, J. J. 


Colby; treasurer, J. C. Farrar; auditors, G. E. Moody, M. 
O. Evans, S. W. Jones; chief engineer, Edw. Farrar; assistants, 
Erwin Cooley, James A. Hattie; wardens, Joseph Hutchinson, 
S. W. Jones, P. G. Wright, W. H. Seabury ; water commissioner, 
for three years, James A. Burleigh. 

For 1899 the village officers were : President, G. E. Moody; 
trustees, G. B. Evans, T. O'Neil; clerk, J. J. Colby; treasurer, 
J. C. Farrar; collector, C. C. Graves; auditors, S. W. Jones, 
W. V. Bryan, CM. Griffith; chief engineer, W. H. Carroll; 
assistants, John Deal, James Hattie; wardens, S. W. Jones, 
Charles Keene, P. G. Wright, Joseph Hutchinson; water 
commissioner, for three years, G. E. Moody. 

For 1900 the village officers were: President, G. E. Moody; 
trustees, W. J. Boyce, O. L. Ayres; treasurer, J. C. Farrar; 
collector, C. C. Graves; auditors, George W. Morse, George 
H. Dale, George W. Randall; chief engineer, W. H. Carroll; 
assistants, Erwin Cooley, John Deal; wardens, Olin King, 
S. W. Jones, P. G. Wright, Joseph Hutchinson. 

For 1901 the village officers were: President, W. J. Boyce; 
trustees, Erw^n Cooley, John Deal; clerk, J. K. Fullerton; 
treasurer, George H. Dale; collector, C. C. Graves; auditors, 
G. E. Moody, George W. Morse, W. V. Bryan; chief engineer, 
W. H. Carroll ; assistants, Olin King, Grant O. Russell ; wardens, 
Joseph Hutchinson, S. W. Jones, J. F. Somerville, Heman 
Morse; water commissioner, for three years, H. D. Brown. 

For 1902 the village officers were: President Charles B. 
Clark; trustees, T. B. Crossett, John Deal; clerk, James K. 
Fullerton; treasurer, G. H. Dale; collector, C. C. Graves; 
auditors, G. E. Moody, George W. Morse, George W. Ran- 
dall; chief engineer, Olin King; assistants, C. R. Lyman, S. 
L. Barber; wardens, Joseph Hutchinson, S. W. Jones, H. 
L. Morse, W. H. Seabury; water commissioner, for three 
years, G. E. Moody. 

For 1903 the village officers were: President, Charles B. 
Clark; trustees, W. B. Clark, W. E. Thompson; clerk, James 
K. Fullerton; treasurer, G. H. Dale; collector, C. C. Graves; 
auditors, George W. Randall, C. D. Griffith, George W. 
Morse; chief engineer, Olin King; assistants. Grant O. Russell, 

PERIOD 1876-1900 167 

Frank Towne; wardens, S. W. Jones, Joseph Hutchinson, 
Frank Towne, Frank Williams; water commissioner, for three 
years, Edward Farrar. 

For 1904 the village officers were: President, Edward 
Farrar; trustees, G. E. Moody, M. E. Davis; clerk, James K. 
Fullerton; treasurer, G. H. Dale; collector, C. C. Graves; 
auditors, C. D. Griffith, J. S. Batchelder, G. H. Dale; chief 
engineer, Olin King; assistants, S. VV. Guptil, Grant O. Rus- 
sell; wardens, Joseph Hutchinson, James F. Somerville, O. 
L. Ayers, Frank Williams; water commissioner, H. D. 

For 1905 the village officers were: President, George W. 
Morse; trustees, Charles Keene, O. L. Ayres; clerk, James 
K. Fullerton; treasurer, George H. Dale; collector, C. C. 
Graves; auditors, C. D. Griffith, James K. Fullerton, F. L. 
Knight; chief engineer, Olin King; assistants, Frank Towne, 
J, F. Somerville; wardens, Joseph Hutchinson, O. L. Ayres, 
F. E. Williams, Fred Towne. 

For 1906 the village officers were: President, George W. 
Morse; trustees, L. J. Roberts, O. L. Ayers; clerk, James K. 
Fullerton; treasurer, G. H. Dale; collector, C. C. Graves; 
auditors, F. L. Knight, H. D. Brown, C. H. Haines; chief 
engineer, Olin King; assistants, Frank E. Towne, Erwin 
Cooley; wardens, C. I. Hatch, Joseph Hutchinson, O. L. 
Ayers, J. F. Somerville; water commissioner, for three years, 
D. W. Cooley. 

For 1907 the village officers were: President, C. C. Graves; 
trustees, O. L. Ayers, W. H. Berdan; clerk, James K. Fullerton; 
treasurer, G. H. Dale; collector, G. S. Blaisdell; auditors, C. 
H. Haines, H. D. Brown, F. L. Knight; chief engineer, Olin 
King; assistants, Frank E. Towne, F. C. Evans; wardens, 
C. H. Haines, H. D. Blakely, C. F. Bailey, E. E. Campbell; 
water commissioner, for three years, H. D. Brown. 

For 1908 the village officers were: President, C. C. Graves; 
trustees, O. L. Ayers, W. H. Berdan; clerk, James K. Fullerton; 
collector, G. S. Blaisdell; auditors, H. D. Brown, L. C. Moody, 
F. L. Knight; chief engineer, Olin King; assistants, A. E. 
Edwards, Guy Scott; wardens, F. E. Williams, Arthur John- 


son, J. A. Foster, H. L. Morse; water commissioner, for three 
years, Charles Keene; treasurer, E. E. Joslyn. 

For 1909 the village officers were: President, Harry C. 
Whitehill; trustees, E, E. Campbell, F. C. Luce; clerk, James 
K. Fullerton; treasurer, E. E. Joslyn; collector, W. J. O'Neill; 
auditors, F. L. Knight, L. C. Moody, C, C. Graves; chief 
engineer, Frank E. Towne; assistants, B. A. Lavelle, Horace 
J. Tatro; wardens, Henry Carpenter, W. J. Redmond, B, 

F. Atherton, Frank Williams; water commissioner, for three 
years, W. H. Berdan. 

For 1910 the village officers were: President, Harry C. 
Whitehill; trustees, E. E. Campbell, F. C. Luce; clerk, James 
K. Fullerton; collector, W. J. O'Neill; auditors, F. L. Knight, 

G. H. Dale, W. B. Clark; chief engineer, Olin King; assistants, 
Guy C. Scott, W. N, Gilbert; wardens, Olin King, Guy C. 
Scott, W. N. Gilbert, S. W. Guptil; water commissioner, for 
three years, G. E. Moody; treasurer, E. E. Joslyn. 

For 191 1 the village officers were: President, E. E. Campbell; 
trustees, A. J. Kelley, F. W. Powers; clerk, James K. Fullerton; 
treasurer, E. E. Joslyn; collector, W. J. O'Neill; auditors, 
G. H. Dale, F. L. Knight, M. H. Moody; chief engineer, 
Olin King; assistants, Guy C. Scott, W. N. Gilbert; water 
commissioner, for three years, Morris Daley; wardens, Olin 
King, Guy C. Scott, W. N. Gilbert, S. W. Guptil. 

For 1912 the village officers were: President, F. C. Luce; 
trustees, D. T. Harvey, F. C. Lamb; clerk, James K. Fullerton; 
treasurer, E. E. Joslyn; collector, W. J. O'Neill; auditors, 
E. E. Campbell, G. H. Dale, F. L. Knight; chief engineer, 
Patrick Grace; assistants, Guy C. Scott, W. N. Gilbert; water 
commissioners, O. L. Ayers, for two years, W. H. Berdan, 
for three years. 

For 1913 the village officers were: President, F. C. Luce; 
trustees, D. T. Harvey, F. C. Lamb; clerk, James K. Fullerton; 
treasurer, E. E. Joslyn; collector, G. S. Blaisdell; auditors, 
G. H. Dale, F, L. Knight, E. E. Campbell; chief engineer, 
Olin King; assistants, James Dickie, W. F. Gilbert; wardens, 
W. F. Gilbert, Guy C. Scott, Olin King, James Dickie; water 
commissioner, for three years, G. E. Moody. 

PERIOD 1876-1900 169 

For 1914 the village officers were: President, V. L. Per- 
kins; trustees, C. D. Swasey, J. A. Foster; clerk, James K. 
Fullerton; collector, G. S. Blaisdell; auditors, M. L. Thibault, 
Earl Boyce, C. C. Graves; chief engineer, Olin King; assist- 
ants, Guy Scott, W. F. Gilbert; wardens, Frank Williams, 
Olin King, Guy C. Scott, W. N. Gilbert; water commissioner, 
for three years, O. L. Ayers. 

For 191 5 the village officers were : President, C. D. Swasey; 
trustees, Jesse A. Foster, F. W. Powers; clerk, James K. 
Fullerton; treasurer, E. E. Joslyn; collector, G. S. Blaisdell; 
auditors, C. C. Graves, G. H. Dale, E. E. Campbell; chief 
engineer, Olin King; assistants, W. N. Gilbert, Dan Guyette; 
water commissioner, for three years, W. H. Berdan. 

The quarter century of 1 875-1900 marked the country's 
great electrical development and commercial and industrial 
application of electricity to the needs of the times. The 
first telephone in Waterbury was installed by Colonel Andrew 
C. Brown, late of Montpelier, in the residence and tannery of 
C, C. Warren. About 1882 a toll line was built from Mont- 
pelier to Waterbury and a telephone was installed in the store 
of M. O. Evans. In 1884 a small exchange was established in 
this store and all lines were then connected with the exchange. 

William Paul Dillingham was born in Waterbury, December 
12, 1843, son of Paul and Julia (Carpenter) Dillingham. Be- 
sides the public schools, he attended Newbury Seminary and 
Kimball Union Academy at Meriden, New Hampshire. He 
holds the degree of LL. D., both from Norwich University 
and Middlebury College, and that of A. M. from the Univer- 
sity of Vermont. He was a law student in the office of his 
brother-in-law, Honorable Matthew H. Carpenter of Mil- 
waukee, Wisconsin, and afterwards in the office of his father in 
Waterbury. He married Miss Mary Ellen Shipman of Lisbon, 
New Hampshire. One son, Paul Shipman is now a resident 
of Montpelier, except during the summer months when he, 
with his family, occupies the Dillingham home on Blush Hill. 

William Paul Dillingham was admitted to the Vermont bar 



in 1867, and maintained an office at Waterbury until 1890. 
He was for many years in partnership with his father, and after 
the latter's retirement he practiced his profession in an in- 
dividual capacity. In 1890 at the close of his term as Gover- 
nor of Vermont he formed a partnership with the Honorable 
Hiram A. Huse of Montpelier under the firm name of Dilling- 
ham & Huse, which was afterwards enlarged by the admission 
of Honorable Fred A. Howland, which partnership continued 
until the death of Mr. Huse in 1902. Since that time Mr. 
Dillingham's activities have been connected with public 
life. He was state's attorney of Washington County in 
1 872-1 876; secretary of civil and military affairs, 1874- 
1876; town representative from Waterbury in 1876, 1884 
and 1885; state senator in 1878 and 1880; state tax commis- 
sioner in 1 882-1 888; Governor of Vermont, 1 888-1 890. 
He was elected to the United States Senate to fill the vacancy 
occasioned by the death of Honorable Justin S. Morrill, 
October 18, 1900, and has been reelected by the Legislature 
since — to succeed himself in 1902 and 1908, and again by the 
people November 3, 1914. 

Mr. Dillingham's career as a public speaker was determined 
largely by his election to the office of state's attorney. It had 
been his intention as a lawyer to devote himself to office prac- 
tice and to leave advocacy to other members of his firm. Like 
many another lawyer, he discovered that his constant court 
work as state's attorney developed an unsuspected taste for 
advocacy, giving him an impulse along the lines of forensic 
work. One of the important prosecutions of his term was 
that of a gang of Barre Bank burglars, resulting in the trial, 
conviction and sentence to Windsor of the leader of the gang, 
after many obstructive and dilatory legal moves in New York 
City involving a series of hearings on habeas corpus writs 
sued out for the purpose of resisting the respondent's extradi- 
tion into Vermont. These obstructive tactics in New York 
were eloquent of the difficulties entrenched crime could place 
in the way of due administration of justice in those days of 
pull and public graft. 

In his first message Governor William P. Dillingham dealt 

PERIOD 1876-1900 171 

with the usual overcrowded condition of the State Reform 
School and also that of the Vermont Asylum at Brattleboro. 
Indeed, the ratio of increase of those demanding admission 
had grown so great as to call for immediate relief. The 
Governor advocated "the erection of a state asylum at some 
convenient point capable of accommodating a part or all of 
the insane poor and such private patients as may be desired, 
and upon a plan which will permit of additions or extensions 
as the needs of the state may require." The prohibitory 
liquor law had proven so far ineffective, by reason of lax 
enforcement, that its operation had become farcical in many 
respects. The Governor asked pertinently in his message 
whether the time had not come when a sentence of imprison- 
ment should follow the first conviction under the law and 
when a provision of that character would do more to stop 
sales than any other measure yet proposed. 

In his valedictory message to the General Assembly at the 
October session of 1890, Governor Dillingham dealt with such 
subjects as the education of deaf and dumb, blind and feeble- 
minded children, the agricultural college fund, the work of the 
commissioner of agricultural and manufacturing interests, the 
chancering of bonds (a practice under which systematic 
abuses had grown up in the treatment of bond forfeitures in 
liquor law violations), the Nuisance Act, education and 
Swedish colonization. 

The remarkably interesting experiment had been inaugu- 
rated of inducing the best class of Swedish immigrants to 
come to Vermont and settle on what were then known as 
unoccupied or abandoned farms. There had been a steady 
depreciation for many years in farm values. Vermont in 
common with other Eastern states had suffered from a steady 
exodus of young men who were attracted away, either by the 
lure of commercial or industrial pursuits in manufacturing 
centers or large cities or the call of a semi-adventurous and 
wholly speculative career in the West. Many back or hill- 
farms were either unoccupied or indifferently cultivated, 
though the lands were of good quality and not worn out. 
Emulating the example of their neighbors, the American-born 


sons of foreign parents, who had settled in groups here and 
there in the back towns, also began to look farther afield than 
Vermont. It finally came to the pass where some systematic 
scheme of repopulating the sparsely settled farm communities 
should be put into immediate operation. A number of Swedes 
were induced by the State to settle in the vicinity of Wilming- 
ton, Weston and Peru. These were of the thrifty well-to-do 
class, having sufficient means to make advance payments on 
their farms. The Governor recommended a patient, careful 
and candid study of the problem presented by the commis- 
sioner of whether the experiment so auspiciously begun should 
be further carried out by state aid. A measure for this purpose 
appropriating a sum of money was deferred action until the 
closing hours of the session, when it was defeated. 

It was in May, 1889, the occasion of the celebration of the 
centennial of Washington's inaugural in New York, that the 
magnificent parade of State and Federal troops was held. 
The National Guard of Vermont, with Governor Dillingham 
riding a spirited mare, led the column of Vermonters. The 
Kentucky troops followed Vermont's in the order of disposi- 
tion, with Governor Simon Buckner riding ahead. Upon 
breaking ranks, the old Confederate chieftain looked the 
Vermonters over admiringly and expressed to Governor Dill- 
ingham a naive curiosity as to how the Green Mountain lads 
came by their great stature and inquired if it were not due to 
drinking lime water! 

Since Senator Dillingham became a senator of the United 
States, he has served for a long time as chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Immigration, the Committee on Privileges and 
Elections, and the Committee on the University of the United 
States, and as a member of the important committees on the 
Judiciary, Foreign Relations, Appropriations, District of 
Columbia, and Territories. His long service both as chair- 
man and member of the Committee on Immigration has 
given him an exceptional knowledge of the problems connected 
with foreign immigration so that when in 1907 Congress au- 
thorized an exhaustive examination of the whole question he 
was made chairman of the commission, which consisted of 

PERIOD 1876-1900 173 

three senators, three representatives, and three gentlemen 
selected from civil life. This investigation covered a period 
of three years, and embraced every phase of the subject. It 
necessitated travel throughout a large portion of Europe and a 
special trip to the Hawaiian Islands, where the labor problems 
are important. The printed reports of the commission are 
contained in forty-two volumes. His speeches upon this 
question delivered in the Senate from time to time are too 
numerous to be mentioned and too comprehensive for analy- 
sis in this place, but they, in connection with addresses which 
he has delivered in some of the larger cities of the United 
States, have done much to educate the public mind and to 
shape its opinion upon this question. In fact. Senator Dilling- 
ham has an international reputation for his knowledge of 
immigration questions, and his reports and speeches are widely 
quoted as authentic. 

As a member of the Committee on Territories, Senator 
Dillingham was a member of the sub-committee which inves- 
tigated the conditions in the territories of Arizona, New 
Mexico, and Oklahoma, and he took active part in the debates 
upon the question of their admission to the Union. He 
strongly urged the admission of Oklahoma, but recommended 
delay in respect to the other two. 

As chairman of a sub-committee of the Committee on Ter- 
ritories he visited Alaska, extending his journey the whole 
length of the Ukon river, 2,300 miles, at the mouth of which 
the committee was met by a revenue cutter and a visit was 
made to Nome, the Pribilof Islands, the home of the fur seal 
herds, to the Aleutian Islands, and to all of the Pacific ports 
of Alaska. The committee were for over six weeks beyond 
the reach of communications; their report, drafted by Senator 
Dillingham, so completely covered all legislative action that it 
was accepted as the basis of Alaskan legislation for many 
years. As a result of their investigation of the fur seal herds 
upon the Pribilof Islands, and of their recommendations to 
Congress and to the Department of State, a treaty between 
the United States, Great Britain, and Russia, has been entered 
into for the protection and preservation of the fur seals in 


Behring Sea, and legislation has been adopted to carry the same 
into operation. 

The limits of this sketch render it impossible, even if ad- 
visable to refer in detail to the service of Senator Dillingham 
in the Senate. It is sufficient to say that as a member of the 
Committee on the District of Columbia he has had an active 
part in shaping all the legislation both for the Government of 
the District and for that remarkable development of Washing- 
ton along all lines which are fast making it one of the most 
beautiful capital cities of the world. In his service as a mem- 
ber of the Committee on the Judiciary, he has had to deal 
with questions both intricate and important, and, as a mem- 
ber of the Committee on Appropriations, with problems which 
readily suggest themselves to every intelligent reader. 

As a Senator from Vermont, and having New England's 
interests especially at heart, he stoutly opposed President 
Taft's scheme for reciprocity with Canada, and in the face of 
much criticism he was equally strong in his support of the 
protective principle in tarilY legislation. 

The people of Vermont will not soon forget the judicial 
stand taken by Senator Dillingham as chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Privileges and Elections in its consideration of the 
Lorimer case, nor his able, forceful and lawyer-like r6sume of 
the case in the Senate, July 6, 8 and 9, 1912. Because Mr. 
Dillingham disregarded popular clamor and confined himself 
to a consideration of all the facts, as brought out in the evidence 
taken by the committee, he was subjected to some criticism, 
which, however, was only ephemeral. The result of the re- 
hearing, however disappointing to the courageous few who 
resisted popular clamor, in so sense changed the material facts. 

William P. Dillingham much prefers the peaceful village 
life of Waterbury to the hurly-burly of cities; his love for his 
native town amounts to almost an obsession. He takes de- 
light in participating in town affairs and is known and re- 
garded by his townsmen as one whose interest in the minutest 
matters affecting the town is always keen and suggestive. He 
might well be pardoned for the pride he feels in having been 
instrumental in the establishment and up-building of the 

PERIOD 1 876-1900 175 

State Hospital, the magnificent high school, and in the long- 
worked-for adoption and building of the village water system 
together with C. D. Robinson and G. E. Moody. He it was 
who advocated the first concrete sidewalks for the village, and 
it was largely through his efforts, assisted by those of Justin 
W. Moody and Reverend W. R. Davenport, fellow commit- 
teemen, that the fine new Methodist Church was planned 
and built. It will long be remembered of him that no 
public preferment or distinction could ever displace Water- 
bury from his solicitous affection and care. This is his home 
and here is where he loves to be. 

In accordance with the recommendations of Governor 
William P. Dillingham and pursuant to the action of the 
Legislature a site for the Vermont State Hospital for the Insane 
was purchased in 1889 from Mr. C. C. Warren. The first 
board of trustees were W. H. Giddings, M. D., Bakersfield, 
Vermont; Don D. Grout, M. D., Stowe, Vermont; H. D. Hob- 
son, Brighton, Vermont. The superintendents in order were 
W. E. Sylvester, M. D., appointed in 1891 and served a little 
less than one year; W. H. Giddings, M. D., served four years 
and four months; Frank Page, M. D., followed Doctor Gid- 
dings and served two and one-half years. Doctor Marcello 
Hutchinson followed Doctor Page and served six years and 
four months, retiring in August, 1905. Don D. Grout, M. D., 
the present superintendent, followed Doctor Hutchinson and 
was appointed September 6, 1905. A disastrous fire at the 
hospital occurred December 24, 1909, in which the roof of 
Hall No. 3 was destroyed, and Halls Nos. i, 2 and 3 were 
rendered temporarily unfit for use. The present medical staff 
consists of Don D. Grout, M. D., superintendent; W. L. Was- 
son, M. D., assistant physician and pathologist; E. A. Stanley, 
M. D., second assistant physician; T. J. Allen, M. D., third 
assistant physician. The number of employes is 147; the 
number of patients at present is 768 ; of these 434 are males and 
334 females. The hospital farm of seven hundred acres is in 
charge of Farmer H. C. Douglass. 

Doctor Don De Forest Grout, superintendent of the Ver- 
mont State Hospital for the Insane, at Waterbury, is from old 


New England stock, the English founder of the family, Captain 
John Grout coming to Watertown, Massachusetts, in 1640. 
He was allowed upon petition of the citizens of Sudbury to 
"practice the mistery of chirudgery." Of the fifth generation 
in the direct line was Don Grout, who settled in Elmore, Ver- 
mont, and died in 1841. Major Luman M. Grout, the father 
of the subject of this sketch, was the son of Don Grout of El- 
more. Major Grout was born at Elmore March 8, 1823, and 
died in Waterbury December 9, 191 3. In 1847 he enlisted 
in Company D, a Vermont company of the Ninth Regiment, 
United States Infantry, for service in the Mexican War. He 
received his appointment as corporal at Fort Adams and was 
in the battles of Contreras and Cheresbusco, where he was 
severely wounded and carried from the field to a hospital. 
After his honorable discharge from the army he represented 
the town of Elmore in the Legislature in 1 857-1 858. At the 
breaking out of the Rebellion, he first did recruiting and drill- 
ing duty. His volunteers formed Company A of the Eighth 
Vermont Regiment of Volunteer Infantry. He was elected 
captain of the company and duly commissioned. He took 
part in the taking of New Orleans and was promoted to his 
majority to succeed Colonel Charles Dillingham December 
24, 1862. After the war he lived in Elmore, Montpelier, 
Stoneham, Massachusetts, and finally returned to the home of 
his son, Doctor Grout, in Waterbury, where he spent his last 
years. He was the last survivor of the Mexican War who 
went from Vermont and who also served in the War of the 

Doctor Don D. Grout was born in Morrisville, Vermont, April 
24, 1849. He was educated at the People's Academy, Morris- 
ville, and Dartmouth College. He received his professional 
training at the Medical School of the University of Vermont, 
and was graduated there with the degree of M. D. in 1872. 
He was successively an interne at Kings County Hospital, 
Brooklyn, New York, a general practitioner in Stowe, Vermont, 
and Waterbury. He has been surgeon of the Central Vermont 
Railroad, health officer of the town. United States Pension 
examiner and consulting surgeon of the Fanny Allen Hospital 

PERIOD 1876-1900 177 

of Burlington. A Republican in politics, he has served as 
superintendent of schools at Walcott and town representative 
from Stowe in the Legislature in 1888. A member of the 
legislative committee on the insane, he had charge of the 
bill providing for the present State Hospital for the In- 
sane. Subsequently he was placed in charge of the con- 
struction of the hospital buildings and the removal of patients 
from Brattleboro Hospital. He served four years as one 
of the three original trustees of the State Hospital, from 
the year 1889. He also served as trustee and chairman 
of the school board of the Village of Waterbury from 1900 
to 1903. He was chairman of the Republican Town Com- 
mittee for twenty years. He was chairman of the State 
Tuberculosis Commission from 1902 to 1905; delegate to the 
Pan-American Tuberculosis Congress in Baltimore in 1903. 
He was appointed superintendent and treasurer of the Ver- 
mont State Hospital for the Insane September 6, 1905, and 
has held the post since that time. Doctor Grout is a member 
of the Burlington Medical Society, Chittenden County Medical 
Society, Vermont State Medical Society and the American 
Medical Association. He is past master of Winooski Lodge, 
No. 49, Free and Accepted Masons; member of Waterbury 
Chapter, No. 24, Royal Arch Masons. 

Doctor Grout married (first in 1873) Nettie A. Jones of 
Barre, who died in 1880. He married (second in 1881) Angie 
Wilkins of Stowe and (third in 1892) Ida E. Morse, daughter 
of Daniel J. and Jane (McKee) Morse of Waterbury. Chil- 
dren of his first marriage are Inez (Grout) Lease, born August 
27, 1874; Luman M., born January 4, 1877 (married). Chil- 
dren by second wife are Annie (Grout) Gilbert; Josephine 
(Grout) Magee, born June 11, 1885; Benjamin Harrison, 
civil engineer with Southern New England railroad, born 
September 20, 1888; Angie (Grout) Gale, born July 18, 1892. 
Children by third wife are Don Jackson, born July 31, 1899, 
and Frank Morse, October 29, 1901. 

Widely as Doctor Grout is known throughout Vermont it 
is doubtful if those not living in Waterbury and acquainted 
with his work as head of the State Hospital can form an ade- 


quate conception of the vast good he has accomplished. His 
broad and tolerant sympathies are never vainly appealed to. 
A host of rehabilitated men can testify to the salutary effects 
of his intelligent and helpful influence. Practical humanity's 
cause has no more forceful exponent in the state. 

The Seabury family of Waterbury, whose sketch is given 
here, dates back to John Seabury of Somersetshire, England. 
He came to Boston in 1639. Samuel Seabury, his son, lived 
in Duxbury, Massachusetts, and his son, John, born in Dux- 
bury in 1680, is believed to be he who married Elizabeth 
Alden, granddaughter of John Alden, December 9, 1697, 
and was known later at Groton, Connecticut, as "Deacon 
John Seabury of Groton." His son, Samuel, born July 8, 
1706, was graduated at Harvard and was ordained in England, 
in 1 73 1, as an Episcopalian rector. He married Abigail Mum- 
ford, a daughter of a vestryman. Their son, Samuel, born 
November 30, 1729, also was graduated at Harvard and 
entered the church; he received consecration in Scotland 
November 17, 1784, and was made Bishop, the first of his 
church in America. Caleb, elder brother of Bishop Samuel 
Seabury, was born in February, 1728. John, the son of 
Caleb, born in 1748, was the great-grandfather of Mr. O. A. 
Seabury of Waterbury, and was a sea-captain. 

On his return to the port of New London, from a voyage to 
the West Indies in 1781, the British, boarding the vessel, 
surprised his ship's company and all on board were destroyed 
except his seven-year-old son, John, who eluded the attention 
of the boarders by hiding. This boy, John, married Mary 
Harris and came alone to Stowe in 1794 where he assisted in 
the organization of the town; later, in 1797, he brought his 
family from Colchester, New London County, Connecticut, 
to his new home; making the journey on horseback, the 
family party passed through Waterbury, then a straggling 
village or hamlet consisting of less than ten houses. 

The children of John and Mary Harris Seabury were John, 
father of O. A. Seabury, Caleb, Nathaniel, Mary (Thomas), 
Elizabeth (Handy) and Emily (Thompson). Hester (Scribner), 
Harriet (Lothian), Salome (Towne) and Joel were children of 

PERIOD 1 876-1900 


-A lden- Soabar^ -Lo thi an- Croiiielin 


John Alden 

Lavid Aldcn 1646 

Elizabeth Alden 1675 

Hev.Sara'l Gcabury 1706 

Caleb Seabary 1726 

Col. John Goabary 1763 

Harriet K.Seabury 1616 

John G.W.Lothian 1649 

Dorothy Lothian 1680 

Dorothy J.Cromolin 1907 

Prise ilia Mull ins 
I.Iary Gouthworth 
John Seabary 
Abigail Lamford 
Esther Marnford 
Dorothy Harri s 
Daniel Lothian 
Jeanne tte A.Basby 
John Cromelin 

For further information apply to 

Mrs, John Cromelin 
Prospect Ave, 
Vernon, II. Y. 


ui lo^y, d.b appeal b latei iii tins uuuk. Ljy pxvjuucing tin 
honest, durable product the firm grew in strength and in the 


Elizabeth (Handy) and Emily (Thompson). Hester (Scribner), 
Harriet (Lothian), Salome (Towne) and Joel were children of 

PERIOD 1876-1900 



Willi am Llanni ng 

V/illiam Manning 1614 

Samuel Manning 1644 

Samuel Manning 1665 

John Manning 1696 

Phineas Manning 1727 

Phineaa Manning 1756 

Hannah Manning 1794 

lydia Williams 1835 

Jeanne tte Busby 1856 

Dorothy Lothian 1880 

Dodothy Cromelin 1907 





Sarah v; 




John 0, 

John Cr 







Fox further information apply to 

Mrs. John Cromelin 
266 ?rospect Ave. 
Mo un t Ye r no n , K . Y . 

Feb. 1929 

^,x lo^y, CIS dppemb icttei in uus uouk. ^y p.^^ou^ixxg ccxx 

honest, durable product the firm grew in strength and in the 


iLii^auetn (.riauuyj ana iimiiy unompson;. Hester pcriDner;, 
Harriet (Lothian), Salome (Towne) and Joel were children of 

PERIOD 1 876-1900 



John Alden 

Joseph Alden 1627 

John Alden 1674 

2benezor Alden 1720 

Abigail Alden 1762 

Hannah Llanning 17S)4 

Lydia V/illiaraa 1836 

Jeannette A.Basby 1656 

Dorothy Lothian 1660 

Dorothy J.Cromelin 1907 

Priscilla l.Iullins 
I.Iary Simmons 
Hannah V/hite 
Ann v/hit taker 
Phineas Ilanning 
Daniel Williams 
Oeorge Busby 
John C^.V/. Lothian 
John Gromelin 

For further information apply to 

LIrs.John Gromelin 
266 Prospect Ave. 
Llount Vernon, LT.Y. 


or 1859, as appears later in this book. By producing an 
honest, durable product the firm grew in strength and in the 

1/8 HISTORY OF WATERBURY, VERMONT^^ui v^xcx.uyy aiiu iz^iuiiy unompson;. riester (.^criDner;. 
Harriet (Lothian), Salome (Towne) and Joel were children of 

PERIOD 1876-1900 179 

his wife, Dorothy (Harris). John Seabury, father of O. A. 
Seabury, was born in Colchester, New London County, Con- 
necticut, August 22, 1793. His early youth was spent at 
his father's home in Stowe, where he attended the common 
schools and worked on the farm, varying this with teaching 
school in winter. He, with several brothers and his father, 
a colonel of militia, served in the War of 1812; starting for 
Plattsburg in September, 1813, they arrived at Burlington 
only to find that communication with and transportation to 
the other side of the lake had been cut off. Here the Seaburys 
stayed until the British withdrew, their service lacking just 
one day of entitling them to pensions. 

Soon after attaining his majority, John Seabury went to 
work in a brick-yard in Montreal, Province of Quebec. After 
a few years in Canada, he returned to Stowe as appears by 
certain deeds dated in 1823. That same year, he came to 
Waterbury and began work for Ariel Thomas in the business 
of cloth dressing and wool carding. 

In 1822 Ariel Thomas of Bridgewater, Vermont, bought his 
mill site of William Eddy and moved from Bridgewater, 
bringing with him his wife, Mary (Seabury), daughter of 
Colonel John Seabury, and Alvinza Thompson, who afterwards 
married Emily (Seabury), second daughter of Colonel John. 
Thompson entered Thomas' employ as cloth dresser. In 1823 
John Seabury bought another and better equipped site further 
down the stream and went into business with his brother-in- 
law, Ariel Thomas. The firm conducted both establishments 
until the upper mill burned in the early 30's. The business 
was thereafter conducted at the lower mill under the firm 
name of Thomas, Seabury & Thompson until the retirement 
of the senior member. Following this change, the firm was 
known as Seabury & Thompson. The partners enlarged the 
plant and installed new and improved machinery and soon 
acquired the most extensive manufacturing business in this 
part of the state, which continued for over twenty-five years. 

The business was bought by George D. Joslyn in 1858 
or 1859, as appears later in this book. By producing an 
honest, durable product the firm grew in strength and in the 


confidence of the farmers who exchanged their wool for cloth 
at a fixed price per yard for manufacture. Up to this time, 
the early settlers of Waterbury and vicinity were obliged 
to produce their home-made or home-spun cloths as best they 
could by recourse to household hand cards, spinning wheels 
and hand looms. After the advent of the cloth dressing and 
carding machinery came the machinery for finishing off the 
product of the hand loom, which product had heretofore been 
worn in its rough state just as it came from the loom. This 
improved product was called full-cloth; so, by degrees, power 
looms and spinning jacks came into vogue, calling for factories 
in which every step of cloth making could be carried out. 

To Jonathan Robbins belongs the credit of building the 
first carding and cloth dressing establishment in this vicinity. 
He built his plant on the site of the first grist mill of Carpenter 
& Eddy about 1815. 

In 1828 John Seabury married Calista Thompson, the sister 
of his partner, who came here from Bridgewater as a school 
teacher. The newly married pair occupied the house pur- 
chased by John Seabury of Jonathan Robbins in 1824. This 
property included the mill site of Thompson & Seabury. 
The residence, an old-fashioned, three-story, hip-roofed build- 
ing, burned in 1846. The present Seabury home replaced it 
the same year. This was John Seabury 's home until his death. 

The firm of Seabury & Thompson took into partnership 
Henry Blanchard, in the early 40's, and the firm was there- 
after Thompson, Seabury & Blanchard. Not long after the 
first half of the century had passed, the firm began to realize 
that their honest product was called upon to compete with 
cheap, shoddy material used in the trade for ready made 
clothing. Wool declined in price and farmers found it un- 
profitable to raise sheep — an important industry in itself. 
There was a slight reaction at the outbreak of the Civil War 
when cotton became dear, but this was only temporary. 
The business passed out of the hands of Thompson, Seabury 
& Blanchard into those of George D. Joslyn, Selleck & Joslyn, 
and A. H. Selleck, successively. 

How great a boon the machine for cloth manufacture was 

PERIOD 1876-1900 181 

to the overburdened housewives of the period may be realized 
when it is pointed out that the price in exchange was at the 
rate of thirty-five cents a yard and for twenty-two ounces of 
wool the factory would return eleven ounces of finished cloth. 
For the first time, the busy mother could procure factory 
made flannels for household uses, underwear, etc., also cloth 
for sheets and dresses. The decline in wool and the competi- 
tion with shoddy products reacted, of course, upon the families 
of the community to their loss. 

John and Calista (Thompson) Seabury continued to live 
in the old Robbins residence and the present homestead that 
replaced it until their respective deaths in 1881 and 1880. 
Children born of the marriage were Helen (i 830-1 903), who 
married William Richardson, a lawyer of Waterbury (died 
in 1849); Edward Thomas (1832-1899), who married Mary 
A. Stevens (died in 1883) ; children of this marriage are William 
H., Mae F. and Alice L., who, with a second wife, Julia (Bliss) 
Seabury, survive; and Sylindia, who married Francis Joslyn 
(now dead) and who still lives with her daughter, Mrs. Minnie 
Farrell at Colbyville; John Q., who went to Redlands, Cali- 
fornia; after his death, in 1908, the city of Redlands caused a 
bronze tablet to be placed upon his monument with this 


Ovid Arioch (unmarried), who is now living in the old 
Seabury homestead with the family of E. T. Seabury; Mr. O. 
A. Seabury, besides being a patron of the arts, is a well known 
raconteur with a wide acquaintance and hosts of friends 
within and without the state; Weltha F. (died in Waitsfield 
in 1871), who was the wife of E. E. Joslyn; their two children 
now living, are Jesse E. of Montpelier and L. B. Joslyn of 
Waitsfield; Martha J. married N. P. Wheeler, and died in 
1874 leaving a daughter Jessie, who married F. J. Greene and 
now lives in Petaluma, California. 


John Seabury, the head of this large family of Waterbury, 
was a man of strong religious predilections and became a 
member of the prudential committee of the local Congrega- 
tional Church. Being an ardent Free Soiler, Mr. Seabury 
favored the use of the church at a meeting to be addressed by 
the first Free Soil speaker to come into the state. This was 
refused by other members of the committee, whereupon the 
committeeman withdrew and declined to have anything 
more to do with the church, although his name was 
continued on the rolls. Subsequently he became interested 
in the Adventist faith and assisted in maintaining and building 
the first Advent Church in Waterbury, while the rest of the 
family worshiped at the Congregational Church. 

Mr. Seabury was wont to do his own thinking, — sometimes 
arriving at conclusions that were not popular, but frequently, 
as they developed, ahead of his time. He was accustomed to 
express himself in quaint but forceful phraseology though he 
was a faultless grammarian, if he so chose to be. He was ever 
ready to lend a helping hand to the poor and needy; his home 
and table were always open to friends or strangers, sometimes 
to the discomfort of the other members of the family. He 
belonged to that wing of the Whig party that afterwards 
became Republican and voted for Harrison and Tyler in 1840. 
He was a bitter opponent of slavery and derived his anti- 
slavery gospel largely from the New York Tribune, showing 
his practical devotion to the cause by helping along all "under- 
ground railway" enterprises in Vermont. 

In personal appearance Mr. Seabury was tall, but not 
erect, — about six feet two inches in height and weighing one 
hundred and forty-five pounds. He had a long, swinging 
stride and, when walking, moved his arms from side to side, 
presenting an ungainly appearance which he sometimes pur- 
posely affected. He was a kind, indulgent parent and husband, 
fond of his children and their pastimes, never seeming to feel 
annoyed or irritated at their pranks and noise. His kindness 
and forbearance to debtors were also well known. It never 
occurred to Mr. Seabury that because a customer never paid 
his bills and was never expected to, he should, therefore, 

PERIOD 1876-1900 183 

be denied further credit. With such a disposition, it is not 
surprising to learn that he never worried. He left the example 
to his townsmen of one who was perfectly honest in all his 
dealings and whose word was unquestioned. 

Mr. and Mrs. John Seabury celebrated their golden wedding 
in 1878. Mrs. Seabury died in 1880 and Mr. Seabury one 
year later. They passed their married lives on the home 
site selected in 1824. Seven of their eight children reached 
maturity, one dying in infancy. All are married save one. 
There are now living seven grandchildren, nine great-grand- 
children and five great-great-grandchildren. Of the grand- 
children, William Henry Seabury is the business manager 
of his father's estate (E. T. Seabury estate), engaged in the 
wholesale and retail business of flour, feed and general milling. 
He lives at the old Seabury home with his stepmother and 

Moses M. Knight came to Waterbury in 1848 and married 
Sarah (Blush) Knight in 1854. Mr. Knight was for many 
years one of the successful merchants of the town. The only 
child was F. L. Knight, born April 5, 1863, who is now con- 
nected with the mercantile establishment of F. C. Luce. 

Mr. F. L. Knight married Miss Daisy Clark, daughter of 
Orrin L. and Janet (Loomis) Clark, of Georgia, Vermont. 
Children of Mr. and Mrs. F. L. Knight are Albert Clark, 
Edward Morse, J. Bradford and Sarah Janet. 

Edwin Franklin Palmer was born in Waitsfield, January 
22, 1836, the son of Aaron and Sarah (Thayer) Palmer. His 
father and grandfather before him were early settlers and 
residents of Waitsfield, occupying one of the large farms in 
Waitsfield Common. Palmer Hill, in the neighborhood, takes 
its name from the family. Of the family of eleven, four of 
the sons were educated at Dartmouth College. Mr. Palmer's 
preparation for college was obtained at Northfield. He 
entered Dartmouth in the fall of 1858 and was graduated in 
the class of 1862. Soon after graduation he entered the 
Union army with Company B, Thirteenth Vermont Regiment, 
as lieutenant. 

Mr. Palmer was one of those whose good fortune it was to 


have received his legal education and preparation for admis- 
sion to the bar in the office of Governor Paul Dillingham. 
Mr. Palmer practiced his profession in Waterbury; he was 
town representative three times, reporter of the Supreme 
Court and editor of eight volumes of Supreme Court Reports. 
He served as State Superintendent of Education and was 
instrumental in securing to the state many new and long 
needed improvements in her educational system. 

He married Addie D. Hartshorn, at Guildhall, June 15, 
1865. There were seven children, four of whom are liv- 
ing: Edwin P., Jr., of Duxbury; John H. of Dorchester, 
Massachusetts; Robert W. of Cambridge, Massachusetts; 
Charles C. of Warren, New Hampshire; and two grand- 
children, Annie Dorothy Palmer and Eber Huntley Palmer. 

Mr. Palmer enlisted in Company B, Thirteenth Vermont 
Regiment, August 25, 1862, from Waitsfield. He was made 
sergeant and afterwards commissioned second lieutenant, No- 
vember 4, 1862. He was mustered out July 21, 1863. Mr. 
Palmer was a careful student of political and educational prob- 
lems and a ready and interesting speaker. He was the author 
of an entertaining volume, "Camp Life by a Volunteer." 

Mr. Palmer died October 8, 1914, and his funeral was held 
at the Palmer residence the following Sunday, October 1 1 , 1914. 
Reverend W. L. Boicourt officiated, assisted by Reverend 
W. E. Douglass. John H. Senter, Esq., spoke of Mr. Palmer 
as "a friend, lawyer and professional man." 

Doctor Emory G. Hooker, an esteemed physician of 
Waterbury, was born in Cabot, February 19, 1839, the son 
of Mr. and Mrs. Liberty Hooker. After a short period spent 
in Massachusetts he went to Ann Arbor, Michigan, where 
he entered the University of Michigan, in the Medical School, 
and was graduated as one of his class leaders in 1864. He 
completed his medical education at the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons in New York City where he was graduated with 
high honors. He practiced successively in Montpelier and 
Waitsfield and came to Waterbury in 1880. His skill as a 
physician and surgeon was widely recognized within and with- 
out the state. Doctor Hooker was a prominent Mason and 

PERIOD 1876-1900 185 

past grand master of Winooski Lodge. He married Miss 
Katharine Kneeland December 28, 1865. Mrs. B. F. Atherton 
is a daughter of the marriage. Doctor Hooker died in Water- 
bury August 13, 1902, and the funeral services were held at 
the Methodist Church. An eloquent tribute was paid Doctor 
Hooker by Doctor Don D. Grout, a fellow lodge member. 
This appeared in the issue of the Waterbury Record of August 
19, 1902. 

The town builders of Waterbury who had the distinct 
advantage of being born here profited by the impetus given 
the town by their forbears and carried on the work from the 
point where their fathers left off. Such a man is George W. 
Randall, now a nonagenarian living in his old home on Main 
Street, with Mrs. Randall, and having near at hand, Doctor 
Watson Wasson and Mrs. Pearl (Randall) Wasson, his son- 
in-law and daughter, respectively. Mr. Randall was born 
on Ricker Mountain, September 18, 1825, the son of Oliver 
Cromwell and Electa (Cofifin) Randall, who was the great- 
granddaughter of Hannah Dustin, the heroine of Haverhill, 
Massachusetts. Both his father and grandfather had been 
the earliest settlers on the mountain, not then named. 

After his father's death in 1830, his mother, the daughter 
of Moses Cofifin, removed to Stowe and married George Akeley. 
Mr. Randall spent some years of his boyhood with an aunt, 
Mrs. Davis, but at the age of sixteen became apprenticed to 
a blacksmith in Waterbury to learn that trade, boarding during 
the succeeding three years at the home of R. C. Smith. He 
soon saw the necessity for schooling and accordingly availed 
himself of what could be furnished at the common schools 
and the academy at Bakersfield until he was twenty years 
of age. He taught school for three successive winters on 
Ricker Mountain and "boarded round" as was then the cus- 
tom for teachers. 

Mr. Randall relates with some gusto his experiences as a 
young man hunting employment in Boston and the then 
new city of Lawrence, Massachusetts. He recounts an inci- 
dent of having been present in the United States District 
Court in Boston when one Crafts, a sea-captain, was on 



trial for murder. He had as counsel Rufus Choate who, 
in seeking to impeach the testimony of the vessel's mate, 
commented characteristically: 

Some truth there was 

But mixed and dashed with lies — 

To please the fool 

And dazzle all the wise. 

This court experience may or may not have had something 
to do with Mr. Randall's subsequent determination to study 
law in the office of Honorable Paul Dillingham. 

With the dry humor his old acquaintances know so well, 
he gives the details of a dog case he undertook in which par- 
ticipated as counsel Matthew Hale Carpenter, afterwards 
United States Senator from Wisconsin and one of the fore- 
most constitutional lawyers of his time. Carpenter at this 
time, however, was a young lawyer in the office of Rufus 
Choate in Boston and was revisiting Waterbury and the office 
of his former preceptor, Paul Dillingham. Young Randall 
had entered this office as a student of Blackstone, Chitty and 
Kent the winter before he became twenty-four years of age. A 
part of his clerical duties was to make out the simpler writs, 
and copy pleadings and office papers. One day during the ab- 
sence of his preceptor, Mr. Dillingham, an elderly gentleman 
named Hawley applied to him for a writ against the owner 
of a dog which had just bitten him. Nothing daunted, young 
Randall made out the writ, and when Mr. Dillingham re- 
turned he said, "Well, George, now that you have made out 
this writ, you may as well try the case." Upon a jury trial, 
there was a disagreement. Then it was that the brilliant 
advocate, Matthew Carpenter, suggested that evidence tend- 
ing to show that the dog was always a ferocious beast was 
lacking and the case should be strenghtened in this regard. 
Instead of going to trial for the second time, however, the 
young man followed the advice of Mr. Dillingham who said 
Mr. Hawley had no money to fool away on law and that there 
should be a discontinuance, each party paying his costs. 
This was done. 

Mr. Randall's early life was much the same as that of all 

PERIOD 1876-1900 187 

New England country boys. Incidents of attending school 
on Ricker Mountain and Nebraska Brook; his boyish triumphs 
in penmanship and the spelling class; his all but tragic expe- 
rience when, at a tender age, he was lost in a snow storm and 
was forced to burrow his way into a drift to keep from perish- 
ing until he was found by the searchers; his employment 
on a farm at sixteen; his blacksmithing apprenticeship; his 
academic education; his wonderful trip, via the Isthmus, to 
California, starting September i, 1849; his experiences en 
route and in the mines; his successful ventures there and 
his triumphal return only to make a second venture ; his final 
return to Waterbury; his subsequent activities in business 
and political life, all contribute to round out an inspiring 
career of youthful sagacity, shrewdness of young manhood, 
courage and industry, and finally the far-sighted thrift, judg- 
ment and prosperity of middle and old age. 

Mr. Randall has prospered largely through real estate 
operations, farming and lumbering. His sawmills were for 
years the most extensive in the vicinity and have cut 1,000,000 
feet of lumber annually, employing a large force of workmen. 
Originally a Democrat, Mr. Randall joined the Republican 
party at its organization and has been auditor, lister, select- 
man and town representative several times. 

Letters from Mr. Randall to friends and relatives written 
from Chagres and Panama on the Isthmus are interesting 
commentaries on transportation facilities then in vogue. The 
fare from Panama, by the ship Senator, was $200 to San Fran- 
cisco. He describes his stay in Chagres, during which he 
visited "the old castle, — one mighty mass of ruins, cannon, 
grape shot and all the munitions of war which remain in the 
same condition as when left after being scattered by the buc- 
caneers headed by Morgan, Drake, and others in the year 
1500; in the midst of the castle stands a magnificent orange 
tree. . . . Honorable John T. Van Allen, American 
Minister to Ecuador, came out on the Crescent City. He had 
papers for an American consul at Chagres, but no consul could 
he find. He seemed somewhat chagrined at the mistake of 
Uncle Sam's boys; Allen being in a great sweat to get along, 


tried to get the natives to show him through, but the darkies 
are not to be hurried." 

Mr. Randall wrote interestingly from the mines in Cali- 
fornia, and also from San Francisco. He says of the latter in 
a letter of March 19, 1850: "This city is nothing but a frog 
pond, although there are many splendid buildings. Men 
have died in this city like sheep this winter, although where I 
wintered it was very healthy. As regards the gold in this 
country . . . the whole earth, for many miles, will 
produce gold but it is only the banks or beds of rivers and 
ravines that pay for working. . . . We had fifteen days 
fair weather in succession in February. I had a good place or 
lead meantime and took out between three and four hundred 
Dolls, the rest of the time through the winter has paid from 
five to twenty dollars per day but remember I only work 
when it is pleasant ; my health is too precious to barter off for 

Mr. Randall in sending a sum of money home preferred to 
send it by a draft in triplicate to provide against loss. He 
explained in his letters that if he were coming home himself he 
would have brought his gold dust with him to get the increase 
at the mint over what he would be obliged to take in Cali- 
fornia. Writing from the mines in Dry Creek he says: "One 
day while prospecting in a ravine we hit on a place where two 
of us got eight hundred dollars or 25 ounces in eight hours; it 
is coarse gold; one particle is worth twenty-one Dolls." 

Mr. Randall's first wife was Lepha White, who was born 
August 12, 1830, and died March 19, 1874. Mr. Randall next 
married Miss Belle Gleason of Waterbury. Two children were 
born of this marriage, George C. Randall, now engaged in 
farming and the lumber business near Cotton Brook and the 
Stowe line, and Pearl (Randall) Wasson, wife of Doctor Wat- 
son Wasson of the medical staff of the Vermont State Hospital. 

A citizen of Waterbury who has literally been one of her 
most conscientious builders is Mr. William Deal, who was born 
in Phillipsburgh, Province of Quebec, December 3, 1833, and 
who, though a resident of Waterbury since 1850, did not 
become a naturalized American citizen until 1888. Mr. 

PERIOD 1876-1900 189 

Deal married Miss Asenath Marshall of Waterbury in 1857. 
Two children (each married) were born of the marriage, John, 
a father of six children, living in Waterbury, and Mrs. Tenie 
(Deal) Roberts of Montpelier. Mr. Deal, either by himself 
or associated with others, played an important part in the 
building operations of Waterbury for forty years. He it was 
who erected such buildings as the Waterbury Inn in 1864 to 
replace the old Washington House destroyed by fire October 
8, 1858. Mr. Deal was well acquainted with and a hunting 
companion of John (Ossawatomie) Brown of Harper's Ferry 
fame, and his two lieutenants, Samuel and Frank Thompson, 
when the four lived out and hunted near North Elba, Clinton 
County, New York. Mr. Deal expresses gratification at the 
movement now afoot to mark the Brown graves properly in 
the obscure burial place at North Elba after fifty-five years 
of neglect. 

Waterbury 's population in 1890 was 2,232, a loss of sixty- 
five in the ten years from the date of the preceding census in 
1880. This loss was so inconsiderable, however, that the town 
might be said to have held its own. There was then, as now, 
a certain floating population as was evidenced by the tax 
returns. The Legislature of 1890 was the better for the pres- 
ence in it of the late Doctor Henry Janes as town representa- 
tive from Waterbury. The personnel of Waterbury 's repre- 
sentatives as a whole, however, had preserved its general level 
of ability, as reference to the list beginning with Daniel Bliss 
in 1792 will indicate. From contemporary data of the period 
it appears that the town's business, social, religious and educa- 
tional life remained practically as it had been for the ten years 

The establishment in April, 1895, of the Waterbury Record, 
by Fred N. Whitney of Northfield, under the editorship and 
management of Harry C. Whitehill, was an event fraught with 
greater importance to the town than the mere surface fact 
might indicate. It is always true of every town that the 
advent of the town's own publication, however modest and 
retiring, is something of grave importance to the community's 
life. There is no need of dwelling upon the insensible influence 


of the possibilities of publicity; there is still less call for doing 
more than adverting to the sense of proprietorship each citizen 
should feel in his town newspaper. It may be said generally, 
with no ulterior purpose, that the ebb and flow of the fortunes 
of a town's newspaper is taken, in large measure, as a gauge 
of the prosperity of that town. Even the most confirmed 
cynic will agree that the one thing needful to intelligent com- 
munity effort and civic team-work is the local newspaper. 
Not to recognize this spells an almost fatal indifference to the 
community's welfare. At this point the writer takes occasion 
to remark that the foregoing has been rescued from the rigid 
censorship of the publisher of this volume only by dint of a 
stubborn and insistent opposition and that the responsibility 
for the sentiment expressed and the propriety of its expression 
rests absolutely with the writer. 

Mr. Harry C. Whitehill was born in Groton, Vermont, May 
9, 1875, the son of Moses H. and Ella Frances (Ricker) White- 
hill. He was educated at the Groton public schools and the 
Montpelier Seminary. He came to Waterbury in April, 1895, 
coincidently with the establishment of the Waterbury Record. 
He served as president of the village in 1909 and is a director 
in the Waterbury Trust and Savings Bank. He was married, 
January 19, 1898, to Miss Mary Moody, daughter of the late 
Justin W. and Mrs. Harriet (Brown) Moody. Mr. Whitehill's 
book store and editorial office goes far to fill the place of 
the "old corner store" as a village institution. It has become, 
through naturally selective process, the town forum ; the habit 
of dropping in has become inveterate. One need not be even 
a demi-god to be eligible to this Olympus; hence the waiting 
list. The writer once had some slight knowledge of an insti- 
tution known as the "Saints and Sinners" corner in the great 
Chicago McClurg publishing house, where were accustomed to 
gather literary celebrities and bibliophiles; he indulges no 
violent presumption when he asserts that the influences of our 
local haven for local saints and sinners, in their way, are 
working together for just as definite a goal. 

It is worthy of note that the Waterbury Record was issued as 
a daily newspaper during the Vermont Annual Methodist Con- 

PERIOD 1876-1900 191 

ference, beginning April 10, 1895; at this time the Record was 
printed in the Odd Fellows Block. 

The flood or freshet occurring in April, 1895, was the most 
destructive one next after that of 1869. The lower end of 
Main Street was under water and the Colbyville dam was 
carried away. The water overflowed the Winooski banks 
and covered the meadow land south of the State Hospital's 
power house, coming up even to the house itself and to the 
vestry of the Methodist Church. 

The much mooted, wearisome and futile controversy was 
again revived, in 1895, over that "iridescent dream" reform 
of the legislative representation system. The same old argu- 
ments were adduced with the same old vehemence and with 
the same old effect, or lack of it. It would appear from these 
old arguments that the word "reform" in this connection must 
have been used in a Pickwickian sense. What was urged by 
the advocates of the new order was a change. If reform means 
"to make over" then, perhaps, the word was used advisedly. 

May 20, 1895, was the date of a meeting of citizens to con- 
sider the building of a carriage road leading to the summit of 
Camel's Hump. It was proposed to build a road from John 
McNeal's farmhouse on a grade averaging 14 per cent. 

It renews youth to read of the old time celebration of the 
Fourth of July, 1895. There was a huge bonfire in the depot 
park; the usual fireworks and noise; the usual explosion of a 
badly loaded cannon, and the usual saddening incident of its 
effect in injuring a young boy; there was also a parade of 
"horribles," a ball game with Essex, whose team scored 18 
to Waterbury's 9 runs; amateur bicycle races, etc. 

That the nation's needs were not overlooked by the vigilant 
press is attested by the following from the local newspaper 
under date of December 3, 1895: "Congress will make no 
mistake during the coming session if it authorizes the con- 
struction of a whole fleet of torpedo boats." If the editor who 
penned those lines had the vision of a seer as to conditions 
twenty years later, he could not have made a wiser recom- 
mendation. But preparedness was then, as now, talked about 
and preached to little effect. We read in the Waterhury Record 


of March 15, 1898, of the precipitate action of Congress, March 
8, in appropriating $50,000,000 for national defense following 
the destruction of the Maine in Havana harbor. Twelve 
minutes after the bill was reported to the Senate, the Vice- 
President announced its unanimous passage; after receiving 
his signature it was rushed to the White House where President 
McKinley made it a law, and yet even that implied recogni- 
tion of our fatuous complacency did not prevent the cruel 
blundering that followed in preparation for the Spanish War. 
The issue of March 22 contains the memorable speech of Sen- 
ator Redfield Proctor, recounting what he saw in Cuba and 
concluding with the pregnant observation: " But it is not my 
purpose at this time nor do I consider it my province to sug- 
gest any plan. I merely speak of the symptoms as I saw 
them, but do not undertake to prescribe. Such remedial 
steps as may be required may safely be left to an American 
President and to an American people." 

No Vermonter need be told of the electrical effect of Senator 
Proctor's speech. The events that were crowded into the 
following five months changed the whole course and policy of 
this government. From being a lethargic, unwieldy body 
politic, heavily drugged with the soporific anesthetic of com- 
mercialism, it was suddenly transformed into a world power, 
fighting and expanding like other nations. Singularly enough 
the lesson of un preparedness, serious as it seemed at the time, 
has borne little fruit. Commercialism has again lulled the 
people to sleep while the rest of the world, not actually bel- 
ligerent, is vigilant, wakeful and busy in preparation. At 
this writing, the outcome of a long, tortuous, difficult, diplo- 
matic correspondence would seem to have averted from the 
nation the unthinkable consequences of a rupture of relations 
with the most formidable of the present belligerents. Shall 
the avoidance of disaster by this narrow margin again go un- 
heeded? Are we forever and a day to dwell upon a volcano 
of unpreparedness? 

True to her record, Waterbury is able to say that she was 
represented even in the Spanish-American War in 1898. Al- 
though none of the state towns was required to furnish a 

PERIOD 1876-1900 193 

quota, there were certain voluntary enlistments either in the 
First Vermont Infantry Regiment or in the Regular service 
by Vermont recruits. Unfortunately there are no state records 
of enlistments in the Regular service, so that it is not at this 
time possible to say just how many from Waterbury partici- 
pated, but this much is known: One Michael McNalley, who 
gave his residence as Waterbury, enlisted May 13, 1898, in 
Company H, and was mustered out October 2'], 1898, at 
Montpelier, thus saving Waterbury 's record of representation, 
though in this case not actual fighting experience, in all our 

It would seem that the enthusiasm of some of those who saw 
service in the Philippine Islands the following year was consid- 
erably dampened, if one may judge from a letter received in 
Waterbury, bearing date March 5, 1899, in which the writer, 
a private of volunteers, says: "What the United States wants 
of these Islands and their inhabitants is more than I can see 
for they have already cost more lives than the whole group is 
worth. I suppose all Vermonters are very proud of Admiral 
Dewey and they may well be. . The only fault I 

find with him is that he favors the retention of these Islands. 
Bryan has a spark of sense after all for he is not in favor of 
annexation." This last may indicate how deeply the iron 
had entered the soul of the writer. 

Building in Waterbury during the summer of 1899 took an 
upward trend. Ten new houses were added to the village 
including two business blocks. Perhaps the most important 
of all the improvements was the commodious new school 
building opened to local pupils in 1899. Main Street grade 
was permanently improved. Generally, good prices prevailed 
for farm products; the advance in the price for lumber reacted 
profitably; and in many ways the town partook of the general 
flow of prosperity. Rather more fortunate than many other 
towns in the state, its health officers, aided by local physicians, 
investigated the so-called Guptil water supply sources with 
results salutary to public health. 

The location of a copper prospect on the farm of G. B. Smal- 
ley, near Stowe, aroused local interest in August, 1899. There 


were the usual visits by the usual experts and near-experts; 
there were the usual rainbow-hued reports; the usual acme of 
excitement and the usual subsidence of interest and oblivion. 

The business done in the town during the year warranted 
raising the local post-office to the second class, which moved 
someone to remark that "C. C. Warren is to the Waterbury 
post-office what Wells, Richardson & Company is, to the Bur- 
lington post-office." 

Spicy ingredients were injected into the liquor traffic stew 
from time to time in the way of journalistic condiments. 
Waterbury stoutly maintained that good hote^s could be 
profitably run and maintained on the prohibition plan; 
other towns took issue; then followed argument of more or 
less relevancy and of vast capabilities for edification. 

The wonderful nineteenth century came to an end showing 
a gain in population of Waterbury in one hundred years of 
only 2,629 or the difference between 644 in 1800 and 3,273 in 
1900. But who shall estimate the influence of this small 
community upon the state and nation? 









The town's general prosperity continued with little to 
remind one of the rude financial shocks that were convulsing 
the large cities during the first five years of the new century. 
There was little to fear from the instability incidental to high 
finance in this secluded corner. The population in 1910 of the 
town was 3,273 of which the village claimed 1,377. The March 
meetings were followed in due course by the September and 
November meetings. There was naturally a feeling of quiet 
and triumphant satisfaction, though not too boisterously ap- 
parent, at the choice of Mr. Dillingham for the United States 
Senate in 1900. The gubernatorial campaign of 1902 is still re- 
ferred to in Vermont as a history-making date, when private 
cars, negro songsters, rump conventions, sumptuary issues and 
bolting candidates were all commingled in a glittering phan- 
tasmagoria of kaleidoscopic glory. The candidates for 
governor were John G. McCullough whose town vote was 
291 ; Felix W. McGettrick whose town vote was 87, and Per- 
cival W. Clement whose town vote was 159. 

In 1904 Governor Charles J. Bell received a town vote of 
401, to Eli H. Porter's 118. 

At the November meeting in 1904 the Roosevelt Republican 
electors received a town vote of 274, to the Parker Democratic 
electors' 66. 

The following March meeting, in 1905, was the first to be 
held at which a vote on the license question was taken under 
the new law. The town at this election pretty clearly dem- 
onstrated its sentiments by a vote of 186 against licensing 
the sale of intoxicating liquors, to 67 in favor of license; these 
figures were 188 against and 72 in favor of license in 1906. 

Governor Fletcher Proctor received a town vote in 1906 
of 302, to Percival W. Clement's 202, the Democratic and 
Independent candidates receiving 123 and 79 respectively. 


At the March meeting in 1907, the vote against license was 
117, and 107 for license. 

Governor George H. Prouty received a town vote of 353, 
to James E. Burke's 145, and Eugene M. Campbell's 14, in 

At the November meeting the Taft Republican electors 
received a town vote averaging 290^, to the Democratic 
electors' 86^. 

At the following March (1909) meeting the license question 
was settled by a vote of 207 against, and 131 for license. 
These figures in 19 10 were 233 and 146 respectively. Governor 
John A. Mead in 1910 received a town vote of 227, to Charles 
D. Watson's 136. 

In 191 1 the license vote was 221 against and 132 favoring 
license; these figures in 1912 were 246, to 112 respectively. 

Governor Allen M. Fletcher in 19 12 received a town vote 
of 213, to Harlan B. Howe's 178, C. F. Smith's 59, and 
Frazer Metzger's 93. 

At the November meeting in 1912 the Taft Republican 
electors received a town vote of 202, to the Wilson Democratic 
electors' 103, and the Roosevelt Progressive electors' 171. 

In 1913 at the March meeting the vote on the license ques- 
tion was 128 against, to 70 favoring license. These figures 
were somewhat modified in 1914 when there was a vote for 
license of 206, to 201 against. The fifth-class license received 
143 for, to 164 against. At the special town meeting in March, 
1914, the vote for license for malt liquors only was 164, and 
for license for liquors of all kinds was 259. 

In 1915 the vote stood against license 310, to 199 for license. 

At the first United States Senatorial election by popular 
vote in November, 19 14, Senator William P. Dillingham 
received a vote in his home town of 436 votes, to Charles 
Prouty's 82, Non-partisan 4, Prohibitionist 14, and National 
Progressives 9. 

Governor C. W. Gates, in November, 19 14, received a town 
vote of 362, to Harlan B. Howe's 128, and C. F. Smith's 24. 

In the spring of 1905 an exhaustive report was made by an 
investigating committee appointed to inquire into the condi- 

PERIOD 1900-1915 197 

tion and conduct of the Vermont State Hospital. This report, 
made pubHc June 30, 1905, covered such matters as ventila- 
tion, fire protection, fire escapes, convalescent patients, exer- 
cises, care and treatment of patients, food, cost of maintenance, 
farm, fuel, freight, discount of bills, the superintendent (with 
recommendations of a change of the incumbent), medical 
staff, trustees, etc. 

William Cooley, an inventor and manufacturer, son of 
Cassius and Nellie Cooley, died in Waterbury, August 9, 1905. 
Mr. Cooley had spent forty years of his life in Waterbury as 
a manufacturer. His inventions included a cream separator, 
a gasoline engine and other labor-saving devices. Mr. Cooley 
was survived by a wife, two daughters and five sons. Though 
born in Burlington in 1834, Mr. Cooley retained the vigor and 
energy of youth. His death was sudden and entirely unex- 

The community was mildly fluttered by the arrival at Lake 
Mansfield of Rear Admiral Clark of the United States Navy. 
With taste and discrimination the admiral chose the lake as a 
fitting place at which to celebrate his sixty-second birthday 
and the occasion of his retirement from the navy, which fell 
on the loth of August, 1905. The famous commander of the 
Oregon was born in Bradford, Vermont, August 10, 1843. He 
passed much of his youth in Washington County and was 
appointed as a cadet to the United States Naval Academy by 
Senator Morrill in i860. He saw service under Farragut in 
the West Gulf squadron; after the war he was ordered to the 
west coast of South America on the flag ship Vanderhilt of 
Commodore Rodgers. Successively the young officer served 
on the Suanee, Vandalia, Seminole, Dictator, Mahopac, as 
instructor at the academy, on the Hartford, Kearsarge and 
Monocacy. After service as assistant navigating officer at 
the Boston yard, he was ordered to the Ranger; afterwards to 
the patrol fleet in the Bering Sea, then to the receiving ship 
Independence, next to the monitor Monterey and finally, in 
March, 1898, to the Oregon as commander. 

The issue of the Waterbury Record of March 13, 1906, pos- 
sesses a novel interest by reason of the following editorial 


extract: "Colonel George Harvey seems to be very serious in 
the suggestion he made at a recent dinner when he named 
Woodrow Wilson, president of Princeton University, as a good 
man for the Democrats to run for President of the United 
States. The suggestion has set people thinking and the com- 
ments of the press should be very pleasing, both to Mr. Wilson 
and Colonel Harvey." 

The event showed that the people who had been set thinking, 
must have thought to some purpose. Judging from present 
indications, however, it is not at all improbable that the his- 
torians of the first quarter of the twentieth century will 
speculate as to the exact reasons why king-making Warwick 
Harvey should have evidenced such great dissatisfaction with 
his own handiwork when the people of the country were 
blessing him for it. 

The industrial and commercial life of Waterbury has been 
such as might well be predicated of other towns of its size and 
make-up in the state. One cannot help deploring, however, 
the fact that the fullest and most profitable development of 
the easily adaptable water powers on the rivers and streams 
flowing through the town could not have been made more 
fully to inure to the use and benefit of the town. 

The early users of water power did what they could with 
what they had and showed very creditable results. Mill 
Village and Colbyville were the centers of industrial activity 
for many years. 

Early in 1800 the lower fall in Colbyville was utilized by a 
machine for carding the wool raised by the people of the 
vicinity and those living at some distance. It was not long 
before the potentialities of the spot appealed to O. C. Rood who 
there erected a potato whiskey distillery and, as says an un- 
conscious humorist of the vicinage, "ran it as long as self- 
interest or a true sense of moral propriety, in his judgment, 
rendered it advisable." One is naturally led to wonder 
whether the two considerations named animated the ultra- 
respectable grocers who sold the product at retail and if so, 
which of the two was deemed by them the weightier. Fol- 
owed then the erection, by E. P. Butler and Erastus Parker, 

PERIOD 1900-1915 199 

of a factory for a less objectionable utilization of the humble 
potato — the manufacture of starch. Then Mr. Butler built 
a saw mill on the upper fall which was operated for over forty 
years. It was at this mill that both Grow Butler, son of E. P. 
Butler, and George Rood, son of O. C. Rood, lost their lives; 
the first by drowning in the mill flume, the second by being 
crushed by a log. S. S. Spicer took over the building, after 
its use as a starch factory had been discontinued, for the pur- 
poses of a tanner>^ Shortly after this the building was burned. 

The village took its name from the Colby brothers, George 
J. and Edwin A., who came from Bolton in 1856. The broth- 
ers purchased of Deacon Erastus Parker the old starch fac- 
tory and a tract of land which the former owner had long 
before planted to willow trees. The tract included a water 
privilege on the stream and about thirty acres of land. The 
purchase price for the whole was $5,500, The young men, 
then twenty-three and twenty-one years of age, respectively, 
paid $1,000 down and gave notes and a mortgage for the bal- 
ance. They had already experimented with basket willows 
and thought they saw an extension of the market for willow 
ware. In 1857 the brothers started in a modest way with a 
single small wheel at their plant. Soon they were able, through 
Deacon Parker, to get the use of some mill machinery belong- 
ing to a defunct company in St. Johnsbury, which they trans- 
ported and set up in the willow peeling plant. After this, 
custom machine work began to come in and the business of 
manufacturing willow peeling machines, the invention of 
George Colby, began in earnest. 

Perceiving the utility of willow in the making of willow 
cabs, the Colbys engaged the services of a Mr. Landt as an 
expert willow-worker and began the manufacture of cab 
bodies. From this it was an easy transition to the making of 
cab wheels and gearing. The business flourished and a ready 
market was found for the finished vehicles. 

In the fall of 1859 the firm was reorganized by the addition 
of Messrs. Howden and Bosworth, who contributed $5,500 
cash capital. In i860 the business was extended to include 
the manufacture and sale of the Colby clothes wringer, a 


device well remembered by many as a time, labor and clothes 
saving machine invented by George Colby and patented by 
him in i860. Soon the infant industry was swamped with 
orders. The plant was operated day and night with two shifts 
of workmen in order to turn out one hundred wringers per diem. 
This period of prosperity was suddenly halted by the breaking 
out of the Civil War. Workmen enlisted, orders fell off, or 
were countermanded and the business reached a low ebb. 
After this, as normal conditions asserted themselves, the 
business revived and was reorganized under the name of 
Colby Brothers, continuing until 1865 when it was incor- 
porated with an authorized capital of $75,000, afterwards 
increased to $85,000. The board of directors included George 
J. Colby, Jesse J. Colby, Erastus Parker and A. Landt. The 
whole plant numbered about fifteen buildings besides ten 
dwelling houses. 

"Enterprise" was the watchword of the Colby brothers. 
Not content with their willow ware, wringer and cab products, 
they began the manufacture of children's vehicles and equipped 
and maintained a job printing establishment. Starting with 
practically nothing, the founders built up a business within 
ten years that paid from sixty to one hundred employees 
$2,000 to $3,000 a month in wages, with sales from December 
I, 1863, to June 30, 1867, amounting to over $320,000; the 
amount paid for labor for the same period was $96,387.62. 
Internal revenue tax to the government from September i, 
1862, to June 30, 1867, was $13,282. In these days of fabu- 
lous receipts and Midas-like industrial operations these figures 
may not seem imposing, but the example of persistence, enter- 
prise and courage under seemingly insurmountable obstacles 
has remained to succeeding generations. The business was 
literally built up from the putting to work of a certain mechan- 
ical and inventive gift of one of the brothers, aided by the 
energy and business capacity of the other two, with next to 
nothing in the way of financial assistance. The business 
continued in the hands of the Colbys until their sale to the 
Montpelier Manufacturing Company in the early 70's. 

PERIOD 1900-1915 201 

One of the enterprises that ultimately flourished and brought 
wealth and prosperity to its projectors and owners was the 
proprietary medicine house of Henry & Company. About 
the year 1845 James M. Henry became associated with the 
proprietor of certain patent remedies which he sold throughout 
the country on a salary. In 1850 Mr. Henry obtained the 
general agency for a certain widely advertised liniment and 
from this beginning he founded the wholesale drug house of 
J. M. Henry & Sons in 1857, having purchased the drug store, 
in the village, of J. B. Braley which stood at the corner of 
Stowe and Main Streets. The fortunate purchase of all 
manufacturing and selling rights of another widely known 
proprietary elixir gave an added impetus to the business. 
Possibly the fact that the peculiarly curative properties of 
the elixir were advertised to have been lost only to be restored 
by the then owners did not diminish the sales of the article. 
In i860 John F. Henry withdrew from the firm, E. B. John- 
son taking his place. In 1861 William W. Henry sold his 
interest in the firm and entered the Civil War. Various other 
changes were made in the firm. In 1866 the personnel of the 
firm was John F. Henry, General W. W. Henry, General 
William Wells, E. B. Johnson, B. H. Dewey, Doctor Simpson, 
E. D. Scagel and A. E. Richardson. Later John F. Henry 
withdrew and went to New York where he became associated 
with the house of Demas Barnes & Company. The old drug 
store in Waterbury was finally purchased by Doctor Horace 
Fales and E. D. Scagel in 1867. 

The industry of tanning leather has long been operated in 
Waterbury in a varying scale of activity. At the site of the 
old saw mill, built by N. A. Rhoades in the middle 30's, a 
tanner named P. Brown established a tannery on the falls in 
Mill Village to supply his principal yard in the village. On the 
west side of the branch at the south end of Mill Village Samuel 
Dutton started a tannery on a small scale to supply leather 
for his boot and shoe business. This tannery on " Peg Island," 
socalled, came into the hands of his sons, Thomas, David and 
Harper, and from them passed to William W. Wells who 
enlarged the plant and sold out to D. &. V. R. Blush. A 



disastrous fire destroj'ed the works and the real estate, and a 
few unconsumed outbuildings then passed to Sylvester Henry. 
Mr. Henry and his son rebuilt the tannery on a larger scale 
and put into operation a well equipped plant, then considered 
to be one of the largest and best of the kind in the state. 

In 1870 Mr. C. C. Warren took over the plant by lease. 
From this time until the plant burned, leather continued to 
be manufactured at the old site on a much larger scale than 
before. Mr. Warren had previously had experience with his 
father in the tanning business in Hartland before coming to 
Waterbury\ WTien the Mill Village tannery burned in 1899 
Mr. Warren organized, in Morrisville, the Warren Leather 
Company. He became President of the Company and has 
continued the business up to the present time. Mr. Warren 
was born at Hartland, Vermont, February 11, 1843, and came 
to Waterbury in 1870. Before coming to Waterbury, and 
about the time of the discharge of the Civil War regimental 
bands, Mr. Warren was leader of the Hartland Brass Band. 
He was offered second leadership of the Vermont Brigade 
Band, Second Division, Sixth Army Corps, then being or- 
ganized in Burlington, which was to take the place of the six 
regimental bands discharged from this brigade. He served in 
this capacity three years. After coming to Waterbury he 
became the leader of the local cornet band and continued 
leader for more than fifteen years. 

In 1889 he assisted in locating the Vermont State Hospital 
in town by selling to the state the farm and grounds they now 
occupy. As state fish and game commissioner he located and 
erected the state fish hatchery at Roxbury and, with the late 
Joseph Somerville, supplied the village of Waterbury with 
their first system of water-works. 

On December 15, 1873, he was married to Ella F. McElroy. 
The family consists of two children: Katherine Grace, who 
resides at Mt. Vernon, a suburb of New York, and Charles 
Carlton, residing at 136 West 44th Street, with business 
address at 7 Wall Street, corner Broadway, New York City. 

There were other tanners who began in the early days of the 
industry in Waterbury on "Peg Island." Such was Henry 

PERIOD 1900-1915 203 

Kneeland, and, as early as 1834, M. and J. H. Lathrop were 
engaged in tanning in the village. Their works were destroyed 
by fire and were never rebuilt. 

The firm of Thompson, Seabury & Blanchard was organized 
in 1845 to manufacture woolen cloths and flannels. Their 
plant was located on the site of the property now owned and 
occupied by the W. J. Boyce estate as a box factory. Their 
successor was George D. Joslyn, in 1862, and he in turn was 
succeeded by Selleck & Joslyn in 1865, and they by A. H. 
Selleck until the factory and machinery were destroyed by 
fire in 1875. The present building was built by Mr. Selleck 
in 1876, he using the first floor for the manufacture of fork 
handles and the second as a tenement. The Selleck estate 
sold the property to M. Davis in 1905, and he to Boyce & 
Perkins in 1908. Mr. Selleck spent a year after the burning 
of the plant in 1875 in Montreal, Province of Quebec. The 
present butter box factory of the Boyce estate was erected 
about one year thereafter. Mr. Selleck died in Needham, 
Massachusetts, in 1884 at the age of forty-three. His remains 
were interred in the Waterbury cemetery. 

Daniel Stowell was the first machinist in Waterbury. His- 
shop was situated on the present site of the Methodist Church. 
He began here between 1845 and 1850. His business was 
in repairs and dressing lumber. He used the first stationary 
steam engine in the town. He joined Henry Carter in the- 
building of a structure, afterwards the property of the State 
Reform School. 

C. Blodgett & Son started soon after the coming in of the 
railroad. They dealt in lumber and shingles, with yards 
north of the railway station. They did a large business in 
groceries and farmers' supplies, etc. They afterwards re- 
moved to Burlington where Calvin Blodgett, Jr., became 
mayor of the city. 

Cook & Thompson built the first foundry in Waterbury, 
just south of the passenger station, which still stands. They 
manufactured stoves and were in business during the period 
of 1 857-1 862. They were succeeded by Hewitt & Jones and 
Hewitt & Meeker. Then came in succession Daniel K. 


Adams, Adams & Wells and Horatio Moffitt & Company, all 
in the business of manufacturing stoves between 1855 and 


J. Crossett and E. W. Corse, both of Duxbury, were both 
engaged in the lumber business in Waterbury at about this 
period, also M. W. Shurtleff. 

Deacon Erastus Parker, besides being one of the early 
pillars of strength to the town by reason of his sagacity, judg- 
ment, energy and good counsel, was also the pioneer manufac- 
turer of starch at Colbyville. He sold his plant and privileges 
to the Colby Brothers and had the satisfaction of seeing his 
young friends build up a prosperous business from small 

Wells & Sherlock were engaged in the flour business, in 1850 
and 1855, at the mill now known as the Seabury mill in Mill 
Village. Their former storehouse is now occupied by Wallace 
Green and O'Brien, the barber, on Park Row. 

E. W. Ladd and Walker & Fisher were dealers in monuments 
and gravestones at a shop located in the yard of the James 
Burleigh place. 

W. F. Hutchins was a dealer in boots and shoes, also a 
manufacturer of footwear. He built the house where "Peg- 
leg" Minor once lived, and now owned and occupied by Mrs. 

Another well known maker of boots and shoes and a promi- 
nent citizen was Lucius Parmalee, whose shop and store ad- 
joined Lease's harness shop on Main Street. This place was 
the home of the first Library Association, the nucleus of the 
present Village Library. Mr. Parmalee was the custodian in 
charge. Crawford & Townshend were also makers of and 
dealers in footwear in 1862. 

G. H. Lease succeeded his father in the business of harness 
making and saddlery, and occupied a shop adjoining the old 
hotel building, long since razed to the ground, on Main Street 
and on the site of the present Parker Block. This was moved 
to the present site of M. Messer's building and is a part of it. 
Here Mr. Lease continued the business as long as he lived. 

George H. Atherton, Justin Hinds and M. E, Smilie were 

PERIOD 1900- 19 1 5 205 

respectively engaged in the business of cabinet making, elec- 
trotyping and making stoves during a part of this period. 

The Waterbury Manufacturing Company manufactured 
and dealt in sash, doors and blinds. 

The far-famed Thomas inks were first made at the barn on 
the George Moody place, now owned by Mr. O'Brien. Thomas 
moved to Michigan and continued to make a superior quality 
of ink that soon became widely used in the middle west. 

O. E. Scott, maker and dealer in clocks and watches, and 
optician, began business in the George H. Atherton building. 
He then removed his place of business across the street to the 
Graves block, now owned by Mrs. Daniel Chase, where he 
remained until about two years ago when he moved to his 
present store in the Knight Block. Mr. Scott's business house 
is said to be the oldest in town today. 

The manufacturing firm of Case & Thomas were engaged 
in making mops, which business was afterwards merged into 
that of the Waterbury Manufacturing Company. They also 
manufactured sash, doors and blinds. Their steam mill was 
the old one formerly occupied by Carter & Stowell and used 
by the Reform School for making chair seats. 

Mr. William W. Wells organized the firm of Wells & Mc- 
Murphy, makers and dealers in mops and chair stock. The 
mill, owned then (i 865-1 866) by Mr. Wells, was just south 
of the Seabury mill and derived its power from the same dam. 
It was taken down years ago. 

One of the industries of the town which, if properly devel- 
oped, might well have yielded large returns was that of brick 
making. An early pioneer in the industry was J. McMurphy 
whose yard and kilns were at Mill Village, near the Perry Hill 
railroad crossing. 

George C. Ames was a monument and gravestone worker 
in a shop near the station where Miss Shaw now lives. 

A. C. Atherton was a maker and dealer in paper, whose place 
of business was in a wooden building where Perkins' store 
now stand's. 

One of those engaged in the iron business was Cecil Graves. 
His place was at the present site of Lamb's store. He built the 


block known as the Graves block. He was succeeded by his 
son, Charles. 

The above enumeration will convey some idea of the prin- 
cipal industries in Waterbury from the beginning down to a 
point well within the memory of those now living. 

The town of Waterbury has been singularly free from litiga- 
tion, at least of the kind that is fought through the Supreme 
Court. However, an interesting question arose when John 
S. Ladd, a highway surveyor, sought reimbursement for 
damages he was obliged to pay for certain acts of alleged tres- 
pass. The selectmen had given Ladd a tax bill and warrant 
for his highway district and described the road on which his 
tax bill was to be worked out as follows: "Beginning at the 
school house on Demeritt's land at the junction of the roads, 
thence to John S. Ladd's house." A part of this road crossed 
Rowell's land; he denied that it was a public highway and 
objected to Ladd's working out the tax on it upon his land. 
The selectmen directed Ladd to proceed under the authority 
of his bill and warrant and repair the road. He did so in 
good faith. Rowell sued him in trespass and recovered. 
Ladd then sued the town upon the ground that the town was 
bound to indemnify him. The court held (Aldis J.) that if the 
selectmen of a town describe, in the tax bill given by them to 
a highway surveyor, as within his district a highway which, 
though never legally established as a highway, has been 
recognized and repaired as such by the town and used by the 
public, and the surveyor proceed to repair said highway, and, 
in consequence of its never having been legally established, 
is obliged to pay damages in trespass for working the same, 
he is entitled to be indemnified by the town for such 
damages; and is not obliged to look beyond his tax bill and 
warrant to ascertain the extent of his district and the roads 
which he is to repair. [Ladd vs. Waterbury, 34 Vermont 426, 

Another case determined by the Supreme Court at the 

August term, 1865, was Loren D. Watts vs. Town of Waterbury. 

This action against the town was for damages suffered by 

the wife of the plaintiff, from injuries received by reason of the 

PERIOD 1900-1915 207 

insufficiency of a highway. The accident occurred just east 
of the railroad track and Doctor Horace Fales was called in 
attendance a few minutes later. Upon the trial, counsel 
proposed to ask Doctor Fales, upon cross-examination, if, in 
conversation with Watts and his wife about the matter, he 
did not tell them if they could get $100 they would better 
settle it. The question was excluded upon objection. The 
judgment against the town was reversed, the court holding 
that in this suit for injury on a highway, the physician who 
attended the plaintiff for the injury being a witness for the 
plaintiff on the trial to show what injury was sustained, may 
properly be asked, on cross-examination, the question as to 
whether he had not advised settlement for $100. 

Wrisley vs. Waterhury (1869), 42 Vermont 228, Jacob 
Wrisley was a soldier in the service of the United States in 
Virginia in the winter of 1 863-1 864. At this time the govern- 
ment was offering $402 as bounty and a furlough to those 
soldiers who should reenlist; that prior to February i, 1864, 
he was informed that the town of Waterbury was paying a 
bounty of $300 for volunteers to its credit; that, in consequence 
of this information, relying on having $300 from Waterbury, 
together with what the United States offered, he reenlisted 
February i, 1864. Wrisley soon took his furlough and natur- 
ally wanted his bounty. Mr. Janes, the first selectman of the 
town, told him the quota was full but said if he would let his 
name remain to the credit of Waterbury, "if they had another 
call and raised any more men and paid a bounty, they would 
pay him as much as they did them, and that if they had to 
raise any more men, if they paid any bounty, they would pay 
the plaintiff as much." 

The application for the town meeting in the month of Novem- 
ber, 1863, was "to see what course the town will take to fill 
the quota of men required of the town of Waterbury, under 
the last two calls of the general government for soldiers." 
The warning was to see if the town will pay any additional 
bounty to volunteers from said town, and if any, how much, 
and the vote was "to pay each volunteer from this town a 
bounty of $300 when mustered into the United States Service. " 


The court held (Wilson J.) that under the circumstances 
existing the $300 bounty was confined to such as should enlist 
to the credit of the town on the quota under the call or calls 
made before the date of the vote, and also that the unauthor- 
ized promise of the selectmen to pay a soldier such bounty as 
the town might pay to others on future calls would not bind 
the town, though it paid a bounty to others on future calls. 

This very question was raised in the case of John P. Jones 
vs. Waterhury, 44 Vermont 113, 1871, and decided the same 

In Topsham vs. Waterbury, the plaintifif sought to collect 
by suit money expended in support of one P. and his family 
while in Topsham. P. had resided in Waterbury for three 
years and had declined the town's assistance in supporting 
himself and family. Repeated offers were made by Water- 
bury's overseer to support P.'s family in the town poorhouse; 
the overseer of Topsham had no notice of the last offer; 
Waterbury continued to support the family until October, 
1899, and then the family was supported by Topsham. It 
was held by the court that a determination by a town that it 
will support one of its paupers within its own limits, as upon 
its poor farm, will not relieve it from liability for assistance 
furnished to such pauper in compliance with the statute by 
another town in which such pauper comes to need, unless, 
upon receiving the required notice from such other town, it in 
return notifies such other town of said determination. [73 
Vermont 185, 1901.] 

Various Legislative Acts Affecting Waterbury 

An Act to incorporate the Waterbury Falls Manufacturing 
Company. The following were named in the charter as incor- 
porators: Ithamer A. Beard, William Carpenter, Ferrand F. 
Merrill, George W. Collamer and William Howes. The 
company was empowered "to construct and make such dams 
and canals and aqueducts on lands owned by said company as 
may be necessary for the use and improvement of the water 
power at said Falls and to rent the use of such water power or 
any part thereof," etc, (October 31, 1849.) 

PERIOD 1900-1915 209 

An Act to incorporate the Waterbury Quarrying and Mining 
Company. The following were named as incorporators in 
the charter: S. H. Stowell, S. L. Cole, H. M. Bates, Perlev 
Belknap, George W. Dana, T. P. Redfield and H. P. Allen. 
The object was quarrying and working soapstone, lead, and 
other minerals and stone in the State of Vermont. (Novem- 
ber 13, 1856.) 

An Act to incorporate The Waterbury Hotel Company. 
The following were named as incorporators in the charter: 
J. C. Batchelder, Sidney Brown, William Moody, Curtis N. 
Arms, Paul Dillingham, Luther Henry, W. H. H. Bingham and 
L. L. Durant, "for the purpose of purchasing, repairing or 
building a house of public entertainment in the village of 
Waterbury," etc. (November 21, i860.) 

An Act to incorporate the Waterbury Falls and Crouching 
Lion Hotel and Road Company. The following incorporators 
were named in the charter: Samuel Ridley, Jesse J. Ridley and 
Dunning Steward of Duxbury, Eastman W. Case, Cecil Graves, 
L C. Brown, Sidney Brown and Curtis Arms of Waterbury, 
and Calvin Blodgett, Sion E. Howard and George H. Bigelow 
of Burlington, for the purpose of "purchasing, building and 
furnishing upon the mountain, called Camel's Hump, or 
Crouching Lion, a house or houses of public entertainment, 
and of building and repairing a public road from Ridley's 
Mills in Duxbury to the summit of said mountain," etc. 
(November 6, 1865.) 

An Act to incorporate the Waterbury Cemetery Association, 
The following incorporators were named in the charter: Paul 
Dillingham, J. C. Batchelder, J. F. Henry, William W. Wells, 
C. N. Arms, George J. Colby and Luther Henry. Authorized 
"to take by purchase or gift and hold within the towns of 
Waterbury or Duxbury, real estate not exceeding forty acres 
of land, to be held and occupied for a cemetery for the burial 
of the dead, and for no other purpose," etc. (November 8, 

An Act to authorize the towns of Morristown, Stowe, and 
Waterbury to aid in the construction of a railroad. Under 
this Act each town named was authorized to raise by tax on 


the grand list a sum not exceeding $50,000, etc., to be appro- 
priated to aid in building the Mount Mansfield railroad, either 
by subscription for stock or otherwise, etc. (November 24, 

An Act authorizing the Village of Waterbury to issue bonds. 
"The inhabitants of that part of the town of Waterbury em- 
braced within a survey made by H. F. Smith on the 22d of 
October, 1902, and found recorded in Volume 28, at pages 
525 and 526 of the land records of the town of Waterbury 
. . . are hereby incorporated and made a body politic 
and corporate by the name of the Village of Waterbury, etc., 
amending Section i. No. 205, of the Acts of 1882, Village 
Charter." (December 3, 1908.) 

Naturally religious matters assumed the complexion of and 
were regulated largely by the customs and laws prevailing in 
the communities or states from which the early settlers in 
Vermont emigrated. As the dominant or ascendant persua- 
sion or sect in Massachusetts and Connecticut, communities 
from which the later Vermont communities took their origin, 
was Congregational, it was sought to engraft this denomina- 
tion upon the new Green Mountain settlements by compulsory 
support of the gospel ministry. Two laws were passed by the 
Vermont Legislature in 1787 and 1789, substantially the same 
in effect, binding the inhabitants of each town to be of and to 
support "the leading denomination," or to show that they 
were of different views and supported the gospel ministry 
elsewhere. The Baptists, as might be expected, resented and 
vigorously opposed this arbitrary policy. Followed then a 
controversy of two years in the Legislature, during which 
Elder Ezra Butler became an active member of the State 
Council and Aaron Leland, a Baptist clergyman, became 
speaker of the House. These influential men had much to 
do with the ultimate repeal of the obnoxious laws in 1807, 
and Waterbury, in common with other Vermont towns, was 
guaranteed her rightful measure of religious liberty thereby. 

It must not be inferred, however, from this early local 
struggle for religious liberty that Waterbury was an exception 

PERIOD 1900-1915 211 

to the rule that the church's beginning is far from being coin- 
cident with the town's inception. Contrary to the prevaihng 
opinion, frontier settlements in the past were no more predom- 
inantly religious than those of the present. It is only in 
exceptional cases widely noted, and for that reason more or 
less misleading, that churches begin with the town. Exi- 
gencies of frontier life were not conducive to prolonged and 
sustained mental activity in the realms of theology and phil- 
osophy. The doctrinaire of the day was often interrupted 
in his dogmatic flights by the prosaic necessity of filling 
the larder from the hunt or fishing expedition. 

Ezra Butler's narrative of his early religious experiences, 
as given by Reverend C. C. Parker, is a story of doubt, struggle 
and triumph. He, by his own confession, came to Waterbury 
a profane and irreligious boy, "not a little disposed to quarrel 
with certain great doctrines." A period of four years elapsed 
during which he was not only irreligious himself but did not 
know a religious man in the settlement. As for gospel preach- 
ing, there had not been a single sermon preached in the town. 
Mr, Butler's own account graphically sets forth the then con- 
ditions: "Being obliged to work hard during the week and 
there being no public worship in town which he could attend 
if he desired, he was in the habit of spending much of the 
Sabbath in sleep. On a certain Sabbath, awakening from his 
sleep, he found his wife reading a pamphlet, and proposed that 
she read it aloud for the benefit of both." Much to his per- 
plexity, the author was contending that we are justly con- 
demned for wrong dispositions as well as wrong actions. Mr. 
Butler was quite willing to admit the justice of God in punish- 
ing overt acts, but not wrong propensities, and was unable to 
see how a man could be held blameable for a disposition he 
did not create. To quote Mr. Parker: "After days of 
profoundest darkness and sharpest distress, bordering on 
despair, he was brought into the clear light and liberty of the 
Gospel. His feet having been set in the way of Life, he walked 
circumspectly in that way to the end." Mr. Butler's con- 
version was followed by his baptism and reception into the 
Baptist Church of Bolton. 


A Reverend Mr. Call of Woodstock had, in the meantime, 
preached the first sermon in Waterbury. Soon after this, 
between 1800 and 1801, the Baptist Church was organized in 
Waterbury with Mr. Ezra Butler as first ordained pastor. 
Deacon Allen and David Austin brought with them, from 
Massachusetts and Connecticut, their love for the discipline 
in the straight ways of their home states and soon began to 
cast about for assistance of others similarly disposed in order 
to make some organized effort at maintaining regular meetings 
on the Sabbath. After Waterbury had emerged from her 
first revival season in 1800, under the labors of Reverend Jedi- 
diah Bushnell of Connecticut and later of Cornwall, Vermont, 
the Congregationalists, Baptists and Methodists established 
churches, the first named being organized by Mr. Bushnell 
in 1801. Mr. Bushnell, as yet unordained and a graduate of 
Williams College, came probably as an evangelist at the behest 
of the Missionary Society of Connecticut, founded two years 
previously. The Congregational Church numbered among 
its first members: Asaph Allen, David Austin, Hugh Blair, Ed- 
ward Bates, Moses Bates, David Towne, Amos Slate, Thomas 
Kennan, Zebulon Allen, Mary Austin, Jane Blair, Ruth Rich, 
Lydia Towne, Esther Slate and Bathsheba Slate. 

We have already seen how Mr. Jonathan Hovey's unfor- 
tunate propensity for controversy handicapped his ministry. 
He was the first called to settle over the new Congregational 
Church as its minister, from which fact he was disposed to 
argue that he was the "first settled minister" within the 
meaning of the Wentworth Charter. His ordination, attended 
with certain difficulties raised by his opponents, occurred in 
1803. He was dismissed for lack of support in 1807. Mr. 
Hovey came by his argumentative habits naturally enough, 
having been trained to the law which he practiced in Randolph 
before coming to Waterbury. He is described as possessing 
"a. clear, strong mind — was more remarkable for sternness and 
rigor, than for benignity and affability, had more power to 
convince than to win, to gain respect than affection. . . . 
His meetings were alternately in his own neighborhood (Knee- 
land district), in barns and private houses and in the school 

PERIOD 1900-1915 213 

house at the Street, or at 'the River' as the village was then 
called." It is not difficult to conjure up in the mind such a 
personality — impatient and intolerant of certain mannerisms 
easily affected to pass current for affability; rather too direct 
and sledge-hammer-like in argument for his politico-religious 
opponents but no match for them in diplomacy and finesse; 
finally, a sincere man who addressed himself to his calling 
according to his lights but ever and anon tripped by his un- 
fortunate temperament and uncompromising ways. 

The period between the organization of the Congregational 
Church and the settlement of its next pastor after Mr. Hovey — 
eighteen years — was filled in by itinerant preachers and local 
deacons. Sabbath services were maintained under direction 
of Deacon Asaph Allen, with some layman to read a sermon, 
often L. B. Peck, Esq., a lawyer. 

It has been already noted how the first meeting house was 
built forty years after the settlement of the town, by the 
Waterbury Meeting House Society. Reverend Daniel Warren 
came to the church the following year (December 7, 1825). 
He happened to be in Waterbury one Sabbath and resolved 
to hear Reverend Mr. Blodgett of Jericho preach. On Mr. 
Blodgett's non-arrival Mr. Warren was invited to preach and 
was afterwards asked to remain as pastor. He continued 
with the church for thirteen years, during which time there 
were two fruitful revivals in 1 826-1 827 and 1 835-1 836. The 
revival of 1 835-1 836 was inaugurated and conducted by 
Reverend Orris Pier, the pastor of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church at Waterbury Center, and was most remarkable in 
its character. Having its beginning among the Methodists 
it soon gained such power and strength that it embraced all 
classes throughout the town. The two revivals before men- 
tioned yielded to the Congregational Church one hundred and 
twenty-four new members. The Center churches by this 
time had permanent buildings and were given new life and 
energy'' through large accessions. 

After Jonathan Hovey and Daniel C. Warren (1825-1838) 
the incumbent was Reverend John F. Stone, who was installed 
January 6, 1839, and was dismissed June 9, 1847, Following 


him was Reverend A. G. Pease, who was born at Canaan, 
Connecticut, in February, i8ii, son of Salmon and Matilda 
(Huntingdon) Pease, born at Norfolk, Connecticut, in 1783, 
and Ashford, Connecticut, in 1780, respectively. Reverend 
A. G. Pease was graduated from the University of Vermont 
in 1837 and Andover Theological Seminary in 184 1. He was 
married to Miss Anne Page, daughter of Deacon William Page 
of Rutland, October 18, 1842. Mr. Pease was installed as 
pastor of the Congregational Church in Waterbury in 1849, 
after two years' residence. From Waterbury he went to 
Norwdch in 1853. He came to Waterbury, after supplying the 
churches at Royalton and Poultney between the time of leaving 
Pittsford in 1845, the place of his first ordination, and the 
assumption of his labors here. 

The longest pastorate of the Congregational Church was 
that of Reverend C. C. Parker, a sketch of whom has already 
been given and whose ministrations during the Civil War 
kept at white heat the spirit of patriotism locally. Mr. Parker 
also served Waterbury as superintendent of schools during a 
part of his incumbency as pastor. 

Mr. Parker was succeeded at the Congregational Church 
by Reverend Jonathan Copeland, who came from the Presby- 
terian Church at Champlain, New York, to Waterbury in 
answer to a call in 1867. Mr. Copeland was a graduate of 
Union College and the Theological Seminary. He married 
Kezia Clark of Niskayuna, New York, and was the father of 
three sons, Clark, Edward and William and three daughters, 
Katharine, Alice and Minnie. Mr. Copeland found no 
difficulty in conforming to Congregational usages although 
he had been converted, educated, licensed, installed and a 
co-worker among Presbyterians. The church in Waterbury 
prospered healthfully during his incumbency, which endured 
from 1867 to 1875. 

In order after Mr. Copeland's term of service, came thecall to 
Reverend S. H. Wheeler, who was ordained and installed De- 
cember 16, 1875, and continued as pastor until 1886. During his 
pastorate there were one hundred additions to the church mem- 
bership and the church building was repaired to the extent of 
$2,000. Mr. Wheeler was followed by Reverend Charles M. 

PERIOD 1900-1915 215 

Sheldon, extracts from whose characteristic letter will be 
found elsewhere. Mr. Sheldon was ordained and installed in 
1886 and remained until December, 1888, when he resigned 
to go to the Central Congregational Church at Topeka, Kan- 
sas. During 1889 Reverend S. H. Wheeler supplied until 
December 4, 1892. In 1889 and 1890 the church received a 
memorial communion service, stained glass windows, interior 
decorations and upholstery, and other needed improvements. 
In 1892 the church extended a call to Reverend A. J. Covell 
of Flint, Michigan, who was installed pastor February 28, 
1893. His ministry of three and one-half years was fruitful 
of many additions to the church. Reverend George Ladd suc- 
ceeded Mr. Covell, after an interval of seven months, and 
served from May 2, 1897, until June 10, 1901. Reverend 
F. B. Kellogg succeeded Mr. Ladd and served from July, 1901, 
until July, 1910. It is said that only three pastors in the 
one hundred and twelve years of the church's existence up to 
that time had rendered longer service continuously. 

Reverend W. L. Boicourt began his pastorate November 
I, 1910. In January, 1912, forty-three persons were admitted 
to membership in the church, twenty-eight of these on con- 
fession of faith. Mr. Boicourt was born at Gaylord, Kansas, 
July 9, 1877 ; he was married to Sarah R. Huse, September 14, 
1904. He received his early preliminary educational training 
at the common schools of Kansas. He was graduated from 
Baker University of Baldwin, Kansas, A. B. 1901, and from 
the Boston University School of Theology S. T. B. in 1904. 
Mr. Boicourt came to Waterbury from Cliftondale, Massa- 
chusetts. He was previously a member, for five years, of 
the Cincinnati Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
supplying pulpits in the vicinity of Cincinnati. 

The famous revival of 1 835-1 836, inaugurated by the 
Methodists under the leadership of Reverend Orris Pier, 
resulted not only in large accessions to the Methodist Episcopal 
Church at Waterbury Center, but in establishing a large class 
in Waterbury Village and the organization of a church so- 
ciety at that place. In 1841 their first house of worship in 
Waterbury Village was erected. Next the Freewill Baptist 
Church was to follow five or six years later with a permanent 


church building on the Waterbury River. There had been a 
Methodist organization as early as 1800, whose founder was 
Elder Stebbins. In the roster of members were Thomas Gup- 
til and wife, John Henderson and wife, Timothy Parcher and 
wife, John Jones, David Straw and wife, John Hudson and 
wife, Joseph Fiske and wife, Simeon Woolson and wife, George 
Scagel and wife, Lemuel Lyon and wife, Moses Nelson, Nathan 
Nelson, Samuel Bryant, Benjamin Fiske, Orrin Gregg, Araunah 
Lyon and Chester Lyon. These last three entered the Metho- 
dist ministry from the church. The new church of 1836 num- 
bered among its members John Lathrop, Paul Dillingham, 
C. C. Arms, William Carpenter, A. A. Atherton and A; S, 

It has been said that Methodism entered Vermont from the 
west side. Waterbury's Methodist genealogy is traced back 
to the Cambridge (New York) Circuit in which Ash Grove 
Society in Shaftsbury, Vermont, was situated. It is fairly 
well settled that Methodism had penetrated beyond the banks 
of Lake Champlain into the mountainous district of Water- 
bury by the year 1799. By this time the district north of the 
Onion River was set apart and called the Essex Circuit, to be 
changed to the Fletcher Circuit in 1801 and the St. Albans 
Circuit in 1813. After this, the south part of the circuit was 
called the Stowe Circuit, and Waterbury, as a part of the 
Stowe Circuit in 1818, continued to receive the circuit rider 
until the town of Waterbury became an appointment in 1853, 
and the "Street" finally became separated from the Center in 

No history of Waterbury's Methodism would be complete 
without mention of Reverend Lorenzo Dow, the zealous young 
evangelist who fearlessly rode the circuits when they were 
practically trackless wildernesses. This young man is de- 
scribed as having been fired with something of the zeal of the 
flagellants; no physical hardship, no obstacle of floods, streams, 
mountains, storms, or darkness would he permit to stand in 
the way of his insistent mission. From his journal it seems 
that he preached in Waterbury in 1799 while yet a young man 
of twenty-one years. The entry reads: "From hence I came 

PERIOD 1900-1915 


to Waterbury on the Onion River where a reprobationist gave 
me the words to preach from : ' No man can come unto Me, 
except the Father draw him.' The Lord loosed my tongue 
and I think good was done." Lorenzo Dow was succeeded in 
the circuit by Reverend (afterwards Bishop) EHjah Hedding, 
who was then a mere youth of nineteen. 

Methodist ministers stationed at Waterbury from 1836 to 
1915 were: 

B. M. Hall, 2 years. 
P. P. Harrower, 2 years. 
J. W. B. Wood, I year. 
George Whitney, i year. 
Charles H. Leonard, i year. 
John D. White, 2 years. 
W. M. Chipp, I year. 
J. F. Craig, i year. 
Hawley Ransom, 2 years. 
John Kiernan, i year. 
D. B. Hulbard, 2 years. 
Albinus Johnson, i year. 
William A. Miller, 2 years. 
Thomas Dodgson, i year. 
J. Phillips, I year. 
Israel Luce, 2 years. 
Richard Morgan, i year. 
B. Hawley, 2 years. 
D. B. McKenzie, 3 years. 

H. W. Worthen (1867), 2 years. 

E. C. Bass, I year. 
A. B. Truax, 2 years. 
W. Underwood, i year. 
H. A. Bushnell, i year. 
A. L. Cooper, 2 years. 
William I. Johnson, 4 years. 

D. E. Miller, i year. 
G. E. Smith, 2 years. 

W. R. Davenport, 4 years. 

F. W. Hamblin, i year. 
W. M. Newton, 4 years. 
L. K. Wilman, 3 years. 
P. A. Smith (1903). 

W. S. Smithers (i 904-1 906). 
W. C. Johnson (1907-1910). 

E. F. Newell (191 1). 

W. E. Douglass (1912-1914-1915). 
Verne L. Smith 1915 — . 

Methodist ministers stationed at Waterbury Center for the 
period named, or those who have preached there, were: 

Orris Pier, 2 years. 
R. M. Little, I year. 
H. Foster. 
M. Townsend. 
Daniel F. Page. 
Thomas Kirby. 
Aaron Hall. 
Miles Fish. 
Samuel Hewes. 
Alexander Campbell. 
John Haslam. 
J. S. Mott. 
C. F. Ford. 

R. McElroy. 

J. A. Canoll. 

C. C. Bedell. 

S. M. Merrill. 

W. H. Tiffany. 

A. L. Cooper. 

H. N. Munger. 

A. Cox. 

Reverend Robinson. 

I. Luce. 

W. R. Puffer. 

George Whitney. 

J. M. Puffer. 


Reverend Verne L. Smith, the present pastor of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church in Waterbury Village, was born in 
Barrington, Nova Scotia, April 19, 1890; moved to Massa- 
chusetts when three months old. He married Miss Trena 
Brooks and has a family of two children, Marion E. and 
Harriet B., aged two and one-half years, and seven months, 
respectively. He was transferred to Waterbury from Hing- 
ham, Massachusetts, May i, 1915, to take the place of Rev- 
erend W. E. Douglass. He was formerly a member of the 
New England Southern Conference, now of the Vermont 
Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Mr. Smith is 
a graduate of the public schools of Massachusetts and of 
Boston University School of Theology. 

The present Methodist Episcopal Church, planned and 
erected so largely through the efforts of Senator W. P. Dilling- 
ham assisted by Justin W. Moody and Reverend W. R. 
Davenport, was completed and the first services were held 
there on the 25th day of December, 1892. The church was 
dedicated January 20, 1893. 

The Baptist Church began its life in Waterbury in 1800. 
The first few members, of course, included Ezra Butler and 
Mrs. Tryphena Butler. There were also Mrs. Densmore, 
Mrs. Silas Loomis, Deacon David Atkins, Edmund Towne, 
Orrin Atkins, Mercy (Nelson) Green, Mrs. E. Towne, Mrs. At- 
kins, Deacon Paul Dillingham, the founder of the Waterbury 
family, Deacon Chester Whitney and Guild Newcombe. 
After reorganization in 1819, there were added Polly W. 
Whitney, Anna Peck, Isaac Stevens, Richard Kneeland, 
Robert Broderick, John Atkins, Temperance Atkins, Mary 
Hart, Hannah Dillingham, Sally Broderick, Betsy Parcher, 
Silena Brown. The following members were some of 
those admitted in 1820: Job Dillingham, Seth Towne, Isaac 
Marshall, Jr., Arad Worcester, C. C. P. Crosby, and William 
Smith. The first church edifice, built in 1832, was removed 
and another built in 1859-1860. 

The church of the Free Baptists was erected on the bank of 
the Waterbury River, about two miles west of the Center. 
At the outset, in 1840, it numbered eighteen members with Ira 

PERIOD 1900-1915 219 

Gray as pastor. The church building was finished in 1845 
and could comfortably seat two hundred and eighty persons. 
The present pastor is the subject of the following sketch : 

Benjamin P. Parker was born in Kittery, Maine, May 16, 
1835. When he was two years old, his parents moved to New- 
buryport, Massachusetts. He received his education principally 
in the public schools of that city. On March 3, 1858, he mar- 
ried Miss Katie McGinley, daughter of Reverend Edward 
McGinley, a Methodist Episcopal clergyman. On June 2, 
1859, he was licensed by the Otisfield (Maine) Quarterly 
Meeting, and was ordained a Freewill Baptist minister at 
Greenwood, Maine, January 18, i860. His first pastorate was 
at New Gloucester, Maine. He has had other pastorates in 
Maine, New Hampshire, Nova Scotia and Vermont. 

Mr. Parker came to Waterbury Center, Vermont, in May, 
1909, and is pastor of the Waterbury Center and Waterbury 
River Free Baptist churches. 

The Freewill Baptist Church at the Center was organized 
in January, 1871, with Reverend D. H. Adams as first pastor. 
Here, too, a new church edifice was erected at a cost of $3,000,, 
with seats for three hundred persons. Before taking possession 
of the church building, the worshipers used the seminary 
hall as an audience room. The pulpit was supplied at inter- 
vals by Reverend E. B. Fuller, 

The Freewill Baptist Church had its local organization in 
1817-1818. The membership included Samuel Lord, Deacon 
Conant, S. Gaskell, Asa Towne, Mrs. Towne, Ira Towne, Mrs. 
Ira Towne, Deacon Abner Fuller, John Cotton, Mrs. John Cot- 
ton, Elisha Towne. Elder Bowles had charge of the service, 
but Elder Lord was shortly afterwards ordained pastor. 
Elder Lord was born in Barnstead, New Hampshire, in 1779. 
He began his preaching very early in life. He came to Water- 
bury from Walden, Vermont, in 181 1 and lived the rest of his 
life in this village, dying at the age of seventy years. 

The Advent Church in Waterbury came into being in 1858 
as a crystallization of the hopes (and sometimes the fears) of 
those who had previously been influenced by the preaching 
of William Miller in 1839. Miller delivered a series of lee- 


tures in Waterbury in which he set forth his theory of the 
Second Coming with startling and solemn emphasis. Not 
content with vague prophecies, he went so far as to fix the 
actual date of the end of the world (1843), His theories were 
buttressed by copious citations from the books of Daniel and 
Revelation, whose relevancy it was his task to explain. 
There is no denying, however, the weight given his preaching 
by men and women of mature years and understanding. In 
spite of the failure of the long heralded Event to occur, 
thousands still remained imbued with the idea that it had been 
but temporarily deferred. The movement spread throughout 
the middle west and is instructively described in Edward 
Eggleston's "The End of the World." 

The Waterbury Advent Church was established in May, 
1858, commencing with something less than fifty members. 
The services were conducted by Elder Joshua V. Himes who 
had previously conducted a series of meetings in Washington 
House hall. The meeting house proper, afterwards St. An- 
drew's Church, was dedicated in 1859. 

There was a long period of inaction in the Advent Church of 
Waterbury. Two women evangelists came to Stowe South 
Hollow in November, 1892, and held protracted meetings. 
Encouraged by the results of these meetings certain of the 
reclaimed and new converts induced Elder H. D. Selby of 
Kingscraft, Canada, to reorganize the church. By his assist- 
ance, June 23, 1893, a new church was organized, called the 
Advent Christian Church of Stowe South Hollow. Tent meet- 
ings were held at Waterbury Center and regular meetings at 
the house of Mr. E. C. Gibbs. In August, 1894, tent meetings 
were held at Colbyville. A new church building at Colbyville 
was made possible by the donation of one-half acre of land by 
Mr. Francis Joslyn and various donations of lumber, money 
and labor. This church was built by the Advent Christian 
Society and was presented to the Advent Christian Church of 
Stowe South Hollow conditionally upon its changing its name 
to the Advent Christian Church of Colbyville. The church 
numbered thirty-six in membership, and Elder George W. 
Tabor was called as pastor. He began his pastorate in No- 

PERIOD 1900-1915 221 

vember, 1894, and remained until November, 1897. The list 
of pastors since that time follows: Elders W. H. Blount, second 
pastor; Elder Smith, third pastor; J. T. McLucas, fourth 
pastor; W. G. Knowlton, fifth pastor ; J. T. Mead, sixth pastor; 
W. H. Jackson, seventh pastor; A. D. Page, eighth pastor. 

The present pastor, Elder A. D. Page, was born at New 
Milford, Connecticut, April 16, 1886. He is married and is 
the father of four children. He received his education in the 
grammar school there and a short course at the Centenary 
Collegiate Institute, Hackettstown, New Jersey. He came 
to Waterbury, November i, 1911. He had previously held 
pastorates at Sharon, Connecticut, in 1909-1910, and at Bris- 
tol, Vermont, in 1910-1911. He speaks hopefully and en- 
couragingly of his work and pleasantly of his associations and 

An early Roman Catholic mission in Waterbury was at- 
tended at intervals by Reverend Father O'Callaghan of Bur- 
lington, and also by the missionary priest. Father J. Daley. 
Also at intervals visits were made by Reverend Hector Drolet, 
the Oblate Fathers of Burlington, Reverend Z. Druon and 
Father Duglue, who was stationed at Montpelier. The first 
church edifice, built by the Roman Catholic Church in Water- 
bury, was one dedicated to St. Vincent Ferrier in 1857, and 
stood on a hill to the east of the railroad and a short distance 
from the station. This building was enlarged ten years later 
by Father Duglue. Reverend John Gallighan came to take 
charge in 1869. Eight years later. Father Gallighan pur- 
chased a residential property on Upper Main Street and the 
Adventist Church property adjoining. This latter was con- 
verted by him into a suitable place for Catholic purposes. 
The house adjoining was turned into the parochial residence, 
now the home of Father Robert Devoy. 

The church was dedicated as St. Andrew's Catholic Church, 
November 30, 1876, and the church property is valued at 
$25,000. The interior of the church presents a pleasing 
aspect. The walls, ceilings and altars are tastefully decorated. 
The seating capacity is three hundred and fifty. The com- 


municants and Catholic population in Waterbury in 191 5 are 
one hundred and sixty-five families. 

The first settled priest in Waterbury was Father Gallighan. 
He remained here eighteen years. After his departure there 
was a fifteen-year interval when Waterbury again became a 
mission, attended in order by Reverends Brelivette, McConly, 
Father Donahue now of Northfield, Father Blais in 1895, 
Father McLaughlin and Father Maillet, until January, 1903. 
Those following were: Reverend J. A. Lynch, Reverend J. A. 
Cahill in 1904-1905; Reverend P. J. Doheny, 1905-1909; 
Reverend Daniel Coffey 1909-1913. The Right Reverend 
Monsignor Cloarec, vicar general of the Diocese, now eighty- 
two years of age, said Mass in Waterbury fifty-seven years 

The present resident priest is Reverend Father Robert 
Devoy. Ordained in Sherbrooke, Province of Quebec, No- 
vember 29, 1903, Father Devoy became assistant at the 
Church of Holy Angels in St. Albans. He was born in the 
diocese of Nicolet, Province of Quebec in 1876, and received 
his education in Nicolet and St. Laurent's colleges. He 
completed his theological studies at the Seminary of St. Charles 
Borromee, and was ordained by Bishop Larocque. He was 
appointed to his present charge in Waterbury in 1914, and has 
charge also of the neighboring churches of Moretown and 

Library facilities in Waterbury are good and are growing 
better. Mr. A. H. Smith, in a comparatively recent paper, 
pointed out that, at the time of which he wrote, Burling- 
ton, with her number of volumes exceeding Waterbury's seven- 
fold and her population six times as large, had only four and 
one-half times as large a circulation. This in Waterbury, for 
the time named, averaged 17,000, or 5,125 more than the 
average of 12,125 for the five towns of Barton, Fairhaven, 
Lyndon, Northfield and Randolph. These are next in size to 
Waterbury, with an average population of 3,220, as against 
Waterbury's 3,273. 

In tracing the library beginnings, locally, it is necessary to 
go back to the time when the Colby brothers came here in 

PERIOD 1900-1915 223 

1856. George and Edwin A. Colby brought with them some- 
thing more than a capacity for inspiring their neighbors to 
industrial effort. The eldest brother, assisted by the younger 
brothers, his mother and sister, set about planning for a place 
where the young could derive entertainment of an instructive 
nature and foster a love for reading and culture. These early 
efforts resulted in the organization of a so-called lyceum at 
whose weekly meetings papers were read and momentous 
questions debated. 

These intellectual festivities were varied from time to time 
by the advent of the "platform lecturer" — an institution now 
fast passing into a memory. These platform lecturers did not 
derive their characterization from the fact that they were at 
any time rash enough to attempt to reconcile political plat- 
forms with performances, but from their custom of speaking 
from a platform or rostrum. Naturally the lyceum created a 
demand for reading and this was met by the organization of 
an association and the purchase of about five hundred books. 
The number of accessions was small for the next ten or twelve 
years and the inevitable reaction against letters followed their 
sudden renaissance, as has been noted elsewhere. It was 
neatly put in Hemenway's "Washington County Gazetteer": 
"But after the novelty of the first few years had worn away, 
the very inexpensiveness of its advantages seemed to diminish 
its usefulness, since some estimates value only by cost." The 
library was kept alive in some way, however, and in 1882 there 
were several hundred books in charge of Mr. George W. Ken- 
nedy as assistant librarian. 

A new impetus was given the movement in 1 887-1 888 under 
the leadership of Reverend Charles M. Sheldon, now a noted 
Congregational clergyman of Topeka, Kansas, We are en- 
abled to give something of the details of organization through 
the courtesy of Mr. A. H. Smith, from whose paper the follow- 
ing is an extract: 

A corporation was formed under the Laws of Vermont to be known as 
the Waterbury Public Library Association. The capital stock was to be 
one thousand dollars, to be divided into one thousand shares at one dollar 
each. None of the subscription to the stock was to be valid unless five 
hundred shares were sold before May i, 1888. The first four subscribers 


to this stock were Mr. Sheldon, G. W. Randall, C. C. Warren and Doctor 
Henry Janes. The necessary amount of stock was subscribed for and the 
first meeting of the association was called for June 22, 1888. The organi- 
zation was completed and the real management of the association placed 
in the hands of seven trustees to be elected by the shareholders. These 
trustees were W. P. Dillingham, C. E. Richardson, L. H. Elliott, Mr. 
Sheldon, Mrs. Henry Janes, Mrs. Mary Atherton and Mrs. W. P. Dilling- 
ham. At the next meeting held July 9, it was voted to receive the books 
of the Waterbury Library Association (those bought under the leadership 
of Mr. Colby) and to issue to each member of that association one share of 
the stock of the Waterbury Public Library Association, and the secretary 
was directed to issue said stock to a list of the shareholders. Thus these 
books, which had been stored for several years in the office of George W. 
Kennedy, were turned over to the present association and became a part 
of their stock. The association obtained the room, now occupied by Mr. 
Douglass as a barber shop, for the library. Miss Etta Straw was appointed 
librarian, and the library was formally opened to the public November 24, 
1888. The first report of the circulation of the library was in 1900, when 
the records state that 1,000 books had been taken out during the year. 
During 1912 over 20,000 were taken out, showing the increased interest 
and usefulness of the library. In 1904 it was voted by the association to 
lend the books of the association to the town of Waterbury, if said town 
would vote to maintain a Free Public Library. An article containing this 
offer was placed in the warning for the town meeting and was passed over 
by the voters. The association then offered to receive and care for the 
books owned by the town (which had been secured by state aid) and this 
offer was accepted. The association also voted, in 1907, "That we extend 
to all legal residents of the town of Waterbury the free use of all books 
contained in the library, provided that said town shall furnish and maintain 
a suitable room for said books and furnish a librarian to care for same." 
This was accepted and the present room secured. The munificent endow- 
ment from the Horace S. Fales Estate became available at this time and the 
future prosperity of the association seemed assured. For twenty years it 
had been resolutely maintained by an earnest band of book lovers. They 
had given of their time and their talents without price. Funds for new 
books and current expenses had been raised in various ways — lectures, 
entertainments, ice cream sales, and soliciting. Many of the original 
founders had passed away and their places had been filled by new recruits. 
The history of our library is similar to that of thousands of others scattered 
all over our country. Nearly every library in our state has grown up in 
this same way. Scarcely one of them had a home ten years ago; very few 
had an assured income with which to purchase books. 

In response to a request for information from Reverend 
Charles M. Sheldon, a letter was received from him from which 
an interesting excerpt is given: 

PERIOD 1900-1915 225 

I think that I can truly say that in some ways the town of Waterbury at 
that (1887-1888) time was an ideal town in its social and educational life. 
We organized, the first winter, a reading club, composed of all the young 
people in the town. We read through aloud Dickens' "Tale of Two 
Cities," with historical research work connected, and at the end of the 
year the interest was so great that we established the Waterbury Reading 
Room and Library. It was that same winter that the people kindly allowed 
me the great privilege of boarding about in their homes. I would go home 
with a family after the Sunday morning service and take dinner with them; 
go back to my room in the hotel; go back and take the supper meal with the 
family; go to church and return with the family after service for a Sunday 
evening visit. During the week usually I took dinner and supper every 
day with this family, visiting with the members between meals. In this 
way I had the great privilege of seeing, in the family life, nearly fifty differ- 
ent homes in Waterbury. I can never repay the great kindness and cour- 
tesies shown me during that time. It was an insight into the home life of 
the town, rarely permitted to any one outside of the family. I can truly 
say that my experience revealed a remarkable condition of social and 
educational life among the people. 

I have been asked to say a word about the old "sprinkling cart," which 
ran up and down the Waterbury streets one summer season, laying the 
dust. I do not remember myself where I found the cart or who was its 
driver, but I do remember the amount of time I spent trying to get water 
down from the spring at the lower end of the street and conveying it into 
a tank in the upper story of a barn. I spent much valuable time doing 
this, which should have been used in the work of the pastorate, but I was 
determined to make that sprinkling cart do its work if I spent the last cent 
I had. I do not remember now how much it cost, but I am sure it was far 
more than it was worth. I feel far more repaid by the establishment of a 
library which, I am told, is still in existence. 

My memory of my Waterbury pastorate is grateful as I recall the num- 
berless kind things done for me while I was there. I can never return 
these many kindnesses and can only express in this brief article my appre- 
ciation of them, as I understand now, better than I could then, what it all 

The library now has about 5,000 volumes, covering well- 
selected fiction, works of travel, biography, history, economics, 
sociological subjects, standard reference and the better weekly 
and monthly periodicals. The library needs new accessions 
of late critical treatises on American History, Constitutional 
and International Law and Government — subjects constantly 
being investigated at such crucial periods as this. With its 
present facilities, the library's affairs are efficiently adminis- 
tered and the books well chosen. The officers and trustees are : 


president, Willis B. Clark; secretary, A. H. Smith; treasurer, 
C. C. Graves; Doctor W. L. Wasson, Mark H. Moody, Mrs. 
George S. Bidwell and Miss Margaret O'Neill. The muni- 
ficent gift of a home for the library, in the will of the late Doc- 
tor Henry Janes, has been mentioned elsewhere. 

Doctor Horace Fales' name was inseparably connected 
with village and town annals from 1848, when he came to 
Waterbury, until his death, September 15, 1882. He was born 
in Sharon, Vermont, February 16, 1823; was graduated at 
Woodstock Medical College in 1848. He had received a pre- 
liminary academic education at the Kimball Union Academy, 
Meriden, New Hampshire. Immediately prior to his medical 
course, he studied under the preceptorship of Doctor Reuben 
Spalding, his uncle, in Brattleboro. He sustained himself 
through his medical course without outside assistance. In 
1851 he was married to Miss Henrietta Sheple, daughter of 
David Sheple. The Fales home, as has been pointed out be- 
fore, was on that tract of land on Upper Main Street, in the 
easterly part of the village, where Ezra and Azaph Butler 
first made their pitch in 1785; the property passed succes- 
sively to Richard Holden, Judge Dan Carpenter and General 
John Peck. It then passed from General Peck's personal 
representative to David G. Sheple, Doctor Fales' father-in- 
law, thence to Doctor and Mrs. Fales. The present building, 
occupied as the Hospital Annex, was built by Doctor Fales to 
replace his burned residence. 

Doctor Horace and Mrs. Henrietta (Sheple) Fales were so 
much a part of Waterbury that when they died childless 
the town was left bereft indeed. It is recalled that Doc- 
tor Fales' practice was a large and exacting one. His min- 
istrations as physician were in request from Middlesex, 
Moretown, the Duxburys, Stowe and Bolton. He is described 
by Miss M. Morrissey, for a long time a member of the Fales 
household, as being about six feet in height, of about two hun- 
dred pounds in weight, having jutting eyebrows overshadow- 
ing piercing eyes. His forehead was high and massive. He 
wore the customary closely cropped beard of the physician. 
He was quick and of decisive manner, but not abrupt or 

Dr. Horace Fales 

Franklin Sylvester Heary 

Mrs. Horace Fales 

Dr. Henry Janes 

Mark C. Canerdy 




PERIOD 1900-1915 227 

thoughtless in demeanor. His voice was pleasant and sooth- 
ing in a sick room. It is said that his very presence there 
charged the atmosphere with healing. 

He was an enthusiastic farmer and gave much of his spare 
attention to his magnificent farms on the meadows, which are 
now the Vermont State Hospital property. He was always 
interested in horses and cattle and was never so happy as 
when he was busying himself about their care and keep. Many 
patients in so large a territory as was covered by Doctor 
Fales' practice were unable to pay, at all times, even his mod- 
erate fees. With cheerfulness and good will he stood as 
ready to respond to the calls of such as to those of his more 
well-to-do patients. Doctor Fales' professional work and his 
farm left him little time for recreation; an occasional visit to 
Saratoga, Messina, New York, and Philadelphia, represented 
about the extent of Doctor and Mrs. Fales' wanderings from 

Though absorbed in his practice and farm. Doctor Fales 
still found time to give to public service. He served as select- 
man for several terms and in other public capacities. The 
household consisted at different times, aside from Doctor 
and Mrs. Fales, of young Doctor D. W. Lovejoy, a cousin of 
Doctor Fales, and a medical student under his preceptorship ; 
two nephews and one niece of Mrs. Fales who were cared for 
in the Fales home, and Miss M. Morrissey. 

Mrs. Henrietta Fales {nee Sheple) was born November 7, 
1823, and died in 1906. Mrs. Fales is well remembered as a 
woman of remarkable strength of character. Her home and 
the care of the members of her household held for her ample 
interest and occupation. Keenly alive to the growing needs of 
Waterbury along cultural and educational lines, she made 
provision in her last will and testament for a trust fund to be 
known as the Horace Fales Fund "for aiding in the mainte- 
nance of a public library in the village of Waterbury in loving 
memory of my deceased husband who had a home there during 
the major portion of his business life and whose intimate social 
and professional relations with its people produced an interest 
in and affection for the place which it is my wish to commem- 


The trust fund was in Mrs. Fales' residuary estate and the 
income was to be paid over to the trustees, for the time being, 
of the Waterbury Public Library Association, to be used in 
the purchase of books and periodicals. Upon the failure of 
the association to open its rooms for a period of two months 
for the distribution and exchange of books, as often as once in 
each calendar week, the income shall cease and the principal of 
the trust remaining in the hands of the trustee, or his successor, 
shall go to the incorporated village of Waterbury "for the ex- 
press purpose of establishing and helping to maintain a public 
library in said village under the authority and provisions of the 
statute law of Vermont in such case made and provided." 
The estimated value of the fund was found to be $15,000. By 
a codicil, Mrs. Fales released Honorable William P. Dilling- 
ham as trustee of this fund and substituted in his place and 
stead Mr. George W. Morse who in turn was succeeded by the 
Waterbury Savings Bank and Trust Company. 

Mark Carter Canerdy's place in the town's chronicles is one 
earned by a long life of industry and useful public service. 
Born in Duxbury June 4, 1828, the son of John and Hannah 
Canerdy, he, with the eight other children, passed his child- 
hood at his father's home near the Bolton Falls, the present 
site of the electric plant of the Consolidated Company. In 
1 85 1 he married Louisa M. Corse of Duxbury, a daughter of 
Eben and Corina (Huntley) Corse. There were no children. 
Mrs. Canerdy died in 1895. Mr. and Mrs. Canerdy started 
housekeeping at what was afterwards known as the John 
Preston place. They moved into the village from there, and 
of their forty years' residence here they spent thirty years in 
their Main Street home. 

Mr. Canerdy was extensively engaged in dealing in live 
stock and was one of the pioneer drovers of this vicinity, often- 
times driving large herds to the Boston market, an enterprise 
attended with great labor and risk. He was chosen selectman 
by his fellow townsmen and, during his term, succeeded in 
reducing the indebtedness of the town, thereby calling atten- 
tion to his ability as a financier. While engaged in this work 
he was asked by the stockholders of the Waterbury National 

Waterbury Public Library Building 

Gift of the late Dr. Henry Janes 


ASTOfi. Lfc'NOX 

PERIOD 1900-1915 229 

Bank to act as a director; he accordingly became a member of 
the board in 1899. In 1904 he became the vice-president of 
the bank and continued in that office until his death, Septem- 
ber 20, 1 9 10. It was during his connection with the bank 
that Mr. Canerdy's firm friendship for young business men 
was often shown in a practical and substantial way. Many a 
young man of the community has profited by his advice and 
assistance financially. Such a man naturally became influen- 
tial and the depositary of his neighbor's perplexities and aspira- 
tions, in spite of himself; but he was ever ready with a kindly 
word and helpful hand. 

Like many another modest benefactor, Mr. Canerdy chose 
to continue to render service to his townspeople after his death. 
This he accomplished by his last will and testament, dated 
December 20, 1905, under which he devised and bequeathed 
to the Congregational Church, located in Waterbury Village, 
and the Waterbury Public Library, share and share alike, the 
residuary part of his estate, subject to a life estate of its use 
and income to Emma A. Manning, who had acted as house- 
keeper in the Canerdy home after Mrs. Canerdy's death. 
Emma Manning died October 24, 1912, and the share of the 
residue of the estate in the hands of the trustee for the Public 
Library Association was found to be $10,000. 

It would be beyond the scope of this attempt to do more 
than outline the educational work done in the town. We have 
seen how the matter of education lay very near to the hearts 
of the early settlers and how difficult it was to make provision 
for the housing of the schools. As early as November 3, 1801, 
the Legislature passed an act creating the "Corporation of the 
Chittenden County Grammar School," and naming Benjamin 
Wait, Richard Holding (Holden?), John Cray, Styles Sher- 
man, John Peck, David Austin, Asaph Allen and William Utley 
as trustees; the act contained a proviso that the town should 
"build and finish a good and sufficient house of the value of 
$700 within two years." It has been noted elsewhere how 
far short the town fell of carrying out this proviso. As time 
went on, the two original school districts were subdivided into 
new districts, these being added as occasion required. 


The action of the Legislature in 1801 erecting the Corpora- 
tion of the Chittenden County Grammar School had been 
preceded by action at the March meeting of the town in 1791 
warned "to see if the town would take any measures for the 
promotion of schools." A committee, consisting of John 
Craig, Reuben Wells and Caleb Munson, was appointed to 
set apart the two school districts of the town. Waterbury 
River was made the dividing line between the two. For a 
long time each district worked out its own salvation as best 
it might. The subdivision of the districts was made neces- 
sary, of course, by the scattered condition of the town's 

About the year 1872, the town was in receipt of a small 
income arising from public land rentals, interest on the general 
government surplus money and the state school tax, amount- 
ing in all to less than $1,200. This was parcelled out among 
the districts and was made to go as far as possible. The main 
or village district had a graded school for the support of which 
a 50-cent tax on the dollar of the grand list was voted. This 
school was the first to be housed comfortably. The old school- 
house, standing near the Dillingham homestead on Main Street, 
was moved away by its purchaser, James Hattie, to a site on 
what is now known as Elm Street in the autumn of 1900. 

The present beautiful and commodious school building is 
the outcome of a resolution offered by William P. Dillingham 
at the March meeting of 1898, authorizing the school directors 
to purchase a site and erect a school building thereon, in the 
village of Waterbury, at an expense not to exceed $20,000, and 
to sell the old school building and site. The selectmen were 
also authorized to borrow a sum not in excess of $20,000. 

By the education code, passed at the legislative session of 
1915, a town is made to constitute a school district having a 
board of three directors, and the matter of appointing and 
regulating the tenure of school superintendents rests with the 
State Board of Education. 

The Waterbury High School has gradually been develop- 
ing its courses of study to meet the increasing demands of pres- 
ent day life. The University of Vermont has had a control- 

PERIOD 1900-1915 231 

ling influence upon secondary education in this state and, 
when that institution joined the Association of Colleges of 
New England, many Vermont high schools found their facili- 
ties inadequate for the new requirements. In 1908, one 
teacher was added to the high school faculty and, with the 
introduction of new subjects, an effort was made to gain the 
certificate privilege for the school. The splendid results ob- 
tained by the class of 191 1 in college entrance examinations 
won for the Waterbury High School the approval of the New 
England College Entrance Certificate Board. Since then our 
students have entered college without examination. 

However, the majority of boys and girls must finish their 
education in the public schools and they have a right to de- 
mand courses of study which will fit them for their chosen 
occupations. With such a purpose in view, the college pre- 
paratory course was more closely defined and, in 19 14, a com- 
mercial course was successfully instituted. A further im- 
provement will be made in 1915 by the establishment of a 
course in agriculture, under the supervision of a special teacher. 
Thus, the Waterbury High School, with a staff of four instruct- 
ors, is doing a work which will compare favorably with that 
of other similar schools. 

The number of students has gradually increased. In 1907, 
the enrollment was forty and, in 19 14, seventy. During the 
past eight years, the High School has graduated fifty-seven 
students, seventeen boys and forty girls. Of these students, 
twenty-four entered college, seven qualified by examinations 
as teachers, two pursued normal teacher training courses, 
three became nurses, five entered business college, two studied 
music and art, and eleven took up miscellaneous work, such 
as business and housekeeping. The school has lost, by the 
removal of families to other towns, a number of students who 
have entered college after work done in the Waterbury High 
School. Furthermore, a number of students who were not 
graduated, have used their preparation for teaching, business 
and other pursuits. 

Now that vocational courses have been established, the 


work of the school will become more intimately connected 
with the life of the community. 

Teachers in the Waterbury High School, i 899-1915 

Principal, E. M. Roscoe, 1 899-1904. 
Miss Julia Moody (Perry), 1899-1904. 
Principal, W. H. Hosmer, 1904-1907. 
Miss Delta Collins, 1904-1905. 
Miss Jeffries Leete, 1 905-1 907. 
Principal, F. W. Reimherr, 1907-1915. 
Miss Ethel Park, 1907-1908. 
Miss Vera Powell, 1908-19 12. 
Miss Effie Wells, 1908-1910. 
Miss Belle Anderson, 1910-1914. 
Miss Clara Buffum. 1910. 
Miss Elsie Hooker, 1912-1913. 
Miss Margaret Durgin, 1913-1914. 
Miss Stella Parrel, 1914-1915. 
Miss Irene Parris, 1914-1915. 

A carefully compiled list is given of those who have gone 
as students to the University of Vermont, either from Water- 
bury or claiming Waterbury as a place of residence. This 
is made possible through the courtesy of President Guy Potter 
Benton and Registrar Kehoe of the University. 

b. = birth at Waterbury. 

f. = finished preparatory education at Waterbury. 
fr. =from Waterbury. 
d. = death occurred at Waterbury. 
*Prefixed to a person's name indicates his decease. 
Ch.= chemistry course. 
C.E. =civil engineering. 
E.E.= electrical engineering. 
CI. = classical. 
L.S. = literary, scientific. 
Eng. = engineering. 
Med. = medical. 
Ag. =agricultural. 
H.Ec. =home economics. 
Cm. = commerce and economics. 

PERIOD 1900-1915 





Giles H. Holding 


fr. W., non-grad. 

Guy J. Holding 


fr. W., non-grad. 

♦William Wells 


b., d. at W. 

*William Carpenter 


b., d. at W., non-grad. 

Seth Chandler Sherman 


fr. W. 

Russell Butler 


b., d., fr. W. 

Mason S. Stone 



b. W. Ctr. 

Ferdinand S. Henry 


b. W. Ctr. 

George R. Huse 



b., fr. W. 

Frank P. Lord 



b. W. 

*Inez E. Moody 



b., d., W. 

Ida May Fuller 



b., f., fr. W. 

Warner J. Morse 



b., fr. W. Ctr. 

Charles W. Worthen 



b. W. 

Clayton G. Andrews 



formerly located at W. 

Watson L. Wasson 



now located at W. 

Don D. Grout 


now located at W. 

George S. Bidwell 


now at W. 

Waldo J. Upton 


now located at St. Albans. 

Robert W. Palmer 




John F. Tice 




Degree Year 













*The above 5 names are recorded as located at Waterbury and having 
belonged to said classes. Where they came from or went to school is not 



Clayton W. Guptil 

Ida Blanche Kennedy 

Harold Earnest Somerville 

Andrew J. Brown 
Joseph Herschell Smith 
Marjorie A. Duffus 

Lilla C. Montgomery 
Beulah A. Watts 
Mabel N. Watts 
Amy E. Wheeler 
Dean S. Fullerton 
Max Fuller 

left college 
Marjorie E. Luce 
Joseph Ciminera 
Walter LeBaron 
Norma Marie Perkins 
Loren Watts 

Entrance Course 
1903 L.S. 

Degree Year 























Effie Wells fitted for college in Waterbury High School and 
was graduated from the University of Vermont. She taught 
domestic science in Middlebury College and married William 

It is quite in keeping with the traditions of both the town of 
Waterbury and Norwich University that the town should 
have been creditably represented in that ancient institution 
of learning and that the spirit fostered and nurtured in that 
splendid school of patriotism should have been Waterbury's 
since her beginning. A list of former students and graduates 
from Waterbury is given : 

William Carpenter, son of Dan and Betsy Carpenter, was 
born in Waterbury October 25, 1805; died March 16, 1881. 
He was prepared at Montpelier Academy and entered the old 
"Academy," as Norwich University was then known, in 1821, 
and was graduated in 1823. He afterwards entered the 
University of Vermont with the class of 1826, but was forced 
by ill health to discontinue his course. 

PERIOD 1900-1915 235 

Frederick Perkins Drew, U. S. A., M. D., son of Doctor 
Oliver W. and Lucretia (Ames) Drew, was born in Waterbury 
in April, 1829, and died at Fort Riley, Kansas, in March, 
1864. He prepared in Waterbury and entered the univer- 
sity in 1844, remaining nearly three years. Thereafter he 
studied medicine at Woodstock and was graduated M. D. 
from the College of Surgeons in New York in 1859. 

Franklin Allen Goss, A. B., son of Benjamin F. and Mary 
Jane (Witherill) Goss, was born in Waterbury January i, 
1859, and died in Troy, New York, August 12, 1904. He 
prepared for college at Highland Military Academy, Worcester, 
Massachusetts, and at Phillips Academy, Andover. He en- 
tered the university in 1864, remaining two years, and served 
with the corps of cadets at Newport, Vermont, in October, 
1864, during the St. Albans raid troubles. He was gradu- 
ated from Amherst A. B. in 187 1. 

Ransom Augustus Gray, son of Darius A. and Louisa P. 
(Smith) Gray, was born in Duxbury, Vermont, February 28, 
1873, and died of tuberculosis at Sparhawk's Sanatorium in 
Burlington, Vermont, in May, 1879. In 1885 his parents 
removed to Waterbury. He fitted for college at Green Moun- 
tain Seminary, Waterbury Center, and entered the university, 
March, 1894, remaining until June, 1895. He studied law and 
taught school in Waterbury until he was stricken with his 
fatal disease. 

Roy Morse Bachelder, B. S., son of John Sargent and Ella 
Abbie Morse Bachelder, was born in Needham, Massachusetts, 
January 10, 1885. In 1888 his parents removed to Waterbury 
where he was graduated from the high school in 1903. He 
entered the university in September of the same year and 
was graduated B. S. in C. E. in 1907. He was afterwards 
employed in the engineering department of the Missouri 
Pacific Railroad, July, 1907-April, 1908. He became in- 
surance surveyor for the Sanborn Map Company of New 
York. He is a member of the Congregational Church in 

Earl Albert Boyce, B. S., son of Willard Jairus and Mary 
Elna (Robbins) Boyce, was born in Waterbury August 24, 


1887. He received his collegiate preparation in the local 
schools and entered the university, September 12, 1905, and 
was graduated B. S. in C. E. in 1909. He became an assistant 
engineer for the Northern Pacific Railroad on location work in 
North Dakota, August, 1909-March, 1910, and afterwards 
became engaged in sewer construction work in Kentucky and 
Tennessee. He studied osteopathy in Kirksville, Missouri, 
for some time after leaving Tennessee. 

Earl Asa Parker, son of Frederick and Ida (Colby) Parker, 
was born in Waitsfield, Vermont, November i, 1889. He 
removed to Waterbury with his family. He prepared at 
Montpelier Seminary and entered the university as a cadet and 
remained as a student from September, 1908-June, 1910. He 
became instrument man with the Morgan Engineering Com- 
pany in Poplar Bluff, Missouri; assistant engineer with C. R. T. 
and P. Railway at Topeka, Kansas, April-October, 191 1, then 
with the A., T. &S. F. Railway in New Mexico, from October, 

Max Gleason Ayres, son of Orlo Leroy and Bessie (Gleason) 
Ayres, was born in Waterbury, Vermont, October 27, 1890. 
He prepared at the Waterbury High School and entered the 
university in September, 1909. 

Alton Grover Wheeler, son of Stedman Cyrus and Mabel 
Judith (Grover) Wheeler, was born in Waterbury, Vermont, 
March 28, 1891. He was prepared at the Waterbury High 
School and entered the university as a cadet in the civil 
engineering department in September, 1910. 

Benjamin Harrison Grout, B. S., son of Doctor Don De 
Forest and Angle M. (Wilkins) Grout, was born in Stowe, 
Vermont, September 20, 1888. He was prepared for college 
at Waterbury High School and entered the university from 
that town in September, 1906. He was graduated B. S. in 
C. E. in 1910. He was married, April 19, 1914, to Miss Hazel 
N. Brackett, and now resides in Brimfield, Massachusetts. 

Harold Price Turney, son of John H. and Maria (Price) 
Turney, was born in Waterbury September 10, 1890. He 
prepared at Goddard Seminary, Barre, Vermont, and entered 
the university from Middlesex in September, 191 1. 

PERIOD 1900-1915 237 

It is regrettable that only a partial list of those natives or 
residents of Waterbury attending Middlebury College is 

Jeremiah Flint, son of Phineas and Hannah (Clark) Flint, 
was born in Hampton, Connecticut, November 16, 1784; was 
graduated from Middlebury College in 181 1, and the Andover 
Theological Seminary in 18 14; ordained in 1817. Pastor, 
Congregational Church in Danville, Vermont, in 181 7-1 818. 
Lived in retirement in Waterbury and Eden, Vermont, 1818- 
1842. Married Jerusha Pratt, April 7, 1830. Their children 
were Helen, Abby, George W., Phineas, Jeremiah C, John W. 
He died in Eden, Vermont, October 29, 1842. 

Reverend Jonathan Hovey, the first regularly installed 
pastor of the Congregational Church in Waterbury, received 
the honorary degree of M. A. from Middlebury College in 1817. 

Calvin Blodgett Moody, son of George W. and Lucia (Eddy) 
Moody, was born in Waterbury October 26, 1855. He pre- 
pared for college at Montpelier Seminary. He was graduated 
from Middlebury College in 1877, receiving the degree of 
A. B., and afterwards A. M.; studied at the Hartford Theolog- 
ical Seminary and was ordained in 1880. He was successively 
pastor of Center Harbor (New Hampshire) Congregational 
Church, at Barton, Vermont, Osage, Iowa, and of the Ply- 
mouth Congregational Church at Minneapolis, Minnesota. 
Afterwards he went to Syracuse, New York. He was married 
to Fanny Ellen Kingsley July 29, 1880. Children: Helen 
Lucre tia, Fanny Kingsley and Lucia Avis (deceased). The 
191 5 address list gives his present residence as Kingfisher 
College, Kingfisher, Oklahoma. 

Doctor Watson Lowell Wasson of Waterbury was a non- 
graduate student in the class of 1886 at Middlebury College. 

Sophia Belle Anderson of Waterbury was graduated in the 
class of 1909 from Middlebury College. 

Edythe May Boyce of Waterbury was a non-graduate 
student in the class of 1915 at Middlebury College. 

Margaret Gates Pike of Waterbury was a non-graduate 
student in the class of 1915 at Middlebury College. 


Harriet Edna Boyce of Waterbury was a member of the 
class of 1916 at Middlebury College. 

Justin Mark Ricker, formerly of Waterbury, now of Bridge- 
port, Connecticut, was graduated in the class of 1906 from 
Middlebury College. 

Dan J. Ricker, formerly of Waterbury, was graduated from 
Middlebury College in the class of 1909. He spent some time 
in Honolulu and is now in New York City. 

Robert Hazeltine prepared at Waterbury High School and 
was graduated at Middlebury College in 1907; after a post- 
graduate course, he became a teacher in the Baltimore City 
College, Maryland. He is a son of Holden and Jessie M. 

Irene, daughter of Harvey and Ella R. Henry, was gradu- 
ated from Middlebury College. She was prepared for college 
at the Waterbury High School, and now lives in Schenectady. 

Among the former students of the Waterbury High School 
who attended college are: Charles Warren, Jr., W. H. S. 
1905; Dartmouth, 1909; now in business in New York. Wil- 
liam Duff us, W. H. S., afterwards Leland Stanford University. 
Robert Duffus, W. H. S., afterwards Leland Stanford Univer- 
sity, now a newspaper man in California. John Moran, W. H. 
S., afterwards Holy Cross College. 

Under the grim shadows of Camel's Hump and Mount 
Mansfield, in Waterbury Center, was finally established the 
Green Mountain Seminary, founded in 1862 by D. S. Frost, 
F. H. Lyford, J. L. Sinclair, Ziba Sprague, Lyman Sargent, 
L P. Moulton, Jonathan Woodman, L. T. Harris, M. C. 
Henderson, S. W. Cowell, Obadiah Hall and J. Coffrin, as 
incorporators; to this list were added the names of Ezra B. 
Fuller, David H. Adams, Roswell Mason Minard, Hawley W. 
Judson and David Pratt by an amendment to the act of incor- 
poration in 1868. The institution was started under the aus- 
pices and by the hard labor of the Freewill Baptists and it was 
empowerd to furnish such education and to confer such degrees 
"as are usually conferred by the best Colleges, Academies 
and Seminaries." 

The first president of the corporation was Reverend J. L. 

PERIOD 1900-1915 239 

Sinclair; t'he second was Reverend Lyman Sargent. The cor- 
ner-stone of the seminary building was laid in July, 1868, by 
President Angell, then of the University of Vermont. The 
building was completed at a cost of $30,000, in 1869, and was 
dedicated September i of that year. During the first year 
there were five teachers besides the principal, A. J. Sanborn. 
For three years following C. A. Moores was principal. Rev- 
erend R. N. Tozer was principal during the fifth year. The 
school was closed during the sixth year from its opening; but 
was reopened in 1875. 

In 1 88 1, through the munificence of Doctor R. M. Minard, 
the Minard Commercial School was opened in connection 
with the seminary. A review of the curriculum for 1890 
shows that in the English and Classical course and the Col- 
lege Preparatory Course, about the usual amount of classics, 
mathematics, English and history was prescribed. There 
was also a Teacher's Course of two years. As time went on, 
however, it became only too apparent that the support the 
institution richly deserved was not forthcoming; during the 
winter of 1905-1906, instruction continued until Miss Colley, 
the preceptress, was called to New Hampshire. 

After a precarious struggle, the institution finally closed its 
doors permanently in February, 1906, and the seminary build- 
ing became the property of the town in 191 3, pursuant to a 
vote at town meeting March 4. The old school bell that for- 
merly hung in the belfry of the school building was donated to 
one of the town churches by a vote passed at the March meet- 
ing in 1915, "with no string attached." This vote naturally 
raised a query duly noted in the record, as to how the bell 
could be rung without a string attached. 

That Kaiser Wilhelm's now famous alliterative restriction 
of woman's sphere to "Kinder, Kuche, Kleider und Kirche" 
has not been enthusiastically adopted in Waterbury is dis- 
tinctly emphasized by the club movement locally. This 
began with the Philomathean Club, organized in 1894, which 
became federated with the Vermont State Federation of 
Women's Clubs in 1899. The Pierian Club, limited to a 
membership of twenty-five, was formed in 1904, and became 


federated in 191 1. This is a study club and affords opportu- 
nities to its members for individual research and the prepara- 
tion and discussion of papers on subjects of historical, literary, 
political and miscellaneous interest. The Hypatia Club, also 
a study club, was formed in 1898, and federated in 1901. Its 
membership, until 1914, was limited to twenty-five, since then 
to thirty. It has kindred objects with the Pierian as to re- 
search and investigation. 

The officers and members of the Pierian Club for 1915-1916 
are: president, Mrs. Abbie J. Foster; vice-president, Mrs. 
Sarah M. Carpenter; recording secretary, Mrs. Bertha D. 
Campbell; corresponding secretary, Mrs. Nettie L. Fife; treas- 
urer, Mrs. Elna M. Boyce; critic, Mrs. Laurestine Graves. 

In addition to the above-named members the list of active 
members includes: Blanche E. Atherton, Bessie G. Ayers, 
Sarah M. Carpenter, Marion B. Clark, Martha F. Clair, S. 
Jane Edwards, Estella E. Gifford, Ida M. Grout, Nina L. B. 
Robinson, Clara K. Swasey, Florence E. Guptil, Ida W. 
Hattie, Margaret B. Knowles, Caroline A. Lamb, Eva Luce, 
Harriette F. Moody, Maria Park, Belle G. Randall, Beulah 
Russell, Nellie R. Thompson. 

The list of honorary members includes: Ella M. Batchel- 
der, Nellie C. Bates, Tamar Boyce, Sarah M. Coburn, Joseph- 
ine E. Drew, Cora G. Douglass, Minnie L. Haines, Ella R. 
Henry, Nellie G. Hoadley, Mary N. Petty, Susie A. J. Smith- 
ers, Elnora Stalker, Sue G. Stranahan, Lillian Tewksbury, 
Jane Trowbridge, Ellen A. Vassar. 

The officers and members of the Hypatia Club for 1915-1916 
are: president, Mrs. Margaret S. Perry; vice-president, Mrs. 
Florence T. Joslyn; secretary. Miss Rose A. Carpenter; assist- 
ant secretary, Mrs. Maywood P. Perkins; treasurer, Mrs. 
Rena Demeritt. 

Besides those named the active member list includes: 
Jessie H. Atherton, Florence E. Atkins, Katrina L. Bidwell, 
Weltha W. Boeker, Lottie C. Cooley, Lillian P. Demeritt, 
Laura P. Fowler, Harriet B. Farnham, Annie G. Gilbert, 
Etta F. Graves, Fontinelle N. Goodrich, Mabel C. Jones, 
Marguerite C. Knight, Inez G. Lease, Lucy G. Moody, Sadie 

PERIOD 1900-1915 241 

Moore, Alice L. Seabury, Eva F. Stanley, Emilie G. Steele, 
Theda W. Twombly, Pearl R. Wasson, Mary M. VVhitehill, 
Maud C. Wood, Mae B. VVheeler. 

The list of honorary members includes : Mabel H. Andrews, 
Mary W. Berry, Sara H. Boicourt, Bertha D. Bone, Amy G. 
Bingham, Beatrice A. Boyce, Lena M. Carpenter, Margaret 
Colby, Jasmine S. Cooley, Ella D. Davis, Mary Drew, Nan- 
nette D. Evans, Drusilla Fogg, Carolyn W. Frary, Mary F. 
Kemp, Clarissa S. Minard, Florence F. Morse, Mertie H. 
Palmer, Julia P. Parker, Mary A. Patterson, Julia M. Perry, 
Nella S. Roscoe, Dora C. Sheffield, Bessie F. Whittle, Ida B. 
Hatch, Ida B. Houston, Claire D. Hill, Mary K. Kellogg. 

Waterbury State and Federal Officers 

Governors — Ezra Butler, 1826-1827; Paul Dillingham, 
1865-1866; William P. DiUingham, 1888-1890. 

Lieutenant-Governor — Paul Dillingham, 1862, 1863, 1864. 

State Councillors— Ezra Butler, 1807, 1808, 1809, 1810, 
1811, 1812, 1815-1825; John Peck, 1826; Henry F. Janes, 
1830, 1831, 1832, 1833, 1834. 

Representatives in Congress — Ezra Butler, 1813-1815; 
Henry F. Janes, 1834-1837; Paul Dillingham, 1843-1847; 
Lucius B. Peck, 1848-1852. 

United States Senator— William P. Dillingham, 1900, 1902, 

1908, 1914. 

Members Constitutional Convention — Richard W. Holden, 
1793; Dan Carpenter, 1814; Ezra Butler, 1822; Luther Cleaves, 
1828; Paul Dillingham, Jr., 1836; William Carpenter, 1843; 
Eliakim Allen, 1850; Paul Dillingham, 1857. 

Council of Censors— Ezra Butler, 1806; Henry F. Janes, 
1848; William W. Wells, 1855- 

List of Town Representatives 

Daniel Bliss, 1792. 

No representative, 1793, 1831, 1835, 1849, 1850, 1855. 

Ezra Butler, 1794-1798, 1799-1805. 1807. 

George Kennan, 1798, 1805-1806, 1808, 1810. 


Asaph Allen, 1809. 

John Peck, 1811, 1818. 

Sylvester Henry, 1812-1813, 

Dan Carpenter, 1814-1818, 1819-1827, 1829. 

Amasa Pride, 1827-1828, 1832. 

Charles R. Cleaves, 1830. 

Paul Dillingham, Jr., 1833-1834, 1837-1840. 

Thaddeus Clough, 1836, 1846-1847. 

William W. Wells, 1840, 1 863-1 864. 

Eliakim Allen, 1841. 

Henry Douglass, 1 842-1 843. 

William Carpenter, 1 844-1 845. 

Charles C. Arms, 1848. 

Calvin Blodgett, 1851-1852. 

O. C. Howard, 1853. 

Henry F. Janes, 1854, 1861, 1862. 

James Green, 1856. 

John D. Smith, 1857-1858. 

Orson Putnam, 1859. 

James M. Henry, i860. 

William Wells, 1865-1866. 

Ezra B. Fuller, 1867-1869. 

Frank E. Ormsby, 1869-1870, 1872. 

George W. Randall, 1872-1874, 1882-1883. 

John B. Parker, 1874-1876. 

William P. Dillingham, 1876-1878. 

Leander H. Haines, 1878-1880. 

Edward F. Palmer, 1880-1882, 1888-1889, 1896-1897. 

William P. Dillingham, 1884-1885. 

George E. Moody, 1886. 

Henry Janes, 1890-1891. 

Lester H. Elliot, 1892. 

Frank N. Smith, 1894-1895. 

H. E. Marshall, 1898-1899. 

George Eugene Moody, 1900-1901. 

Charles Wells, 1902, 

James F. Shipman, 1904. 

Harvey P. Robinson, 1906. 

PERIOD 1900-1915 243 

Willard J. Boyce, 1908, 1910. 
Richard Demeritt, 1912. 
Henry F. Hill, 1915. 

List of State Senators from Waterbury 

Paul Dillingham, 1841. 

William Carpenter, 1848, 1849. 

Joseph Moody, 1853. 

James Green, 1854-1855. 

William W. Henry, 1865, 1866, 1867. 

William P. Dillingham, 1878, 1880. 

George Eugene Moody, 1906. 

The Supreme Court Reporter for 1882 and 1884 was Edwin 
F. Palmer, Esq., who also served as State Superintendent 
of Education in 1 888-1 890. William P. Dillingham served as 
State Tax Commissioner in 1886. 

List of Town Clerks 

Ezra Butler, 1 790-1 797, 1798, 1799, 1800. 

Ebenezer Reed, 1797. 

Roswell Wells, 1 801-1806. 

Abel Dewolf, 1806. 

Dan Carpenter, 1807, 1810, 1812, 1829. 

John Peck, 1810, 181 1. 

Paul Dillingham, Jr., 1829-1844. 

William Carpenter, 1 844-1 851. 

John D. Smith, 1851-1874. 

Frank N. Smith, 1874-1896. 

James K. Fullerton, 1896. 

High Sheriffs 

John Peck, 1811, 1812, 1819, 1820, 1821, 1822, 1823, 

L C. Brown, 1859, i860. 

Frank H. Atherton, 1884, 1886, li 

C. C. Graves, 1898-1902. 

G. B. Evans, 1 902-1 904, 


Banking History 

Prior to 1854 the people of the town of Waterbury and 
the vicinity were without local banking facilities. A period 
of steady mercantile and industrial activity demanded that 
this state of affairs be remedied. The nearest banks were 
located in Montpelier, to which a small number of Waterbury 
depositors had recourse; but it was not an uncommon practice 
for local merchants to act as depositaries for their customers, 
particularly with regard to temporary or special deposits for 
purposes of convenience. The first bank at the state capital 
was the Bank of Montpelier, chartered in 1825, and organized 
in 1826, of which Elijah Paine was president, with a capital 
of $50,000. Upon its recharter in 1840 the capital was in- 
creased to $75,000, and again, in 1853, to $100,000. This 
bank was succeeded by the Montpelier National Bank, under 
the National Banking Act in 1865. The second bank in 
Montpelier was the Vermont Bank, chartered in 1848 and 
organized in 1849 with a capital of $100,000. It became the 
First National Bank of Montpelier in 1865. 

In the decade preceding the breaking out of the Rebellion, 
Waterbury participated in the general business revival follow- 
ing the lean years of the late 30's and early 40's. By degrees 
banking methods were becoming systematized ; business men 
began to appreciate the necessity of coordinating their methods 
with the new order of things. There was still much to be 
desired in regard to stabilizing issues of state banks and there 
was, still, constant irritation and confusion in the matter of 
exchange, but upon the whole, order was evolving by degrees. 
Added incentives to habitual thrift were found in the rates 
of interest and the sense of security afforded by the banks 
in each locality. Old time practices of hoarding gave place 
to the newer ones of making savings productive. Trans- 
mission of funds by draft opened new avenues of commercial 
and industrial dealings and brought Waterbury into fiscal 
relationship with the money centers of the country. 

The third banking institution at Montpelier was the State 
Bank of Montpelier, organized in 1858. The next was the 
Montpelier Savings Bank and Trust Company, organized in 

PERIOD 1900-1915 245 

187 1. Quite naturally these banking houses and others in 
Burlington had acquired a number of active and inactive 
accounts from Waterbury patrons so that when the Bank of 
Waterbury was established in 1854, and for some time after, 
there was the competition of conservative habit to combat, — 
conservative habit in this case meaning acquiescence in existing 
conditions, but considerations of local needs and convenience 
prevailed as the history of the Bank of Waterbury and its 
successors clearly shows. 

An act to incorporate the Bank of Waterbury was approved 
December 5, 1853, with an authorized capital of $100,000, 
divided into two thousand shares of $50 each. The institution 
created by this act was expressly made subject to the provi- 
sions in force of chapter eighty-four of the compiled statutes, 
"and any other laws of this state relating to banks and 
moneyed corporations," 

The commissioners named in the charter were William W. 
Wells and Paul Dillingham of Waterbury, William H. H. 
Bingham of Stowe, V. W. Waterman of Morristown, Timothy 
P. Redfield of Montpelier, Rolla Gleason of Richmond and 
Dan Richardson of Waitsfield. They were empowered to 
receive subscriptions and to make allotments of stock, which 
duty they performed and made certificate thereto dated Feb- 
ruary 13, 1854. 

Upon notice duly given, the first meeting of stockholders 
was had at the Washington House in Waterbury on Monday, 
February 13, 1854, at which the following five directors were 
chosen: Leander Hutchins of Waterbury, Paul Dillingham of 
Waterbury, William W. Wells of Waterbury, Orrin Perkins of 
Stowe and Vernon W. Waterman of Morristown, On the 
20th day of February, 1854, at a meeting of the board of 
directors, Leander Hutchins was unanimously elected president 
of the board, and at a meeting of the directors on the 9th day 
of March, 1854, Samuel Haskins Stowell was unanimously 
chosen and appointed cashier. 

By-laws were adopted by the board of directors on the 19th 
of April, 1854. At the annual meeting of stockholders, 
January 9, 1855, Samuel Merriam and B. F. Goss were added 


to the board of directors, an amendment to the charter 
increasing the number of directors to seven having been 
approved November 9, 1854. The first dividend of $2 per 
share on the stock of the bank was declared and voted to be 
paid, March 22, 1855. Again, at a directors' meeting held 
September 13, 1855, it was voted to pay a dividend of $2 per 
share on or before October 3, 1855. At the stockholders' 
meeting, January 8, 1856, J. H. Hastings was made director 
in place of William W. Wells. On March 6, 1856, Mr. 
Benjamin H. Dewey was duly appointed cashier of the bank. 
Mr. Dewey remained with the bank until April 29, 1865, 
at which time he was succeeded by Mr. James K. Fullerton. 
Mr. Dewey accompanied the firm of John F. Henry & 
Company from Waterbury to New York where he continued 
with that firm until he entered the employment of the Standard 
Oil Company then occupying the old building at 44 Broadway. 
He remained with the Standard Oil Company until his 

The board of directors and ofificers remained about the 
same for years, with an occasional vacancy to be filled. Asa 
R. Camp was chosen director, January 13, 1857, in place of 
Orrin Perkins; while H. A. Hodges was chosen, in place of 
Vernon W. Waterman, January 11, 1859. On the retirement of 
B. F. Goss, January 10, i860, O. W. Drew became director. 

At a meeting of the directors, December 26, 1862, upon 
a report of an auditing committee, to investigate the financial 
concerns of the bank, it was voted to pay a semi-annual 
dividend of 4 per cent on the capital stock of the bank, exclu- 
sive of the government tax on January i, 1863, and, further, 
to pay $700 to the directors as salary for the year. An entry 
in the record, made April 2, 1863, is significant of the nation's 
predicament at that time, when it was voted "that the presi- 
dent invest, ten thousand (10,000) dollars in U. S. Five- twenty 
bonds and deposit fifteen thousand (15,000) U.S. Currency 
with the U. S. sub-treasurer of the bank funds." Profits to 
June 26, 1863, were shown to be $9,068.16, and a dividend of 
4 per cent was voted to be paid to the stockholders on and after 
July 1, 1863. C. N. Arms was made director, February 3, 1864, 

PERIOD 1900-1915 247 

in place of Samuel Merriam, resigned. Profits, up to June 30, 
1864, were shown to be $12,348.52. A dividend of ']\ per cent, 
free of government tax, was voted to the stockholders Decem- 
ber 27, 1864. At a meeting on January 10, 1865, Healy Cady 
was elected director in place of A. R. Camp, resigned. 

At a directors* meeting, March 30, 1865, it was voted to 
take steps to obtain consent of the stockholders changing the 
organization of the bank to that of a national bank, and to 
take measures looking to an increase of the capital stock to 
a sum not exceeding $200,000. A resolution was duly passed 
April I, 1865, by the stockholders, converting the Bank of 
Waterbury into the Waterbury National Bank, and continuing 
the old board of directors and cashier. The total number of 
shares represented were 1,684, divided among 138 individuals. 
Appropriate articles of association, under the National Bank- 
ing Act, were adopted by the directors, June 23, 1865, and 
a certificate of organization was duly executed by the directors. 
The condition of the Bank of Waterbury June 23, 1864, 
showed earnings of $14,421.51. 

The Waterbury National Bank was authorized to com- 
mence business (September i, 1865) under a certificate of the 
Comptroller of the Currency, dated July 17, 1865, with a 
paid-up capital of $100,000. Mr. Curtis Wells was duly 
elected cashier, in place of Mr. James K. Fullerton, March 29, 
1870. Nathaniel Moody was elected director, in place of 
O. W. Drew, January 14, 1873. On withdrawal from the 
board of Leander Hutchins, January 13, 1874, Paul Dillingham 
was elected president and W. P. Dillingham was elected a direc- 
tor. W. H. H. Bingham replaced Healy Cady on the board, 
January 12, 1875. The resignation of Mr. Curtis Wells as 
cashier became effective February i, 1883, and Mr. Charles 
Wells was elected cashier to serve after February i, 1883. 

An amendment to the articles of association was adopted 
extending its corporate existence to June 23, 1905, under an 
act approved July 12, 1882, and the same certified to the 
Comptroller of the Currency. 

At a meeting held June 30, 1887, it was voted "that the 
directors have agreed to lease of Honorable Paul Dillingham, 


rooms to be built on the present site suitable for a banking 
house, with a good fireproof vault and safe, for the term of ten 
years at the option of the officers of the bank at a rental of 
two hundred dollars a year." 

The first meeting of the directors in the new banking rooms 
was held December 31, 1887. J. W. Brock was elected a 
director January 14, 1890, upon the withdrawal of Paul 
Dillingham whose letter of resignation bore that date. An 
appropriate resolution of appreciation and gratitude to the 
retiring president was passed and entered on the record. 
William P. Dillingham succeeded to the office of president; 
J. H. Hastings was elected vice-president, and W. B. Clark, 
assistant cashier; Justin W. Moody was made director in 
place of Nathaniel Moody. 

Frank N. Smith was appointed assistant cashier to take 
the place of Charles Wells, who took leave of absence for his 
health, March 5, 1894. Cornelius L. McMahon of Stowe 
was elected a director, in place of W. H. H. Bingham, deceased, 
December 31, 1894. Mark C. Canerdy was elected director, 
in place of J. W. Brock, January 10, 1899. J. F. Shipman 
was elected director, in place of C. N. Arms, January 8, 1901. 
Charles Wells tendered his resignation as cashier (effective 
November i, 1901) and W. B. Clark was appointed cashier 
in his stead, October 7, 1902. E. E. Joslyn was made clerk 
on the same day, and afterwards (December 31, 1902) assistant 
cashier. A. W. Ferrin was elected director, in place of J. H. 
Hastings, January 12, 1904. 

At a duly called meeting of stockholders, February 24, 
1904, it was resolved to reduce the capital stock in the sum 
of $50,000, leaving the total capital $50,000. There were 
2,206 shares represented, all in favor of the resolution. Cer- 
tification of approval of this reduction of capital stock was 
duly made by the Comptroller of the Currency March 2, 1904. 

At the meeting of January 8, 1907, George W. Morse was 
elected director in place of H. A. Hodges, who retired, receiving 
a vote of appreciation and thanks. W. B. Clark was made 
director in place of A. W. Ferrin. On January 12, 1909, 
H. D. Brown was elected director in place of Justin W. Moody. 

PERIOD 1900-1915 249 

Mr. Brown's death left a vacancy which was filled by the 
election of C. C. Graves as director on August 24, 1909. 
The death of Mr. Canerdy left a vacancy in the board which 
was filled by the election of Mr. Harry C. Whitehill. Mr. 
C. C. Graves was elected vice-president, in place of Mr. 
Canerdy, September 27, 19 10. Resolutions upon the death 
of Mr. Canerdy were passed and spread upon the minutes 
October 4, 1910. 

July 10, 191 1, was the dateonwhichit was voted to establish 
a new Savings Bank and Trust Company at the present loca- 
tion and to purchase the present bank building at the price 
of $3,000. Notice of liquidation, dated May 11, 191 1, was 
duly sent to the shareholders and a meeting was called for 
July II, 191 1. The resolution placing the Waterbury National 
Bank in voluntary liquidation under sections 5220 and 5221 
of the United States Revised Statutes was passed July 11, 
to take effect October i, 191 1, 1,073 shares voting in the 
affirmative. Subscriptions were thereafter received by the 
commissioners for the stock of the Waterbury Savings Bank 
and Trust Company, and notices of allotment were sent out. 
The old board of directors and officers were continued with 
the addition of W. E. Jones as director, at a meeting September 
5, 191 1. The formal instrument of transfer to the Waterbury 
Savings Bank and Trust Company, reciting the consideration 
of $75,000, was executed by the Waterbury National 
Bank September 30, 191 1. A statement of the bank's con- 
dition showed resources to be $634,780.09. Under liabilities 
were: capital, $50,000; circulation, $35,000; deposits, $516,- 
549.47; profit and loss, $13,230.62; surplus, $20,000. The 
appraised value of resources at the close of business, September 
30, 191 1, was $627,980.09. 

Extracts from the act to incorporate the Waterbury Savings 
Bank and Trust Company, approved November 24, 1896, 
follow : 

Section i. The subscribers to the capital stock of the corporation 
hereby established, and their successors and assigns are constituted a 
corporation and body politic, by the name of Waterbury Savings Bank and 
Trust Company; and by that name may sue and be sued, may have a 
common seal, and the same may alter at pleasure; may purchase and hold 


real and personal estate, for their own use, and such real and personal 
estate as may be received in the collection of debts, and may sell and 
convey the same, and shall have and enjoy all the privileges incident to 
corporations; and said savings bank and trust company shall be established 
in the town of Waterbury in the county of Washington. 

Section 2. The capital stock of said corporation shall be fifty thousand 
dollars, with power to increase the same to an amount not exceeding two 
hundred thousand dollars, by a vote of a majority of the whole capital 
stock at a meeting of stockholders called for that purpose and shall be 
divided into shares of the par value of fifty dollars each to be paid in at 
such time and in such manner as the board of directors may provide. 

Section 3. William P. Dillingham, Charles C. Graves, W. B. Clark, 
J. F. Shipman, George W. Morse, H. C. Whitehill, J. F. Somerville, W. J. 
Boyce, J. W. Moody of Waterbury, Vermont, C. L. McMahon of Stowe, 
Vermont, W. E. Jones of Waitsfield, Vermont, Frank Gillett of Richmond, 
Vermont, are appointed commissioners for receiving subscriptions for 
shares in the capital stock of such corporation, etc., etc. 

Section 10. The corporation hereby created shall have power 

1. To receive moneys on deposit or in trust at such rate of interest or 
on such terms as may be agreed upon, the rate of interest to be allowed 
for the deposits not to exceed the legal rate. 

2. To accept and execute all such trusts, of every description not incon- 
sistent with the laws of Vermont as may be committed to it by any person 
or persons whomsoever, or by any corporation, or by order of the supreme 
court, probate court or any other court of record of this state. 

3. To take and accept, by grant, assignment, transfer, devise or bequest, 
and hold any real or personal estate or trusts created in accordance with 
the laws of this state, and e.xecute such legal trusts on such terms as may 
be declared, established or agreed upon in regard thereto; and in case no 
terms are established, declared or agreed upon, then the trust property is 
only to be invested as provided by the terms of this act. 

4. To accept from and execute trusts for married women, in respect to 
their separate property, whether real or personal, and to act as agent for 
them in the management of such property. 

5. To accept deposits where public officers or municipal or private 
corporations are authorized or required by law to deposit money in a 
bank, and such deposits may be made by such officers or corporations with 
the said Waterbury Savings Bank and Trust Company. 

6. To act as agent for the purpose of issuing, registering or countersigning 
the certificates of stock or other evidences of debt of any corporation, 
association, municipality, state or public authority, and for the collection 
of interest and dividends on such terms as may be agreed upon. 

7. To purchase and sell stocks, bonds, mortgages and other evidences of 

8. To issue letters of credit upon such terms as may be agreed upon by 
the directors. 

PERIOD 1900-1915 251 

By-laws of the new Savings Bank and Trust Company 
were adopted October 2, 191 1. At the first annual meeting 
of directors, January 9, 1912, held after the beginning of 
business October i, 191 1, the following officers were elected: 
president, W. P. Dillingham; vice-president, C. C. Graves; 
clerk, Harry C. Whitehill. These officers were reelected to 
office for 1913, 1914 and 1915, Mr. Harry C. Whitehill con- 
tinuing as secretary from 1913. 

The by-laws provide for eight directors, a board of invest- 
ment to loan and invest funds, the receipt of moneys as 
business deposits subject to check as well as for savings, upon 
which latter interest is allowed; compensation of i per cent 
for the care and management of estates, or trust property, 
in the absence of special agreement, terms and conditions 
of loans, monthly statements of loans and condition of bank, 
rates of interest, deposit books and the like. 

The trust department of the Waterbury Savings Bank and 
Trust Company is charged with the administration of all 
legal trusts, whether committed to it by an individual, group 
of individuals or corporations voluntarily or under order 
of court. Vermont has been slow to adopt the trust company 
idea as developed elsewhere in the administration of estates. 
The old practice of appointing an individual to act as execu- 
tor, trustee, administrator or guardian persists in spite of 
almost daily examples of its peril. The result is found in all 
the probate districts of the state; intermediate and final 
accountings are long overdue, as a rule; lack of system by 
individual representatives in their methods of accounting 
prevails; hit-or-miss compliance with statutory requirements 
is all too common. 

A testator reposes faith and confidence in a personal 
friend and, as a mark of his friendship, singles out his friend 
as one upon whom to impose the responsibility of administering 
his estate. He does this often without considering that such 
assumption of responsibility presupposes ample solvency, not 
only for the time being, but for the indefinite period of adminis- 
tration, ample time to give the business, systematic and 
methodical business habits, stability of and accessibility to 


the personal representative at all times. In how many instan- 
ces of individual personal representatives arc these qualifications 
united? It should be clear that a corporate body, organized 
for the purpose, with facilities designed for the purpose, with 
a self-perpetuating life, having instant accessibility, unques- 
tioned solvency and solidity and superior advantages for the 
legal investment of trust funds under the strictest supervision, 
is much to be perferred to an individual in such a capacity. 
It has been argued that in the case of guardianship of minor 
children, nothing can supply the "personal touch," or the 
individual ability to deal with the problems of youth; the 
answer is that under the direction of a skilled and experienced 
trust officer, competent persons may be found with the 
requisite ability for dealing with all necessary problems without 
the danger of the "personal touch," — sometimes a thing to 
be avoided. 

The officers and directors of the Waterbury Savings Bank 
and Trust Company, elected January 12, 1915, were: W. P. 
Dillingham, president; C. C. Graves, vice-president; Harry 
C. Whitehill, secretary; W. B. Clark, treasurer; J. F. Shipman, 
C. L. McMahon, W. E. Jones. 

An effort has been made by the compiler to secure returns 
from those in active professional and business life in the town; 
responses have been delayed for one or another cause but 
3. list is appended containing the names and data of nearly all. 

The Consolidated Lighting Company owns and operates 
the power plant at Bolton (Winooski) Falls. The water 
privilege was secured by the Consolidated Lighting Company 
in 1895 and 1896. Construction of the plant was begun in 
1898, being finished late in that year. This location is an 
extremely irregular gorge of solid rock and very great difficul- 
ties in construction were encountered. These, however, were 
finally overcome so that in 1899 the plant was in fair operating 
condition, having a capacity of 1200 horse power, which was 
at that time supposed to be sufficient for all time to come. 
The capacity of the plant was found to be inadequate as early 
as 1903 and in 1905 and 1906 an addition was made to the 
power plant building and the capacity increased by about 

PERIOD 1900- 19 1 5 253 

1800 horse power, which has since been found to be sufficient to 
take care of all available water at that point, so that the 
present capacity of the plant is approximately 2000 horse 
power. The plant has been subject to the usual and unusual 
recurrences of damage by flood and similar severe conditions 
which have necessitated from time to time various changes 
in the construction; the result is that at the present time 
the plant is in what might very safely be called excellent 
operating condition. This is the largest hydraulic plant at 
present operating in this territory. The transformer houses 
are in Winooski Street and at Duxbury Corners. The pres- 
ent officers of the Consolidated Lighting Company are: 
president, A. B. Tenney; first vice-president, D. E. Manson; 
second vice-president, H. T. Sands; treasurer, E. A. Bradley. 

The lawyers of Waterbury are : Honorable William P. Dill- 
ingham, whose sketch appears elsewhere; George H. Dale, Esq., 
and C. B. Adams, Esq., Taking them in reverse order, 
C. B. Adams was born in Randolph, Vermont, September 
2, 1887, the son of J. B. and Effie (Thurston) Adams. He was 
educated at the district schools at Randolph, was graduated at 
the State Normal School at Randolph in 1905, the Montpelier 
Seminary in 1907, the University of Maine College of Law, 
taking the degree LL. B., in 1913. He was admitted to 
the Maine bar in August, 1912, and the Vermont State bar 
in October, 1914, coming to Waterbury that same month. 

George H. Dale, Esq., was born in More town, April 18, 
1858. He was married for the first time to Hattie L. Sawyer, 
July 4, 1880; for the second time to Lettie Lefebvre, April 14, 
1903. Mr. Dale was educated in the common schools of 
Moretown; he studied law in the office of Columbus Clough, 
in Waterbury, and was admitted to practice in October, 1896. 
He took up his residence in Waterbury nine years before, 
in 1887. Mr. Dale is a justice of the peace and an assistant 
judge of Washington County Court. He has served as presi- 
dent of the village, treasurer of the village and in other town 
and village official capacities. 

The physicians and surgeons are: George Smith Bidwell, 
born in Rutland, Vermont, January 8, 1865. He married, 


first, Louise G. Bartlett of Hartford, Connecticut; two daugh- 
ters of this marriage are living. He married, second, Katrina 
M. Landt of Waterbury, Vermont. Doctor Bidwell received 
his early preliminary education in the public schools of Ver- 
mont; was graduated from the Battle Creek (Michigan) High 
School in 1883; received the degree of M. D. from the school 
of Medicine of the University of Vermont in 1890. Doctor 
Bidwell was a resident practitioner in the Retreat at Hartford, 
Connecticut, and has been connected with the medical staff 
of the Vermont State Hospital at Waterbury. He has 
been engaged in general practice in Waitsfield and Water- 
bury since 1897, He is a member of the Washington 
County Medical Society, Vermont State Medical Society and 
the American Medical Association. Doctor Bidwell specializes 
in diseases of the heart and kidneys. 

Watson Lovell Wasson was born in Mineville, New York, 
January 8, 1874, and married Miss Pearl Randall of Water- 
bury, Vermont, October 11, 1905. He is a graduate of Sher- 
man Collegiate Institute, Moriah, New York. He spent one 
year at Middlebury College and received his professional 
education at the University of Vermont Medical School, taking 
the degree of M. D., in 1901. Doctor Wasson also took short 
courses at the Montreal Hospital and the Harvard Medical 
School ; he began practice in Waterbury in July, 1901 . Doctor 
Wasson is a member of Washington County Medical Society, 
Vermont State and American Medical associations, member 
of New England Society of Psychiatry, professor of Mental 
Diseases in University of Vermont, and pathologist in tne 
Vermont State Hospital at Waterbury. 

Eugene A. Stanley was born June 10, 1875, at Franconia, 
New Hampshire; he married Miss Eva B, Fairbrother, August 
22, 1901, and has children, Ruth B., Esther R., Margaret G. 
and Robert C. He was graduated from Dow Academy in 
Franconia; was graduated from Cleveland (Ohio) University 
of Medicine and Surgery in 1897 ^"d in 1903 entered Jefferson 
Medical College and was graduated from there in June, 1904. 
Doctor Stanley practiced in Bradford, Vermont, with Doctor 
J. H. Jones from 1897 to April, 1899, when he removed to 

PERIOD 1900-1915 255 

Waterbury. He was appointed on the staff of the Vermont 
State Hospital January i, 1908. He is a member of the 
Washington County Medical Society and the Vermont State 
Medical Society. 

Stewart Louis Goodrich was born in Dorset, July 4, 1882. 
He received his preliminary education at Hardwick Academy 
and Mount Hcrmon School. He received the degree of Doc- 
tor of Medicine from the University of Vermont. Doctor 
Goodrich practiced in Burlington before coming to Waterbury 
September 13, 191 1. He married Miss Fontinelle Nichols of 
Waterbury. He is a member of Chittenden County and Ver- 
mont State Medical Societies, American Medical Association 
and the Alpha Kappa Kappa Fraternity. 

Fred Elton Steele, Jr., was born in Stockbridge, Vermont, 
September 11, 1883, and married Emilie K. Grow, February i, 
191 1 ; there is one son of the marriage, Fred Elton Steele, 3d, 
born November 4, 191 1. Doctor Steele received his pre- 
liminary education at Gaysville High School, his degree of B.S. 
at Norwich University, M. D. at Baltimore Medical College 
and University of Maryland. He came to Waterbury in 
June, 1907, after one year spent in Maryland General Hospital. 
Doctor Steele is a member of Phi Chi Medical Society, the 
Washington County Medical Society, the Vermont State 
Medical Society and the American Medical Association. 

Harry Daniel Hopkins received his preliminary educa- 
tion at the district schools and Green Mountain Seminary. 
He was graduated at Montpelier Seminary in 1897, and 
at the Baltimore Medical College with degree of M. D. in 
1901. He married Miss Bessie B. Crane of Baltimore, Mary- 
land, April 25, 1901. After an interneship of two years in 
Maryland General Hospital, he practiced in Jericho Center until 
1 910 when he came to Waterbury. He is a member of the 
Burlington and Chittenden Clinical Society, Vermont State 
Medical Society and American Medical Association. Doctor 
Hopkins is the son of C. S. and the grandson of Daniel Hopkins. 
Truman James Allen (unmarried) was born in Royalton, 
Vermont, May 12, 1888. His early education was had in the 
public schools of Royalton and at Montpelier Seminary, being 


graduated from the latter in 1906. Doctor Allen received his 
degree of Doctor of Medicine from the College of Medicine 
of the University of Vermont in 1912. After serving as an 
interne in the Mary Fletcher Hospital at Burlington, Doctor 
Allen came to Waterbury December i, 1913. He is a member 
of the Burlington and Chittenden County Medical Society, 
Vermont State Medical Society, a Fellow of the American 
Medical Association and a member of the medical stafiF of 
the Vermont State Hospital. 

Doctor Henry H. Fullerton (unmarried) practices dental 
surgery. He was born in Waterbury August 21, 1873; he 
received his preliminary education at Waterbury High School 
and Montpelier Seminary; was graduated as Doctor of Dental 
Surgery from the Pennsylvania College of Dental Surgery in 
1908. He served for one year as assistant oral surgeon at 
the College ; was for two years dental interne at the Philadel- 
phia Hospital for Incurables; was appointed dental interne at 
Philadelphia General Hospital for two years, having passed 
the state dental board examinations in Pennsylvania and 
Vermont. He is entitled to practice in New York and New 
Jersey. Doctor Fullerton opened an ofhce in Odd Fellows 
Block in the autumn of 1908; in 1910 he removed to the 
Knight Block where he maintains his present office, said to be 
one of the best equipped in New England. His predecessors 
as dentists were Doctor A. S. Wrisley, Doctor J. T. Wheelock, 
Doctor Avrill, Doctor A. C. Patterson, Doctor C. M. Bugbee. 

James K. Fullerton was born January 2, 1837, the son of 
Horatio F. and Sophia (Jeffords) Fullerton, at Berlin, Vermont. 
He married Sophia Burnham of Brookfield, Vermont, in 1863, 
and came to Waterbury in 1864. Mr. Fullerton became 
cashier of the Bank of Waterbury and, when this became the 
Waterbury National Bank, he remained with the institution 
five years. Afterwards he became associated as junior mem- 
ber with the firm of Richardson & Fullerton, successors to 
Haines & Richardson; after sixteen years he sold out his 
interest to his partner and was elected town clerk in 1896. 
Mr. Fullerton is one of the local justices of the peace and is 
still town clerk. He also scivcd as town treasurer for about 

PERIOD 1900-1915 257 

fifteen years prior to 1885. There are four children: James 
B. of Willimantic, Connecticut (married), Lema (Fullerton) 
Somerville, Henry H., and Dean S., of Waterbury. 

The firm of W. J. O'Neill and T. C. O'Neill began business 
in 1896, dealing in meat and groceries. The business was 
organized in 1882 by H. E. Boyce who was their predecessor. 
W. J. O'Neill sold out to B. A. Campbell June 4, 1915. W. J. 
O'Neill was appointed postmaster June 16, 1914. 

The Mount Mansfield Electric Railroad Company operates 
the electric trolley line connecting with the Central Vermont 
Railway at Waterbury and running northwest through Water- 
bury to Stowe, Vermont; the road was built in 1897 and 
opened December 18, of that year. 

P. G. Lord is a dealer in groceries; the business was or- 
ganized in May, 19 10, and is located at Colbyville. Mr. Lord 
came here from Shrewsbury, Rutland County, where he served 
as postmaster in President Roosevelt's administration, 

O. E. Scott, said to have the oldest established business in 
town, is an optometrist and dealer in jewelry, watches and 
clocks. His business was organized in 1875, April i8th. 
His predecessor was E. F. Rand. Mr. Scott has occupied, 
in times past, the M. O. Evans drug store, George H. Atherton 
building near dry bridge, Cecil Graves building about thirty- 
two years, and has occupied a store in the F. L. Knight Block 
since September i, 1913. 

D. T. Harvey is the proprietor of a livery, feed and sale 
stable, organized in May, 1903. He was formerly a farmer 
in District Number 13. He was chairman of the board of 
selectmen in 1 897-1 901, and again in 1908. He has served as 
first village trustee (191 3-1 91 4). 

M. L. Messer is an optician, having his place of business 
at 24 Main Street, next door to the millinery parlors of Mrs. 
M. L. Messer. Mr. Messer's business was established in 
October, 1914, and Mrs. Messer's in the spring of 1905. 

The M. Griffith Estate (Mrs. C. M. Griffith, Miss Griffith 
and Mrs. Harry Bingham) conducts a harness and saddlery 
store, organized in 1890, formerly conducted by Mr. Lease. 
The place of business is now in the Palmer Block, formerly in 


the Post-Office Block. The business is soon to pass into the 
hands of C. M. Allen who will take it over. 

S. C. Wheeler, with Alton G. Wheeler, is a manufacturer 
of lumber at Colbyville. Their saw mill was formerly run 
by L. J. Roberts but was purchased by them January i, 1895. 
Several years ago the Wheelers purchased the Butler box 
shop, adjoining the saw mill, from Mr. G. E. Woodard. 
Here are manufactured the butter print boxes, the invention 
of George Dumas, a Waterbury man. The Wheelers also 
operate a portable saw mill in summer situated one and one- 
half miles from Waterbury Center. 

The White Cross Pharmacy does a retail drug business at 
the corner of Main and Stone Streets. The persons interested 
are E. R. and J. W. Brisbin and C. D. Vincent. Their pred- 
ecessors were Moore & Twombley. The business was con- 
ducted for many years under the firm name of Evans & Bryan. 

Charles B. Cheney (now of 107 Warren Avenue, Boston) 
operated the photograph studio at Waterbury Center from 
1900-1910. Mr. Cheney spent over half his time between 
1868 to 1895 at Waterbury, as portrait maker and publisher of 
stereoscopic views. His first work in Waterbury was in the 
car "Florinda" which he rented of E. R. Ober in 1870-1871. 
This car stood on the site of the studio erected later by S. B. 
Maxham, where Mr. Cheney afterwards was located in 1881- 
1886. E. R. Ober succeeded Louis L. Pollard at Waterbury in 
1869. Mr. Pollard's immediate predecessor was one Rand in 
the middle 60 's. 

George J. Burnham is a dealer in boots and shoes and men's 
furnishings. He has been in this business since November 19, 
1886. He had no predecessor and occupies the location in 
which he started. 

A. A. Newcomb, at Waterbury Center, is a dealer in general 
merchandise and has been since July i, 1907. His predecessor 
was James A. Gilmore. 

E. E. Campbell does a general insurance and real estate 
business under the business designation of E. E. Campbell's 
Agency; the business was organized in Waterbury December i, 
1908. The present location in the town is 13 Stowe Street. 

PERIOD 1900-1915 259 

C. C. Holmes, a retail dealer in meats, groceries, fruits and 
fish, organized business about July i, 1914, succeeding 
Ketchum Brothers, and is located on Park Row, near the rail- 
way station. This market contains a sanitary refrigerating 
plant and unexposed display cases for meats. There is also 
a rendering plant for lard, etc. 

J. F. Clair is a practitioner of veterinary medicine, surgery 
and dentistry at 10 Union Street. He began practice in 
Waterbury April i, 1910. 

Mrs. Annie J. Barry is the owner and manager of a variety 
store, dealing in dry goods, notions, china, glassware, etc. 
The business was organized in October, 1908, by Mrs. Barry, 
soon after the death of Mr. Barry, her husband, seven years 
ago. The present location is in Calkins Block, 14 Main 
Street. Formerly it was in the two front rooms in Mrs. 
Barry's home. Today the business requires the whole of the 
first floor of the building. Originally the business was a 5- 
and lO-cent store; now it has grown to larger proportions. 

Mr. and Mrs. A. S. Picard are dealers in staple groceries 
and baking products under the name of Picard's Home 
Bakery. Their predecessors were E. H. Towne, L. H. Smith, 
R. J. Knowles, and he in turn by Mr. Waterman. The present 
location is in the Parker Block, South Main Street. 

A. W. Miller operates the Waterbury Steam Laundry. The 
business was organized by his father, E. G. Miller, in the au- 
tumn of 1901 ; A. W. Miller conducts operations on Elm Street. 
A predecessor was J. A. Fife. 

Sinclair & Lyon (James A. Sinclair and Jack Lyon) are 
engaged in granite cutting in their sheds on the Central Ver- 
mont tracks below the Drew Daniels plant. This business 
was organized February 18, 191 5. Their predecessors were 
Peter Blondin, and Kelly, Sinclair & Brown. 

W. H. Sleeper conducts a restaurant on Stowe Street which 
was organized October i, 191 1. The place is much resorted 
to by touring parties in search of good, substantial, sustaining 
food, well cooked and cleanly served. Mr. Sleeper's place 
was formerly in the corner of Main and Stowe streets. 

C. C. Graves conducts a business of general insurance and 


is a dealer in mileages. The persons interested are C. C. 
Graves and William Park. The business was organized in 
1893. Their predecessors were Graves & Cheney. Mr. 
Graves' places of business are in the Waterbury Bank Block 
and at his residence. 

P. J. Chase is a dealer in art goods, cameras, and supplies, 
under the firm name of Chase's Art Store. The business was 
organized October 15, 1909. The present location of the 
store is on Main Street, opposite the Waterbury Savings Bank 
and Trust Company. 

W. Krinowitz is engaged in tailoring and dealing in clothing 
and men's furnishings. The business was organized in 1912 
and the present location is in the old library building on Main 
Street, formerly in the Palmer Block. 

F. C. Lamb is a dealer in groceries. The business started 
in December, 1905. His predecessor was Julius H. Daniels. 
The present location is on the north side of Stowe Street. 

The Demeritt Company does a canning business, the prin- 
cipal product being canned vegetables. The persons inter- 
ested are R. N. Demeritt, B. R. Demeritt and Roy W. 
Demeritt. The business was started by B, R. Demeritt and 
E. F. Palmer, Jr., as the first canning factory built and operated 
by native Vermonters in the state. The present location is 
at the eastern end of the village near the Central Vermont 
tracks. This company also manufactures the holdfast spring 
clothes pin, variety turnings, etc., and operates the mill for- 
merly owned by E. W. Huntley. 

Brisbin & Brisbin are dealers in drugs, toilet articles, fine 
candies and confections, etc. The persons interested are 
E. R. Brisbin and J. W. Brisbin and the business was organ- 
ized March 29, 191 1. The predecessors were C. I. Hatch, 
then the Palmer Pharmacy, then William Carpenter. The 
present location is in the old Carpenter Block, at the head of 
Stowe Street and facing Main. 

Edwards & Edwards are engaged in the business of manu- 
facturing scythe snaths on lower Main Street. The persons 
interested are R. J. & W. E. Edwards, and the business was 
organized in July, 191 1. 

PERIOD 1900-1915 261 

The Union Granite Company is composed of the following 
shareholders: G. Chiodi, F. C. Luce, G. Gattoni, U. Prario, 
V. Fracassi, G. Bianchi, E. Campi, F. Giacomini, A. Bai 
Rossi, C. Brusa, P. Caranchini, L. Cardazzo, G. Canale, V. 
Dominioni, G. Bai Rossi, H. Imbruglia, G. Bastai, A. Del 
Guidici, L. Savoini, F. Gattoni. The business was organized 
in March, 1909, for the purpose of cutting granite. The loca- 
tion is in the East side of South Main Street, west of the rail- 
way tracks. 

F. H. Hoglund conducts a photographic studio; besides 
specializing in portrait work, Mr. Hoglund devotes considera- 
ble attention to landscape photography of the higher class. 
The business was organized twenty years ago by E. T. Hous- 
ton. After some years in Stowe Street, Mr. Houston moved 
to the present studio in Main Street; he was succeeded by 
Howard Rockwood and he in turn by F. H. Hoglund. 

Smith & Somerville (A. H. Smith and J. F. Somerville) 
conduct a hardware business on Main Street, at the head of 
Stowe Street, in one of the oldest business stands in the village. 
The business was organized in 1888 by the firm's predecessors, 
Messrs. Harwood & Smith (Charles Harwood and A. H. 
Smith). Two years later Mr. Somerville bought out the in- 
terest of Mr. Harwood and the business has since been con- 
ducted under its present firm name of Smith & Somerville. 

The VVaterbury Inn, an attractive hotel and resort for many 
touring parties and permanent guests, was built in 1864 on 
the site of the old Washington House and Pride home, at the 
corner of Main Street and Park Row. Its present proprietor 
is W. F. Davis and the persons interested are E. D. & W. F. 
Davis. Their predecessors were Ben Barrett and John C. 
Farrar. Numerous facilities for enjoyment and comfort are 
afforded by the new casino attached to the hotel. The place is 
resorted to largely by Canadian guests. 

O. L. Ayers conducts a hardware, plumbing and heating 
business, organized November i, 1901. His first location 
was in the Parker Block, now occupied by Chase's Art Store. 
He purchased from James Hattie the blacksmith shop on the 


present location in Elm Street, remodeled it and made addi- 
tions suitable for his present needs. 

W. H. O'Brien is the proprietor of the combination store 
and deals in tobacco, cigars, candies, fruit and soda. Mr. 
O'Brien also conducts the barber shop at his place of business 
in Park Row, which he opened February 3, 1910. His pred- 
ecessor as barber and the keeper of a pool room was Jesse 
Morse. Mr. O'Brien began business as a barber in April, 
1899; he occupied premises in the old Post-Office Block, sold 
out to Frederic Towne and removed to Burlington in March, 
1907, but returned to Waterbury February 3, 1910. 

H.J. Ennis, also a barber, conducts a shop and pool room, 
three doors above the bank on Main Street, which he bought 
July 6, 1915, of A. E. Douglass. 

J. H. Ring is engaged in business as the agent for the Ver- 
mont Mutual Fire Insurance Company, and is also a substitute 
carrier on the R. F. D. route. His predecessor was the late 
W. E. Marshall, who lived on the village farm now owned by 
Mr. Ring. 

The Winooski Valley Creamery is owned by A. G. & G. F. 
Braley of Fairhaven, Massachusetts. The local manager is 
E. G. Grant. The business is that of separating cream and 
doing a general creamery trade. Their predecessor was the 
Winooski Valley Creamery Association. The business was 
organized July i, 1915. 

Dow Brothers (L. W. & E. E. Dow) carry on a wholesale 
and retail meat and provision business at Waterbury Center. 
The business was organized April i, 191 5, and was formerly 
in the hands of L. W. Dow who conducted it alone for six 
years. The firm supplies local markets with pork products 
at wholesale. 

V. L. Perkins & Company are engaged in the business of 
undertaking and dealing in furniture. The business was 
organized in October, 1907, and their predecessor was W. J. 
Boyce. Their location is in Main Street, near the Methodist 

Parker Brothers do a dry goods, clothing, boot and shoe 
business, organized in April, 1906. The persons interested are 

PERIOD 1900-1915 263 

Barkette T. and Marshall T. Parker. The founders of the 
firm were Thomas M. Parker and his son, Wilbert T. Parker. 
In 1909 Thomas M. Parker sold out his interest to his sons 
mentioned above who, in 191 1 after the death of Wilbert T. 
Parker, became the proprietors of the business. 

Cooley-Wright Manufacturing Company operates a machine 
shop and foundry as successors to Cooley Manufacturing 
Company, organized in 1882. The persons interested are 
William T. Cooley, E. A. Cooley, Ralph W. Putnam and 
William Theriault. Their locations are at Waterbury Center 
and in Foundry Street in the village. 

J. A. Foster is a dealer in groceries at 1 15 South Main Street. 
The business was organized in 1910. 

V. K. Ducas conducts a candy and confectionery store and 
ice cream parlor in Stowe Street. The business is carried on 
under the business designation of the Concord Candy Kitchen 
and was founded April i, 1914. Mr. Ducas is a native Greek 
from Laconia. He came to America in 1893 and married 
Miss Petras, a compatriote from the province of Arcadia, 

L. J. Roberts is a dealer in lumber, laths and shingles, and 
enjoys the distinction of succeeding to a business nearly one 
hundred years old. His place of business is at the falls on 
Waterbury River four miles from the village. His immediate 
predecessors were Randall & Roberts. 

The Drew Daniels Company owns and operates a granite 
cutting plant in Foundry Street, formerly operated by Drew 
Daniels, and organized January 14, 1901. The persons in- 
terested are: W. H. B. Perry, M. A. Perry, R. B. Perry, 
A. S. Perry, C. C. Graves and C. W. Clark. 

Mrs. A. B. Cooley Greene opened a millinery store in parlors 
over the old post-office in the Opera House Block in February, 
1898. From there she removed to the Davis Block in 1902; 
thence to her present location opposite the Inn in 1913. Mrs. 
Greene has her residence in the same building with her millinery 

Leonard Huntley is the local blacksmith and wheelwright 
at Waterbury Center. The business was established in 1862, 


and Mr. Huntley's predecessor was George Wilson. Formerly 
Mr. Huntley was interested with O. W. Davis in the Waterbury 
Nursery. Davis sold his interest to Albert Lyon and the 
business was conducted under the firm name of Huntley & 
Lyon until 1881, when Mr. Lyon died. Meanwhile Mr. 
Huntley continued his business as blacksmith and wheelwright 
as he does today. 

H. L. Morse conducts a coal and wood business organized 
in 1896. The coal sheds are near the Central Vermont freight 
station and the wood yard is at his residence in Winooski 

The F. C. Luce Company conducts a department store 
at 23 Stowe Street. The business was organized March i, 
1891. The owner is F. C. Luce. His predecessors were 
C. E. Richardson and Richardson & Fullerton. Mr. Luce 
carries a large stock of dry goods, notions, clothing, hats and 
caps, boots and shoes, haberdashery and outfittings generally. 

Winooski Lodge, No. 49, F. and A. M. 

Winooski Lodge, No. 49, F. and A. M., held its initial 
meeting for organization on May 11, 1859, having received 
a dispensation from the Grand Lodge of Vermont on the fifth 
day of the same month, with Horace M. Bruce, Joseph 
Somerville and L. L. Durant named as the three principal 
officers of the new lodge. 

At this meeting, which was probably held at the home of 
Horace M. Bruce, the following officers were elected and ap- 
pointed: John Poor, treasurer; John F. Henry, secretary; W. 
W. Henry, S. D.; A. J. Brown, J. D.; G. W. Atkins, tyler; 
N. K. Brown, S. S.; L. F. Warner, J. S. 

A committee, composed of J. F. Henry, W. W. Henry and 
L. L. Durant, was appointed to draft by-laws to govern the 
lodge. The first two petitions for membership ever presented 
before Winooski Lodge were presented at this meeting, those 
of C. F. Stone and B. F. Dewey. 

On January 12, A. D. i860, the charter was issued to 
Winooski Lodge by the Grand Lodge of Vermont, with the 
following appearing as charter members: H. M. Bruce, 

PERIOD 1900-1915 265 

L. L. Durant, Gersham Rice, W. W. Henry, Amos Crosby, 
N. K. Brown, L. F. Warner, G. W. Atkins, Joseph Somerville, 
John Poor, A. J. Brown, E. B. Johnson, and J. F. Henry. 

At the date of this writing, only one of the charter members 
is living, N. K. Brown, now residing in Burlington. 

Such was the inception of Winooski Lodge, No. 49, although 
Masonry began its organized existence here as early as 1821, 
when a charter was issued to King David Lodge, No. 55. This 
lodge held its meetings in Stowe and Waterbury until 1831, 
after which there are no records of its existence. 

This fact is due to the strong anti-Masonic agitation which 
spread over the country at this period, by reason of the mysteri- 
ous disappearance of a Mr. Morgan, who, it was claimed, 
had been put to death by the Masonic fraternity as a penalty 
for publishing a book exposing the secrets of Masonry. 

Between the years 1837 and 1844, on account of the anti- 
Masonic feeling, the Grand Lodge of Vermont convened only 
in secret, and then only the three principal officers were 
present. During this period, Henry F. Janes, father of the 
late Doctor Henry Janes, was elected to Congress on the 
anti-Masonic ticket. 

It is only fair to state, however, that this charge against 
Masonry was never substantiated in any degree whatever. It 
has been declared that Morgan was seen years after in a for- 
eign country, where he had fled for reasons of his own. 

It is sad to relate, however, that even to the present day, 
we find those who still hold an antipathy against the Masonic 
fraternity by reason of this incident, and withhold their support 
from this noble and humane organization. No institution was 
ever raised on a better principle or more solid foundation, nor 
were ever more excellent rules and useful maxims laid down 
than are inculcated in the several Masonic lectures. 

On June 24, 1909, Winooski Lodge held its fiftieth anniver- 
sary at Waterbury, at which time an interesting resume was 
given of its early history. 

The first Masonic hall occupied by the lodge was in the 
upper story of what is now the Smith and Somerville Building, 
at the head of Stowe Street, and was dedicated on July 12, 



i860. Later it moved to the upper rooms of the J. F. Henry 
Building on Park Row, the lower part of which is now occupied 
by W. H. O'Brien and Wallace M. Green. Several years later 
it was again moved to more commodious quarters in the Opera 
House Block on Stowe Street, which it has since occupied. 

The first Masonic funeral, held by Winooski Lodge, was 
that of Sylvester Flagg, who had been a member of the 
fraternity only a few months. The services were held in the 
Congregational Church, but not without considerable opposi- 
tion by some of the church members, there being considerable 
anti-Masonic feeling even at that date. At the present time, 
there are five ministers of the Gospel who are enthusiastic 
members of this lodge. 

We find that this great fraternity, which had its inception 
for the uplift of humanity, was one of the first to place its 
ban on the use of intoxicating liquors. As early as 1864 
their use was considered an offense against the teachings of 
Masonry, and cases are on record where charges were preferred, 
the offender found guilty, and reprimanded or suspended. 

The history of the lodge would not be complete without the 
name of William Deal, a familiar person on the streets of 
Waterbury, who was raised to the sublime degree of a Master 
Mason August 30, 1859, rnaking him the oldest living member 
in town. 

Following is a list of the Masters of Winooski Lodge, No. 49, 
to date: H. M. Bruce, W. W. Henry, N. K. Brown, B. H. 
Dewey, E. A. Newcomb, M. E. Smilie, E. W. Huntley, 
Seaver Howard, U. H. Hammon, W. B. Clark, G. S. Blaisdell, 
G. H. Dale, E. E. Foss, D. D. Grout, L. C. Moody, C. C. 
Graves, F. B. Kellogg, J. F. Somerville, E. A. Stanley, E. E. 
Campbell, G. C. Scott and H. H. FuUerton. 

Capitular or Chapter Masonry in Waterbury 

The first chapter meeting of Royal Arch Masons was held in 
Waterbury on February 16, 1870, under a dispensation issued 
February 5, 1870, by Charles A. Miles, Grand High Priest of 
Vermont, upon the petition of Emory Town, M. C. Stewart, 
Warren Skinner, A. J. Brown, Collins Blakely, H. C. Fay, 

PERIOD 1900-1915 267 

J. L. Farr, H. M. Bruce, Joseph Somerville and A. J. Lawbom, 
At this meeting the following officers were elected : 

Emory Town, M. E. H. P.; Warren Skinner, E. K.; M. C. 
Stewart, E. S. ; A. J. Brown, C. H. ; Collins Blakely, P. S. ; H. C. 
Fay, R. A. C; H. M. Bruce, M. ist V.; J. L. Farr, M. 2d V.; 
Joseph Somerville, M. 3d V.; Ira W. Sayles, tyler; A. J. 
Brown, treasurer, and J. L. Farr, secretary. 

At this meeting the petitions presented for membership 
were as follows: E. K. Smith, William Deal, G. W. Atkins, 
M. E. Smilie and E. A. Newcomb. 

The chapter continued to work under the dispensation until 
the following June, when they received their charter, issued 
by the Grand Chapter of Vermont. 

Following is a list of the Excellent High Priests of Waterbury 
Chapter: Collins Blakely, E. A. Newcomb, C. F. Clough, 
W. D. Hall, E. G. Hooker, W. B. Clark, L. C. Moody, E. W. 
Huntley, E. E. Foss, and E. A. Stanley. 

Paul Dillingham Lodge, No. 31, Knights of Pythias, was 
organized March 31, 1905. The roster of chief officers since 
then is: 1905, F. W. Arnold, C. C; H. W. Carr, V. C. 1906, 
A. E. Edwards, C. C; W. H. Sleeper, V. C. 1907, F. W. 
Arnold, C. C. ; F. D. Backus, V. C. 1908, J. R. Arkley, C. C. ; 
Lawrence Wright, V. C. 1909, E. E. Campbell, C. C; W. H. 
Sleeper, V. C. 1910, F. C. Luce, C. C; F. D. Backus, V. C. 
191 1, W. H. Fullerton, C. C; B. A. Lavelle, V. C. 1912, 
H. H. Fullerton, C. C; S. E. Ruggles, V. C. 1913, E. E. 
Campbell, C. C; N. N. Vassor, V. C. 1914, N. N. Vas- 
sor, C. C; George Howland, V. C. 1915, B. D. Edwards, 
C. C.;L. A. Willard, V. C. 

The Modern Woodmen, local organization, was established 
November 9, 1908. The election of officers is held annually. 
The trustees for 1915 are H. F. Whitcomb, W^ C. Lyon and 
C. A. Gibbs. The venerable consul is E. C. Harvey, and 
the worthy adviser is W. F. Shontell. 

The Mentor Lodge, No. 51, of Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows, was instituted in Waterbury, March 28, 1893. The 
two leading officers since that date were: 1893, first noble 
grand, W. F. Minard, first vice grand, C. D. Robinson. Then 


followed in 1894, W. F. Minard, F. C. Luce; 1895, F. C. Luce, 
O. E. Scott; 1896, J. K. Fullerton, Frank Carpenter; 1897, 
Frank Carpenter, J. A. Foster; 1898, J. A. Foster, E. F. 
Savage; 1899, E. F. Savage, W. J. Boyce; 1900-1901, W. J. 
Boyce, E. W. Chesley; 1902, E. W. Chesley, E. E. Joslyn; 
1903, E. E. Joslyn, James Hattie; 1904, C. C. Graves, W. B, 
Clark; 1905, W. B. Clark, J. F. Shipman; 1906, J. F. Ship- 
man, E. E. Campbell; 1907, E. E. Campbell, W. J. Red- 
mond; 1908, W. J. Redmond, E. G. Miller; 1909, E, G. 
Miller, Henry Marshall; 1910, E. G. Miller, G. O. Russell; 
191 1, G. O. Russell, R. J. Knowles; 1912, R. J. Knowles, 
Henry Marshall; 1913, R. J. Knowles, E. W. Chesley; 1914, 
E. W. Chesley, J. H. Ather; 1915, J. H. Ather, M. L. 

The Alhambra Encampment, No. 20, was instituted 
October 18, 1894. W. F, Minard was made chief patriarch 
and continued for 1895 and 1896. Others holding that office 
were: D. C. Turner, 1897; W. F. Minard, 1898; J. A. Foster, 
1899, 1900, 1901, 1902; W. B, Clark, 1903; E. F, Savage, 
1904; W. J. Boyce, 1905; E. E. Joslyn, 1906; C. C. Graves, 
1907; E. E. Campbell, 1908, 1909; E. W. Chesley, 1910, 191 1; 
E. E. Campbell, 1912; G. S. Blaisdell, 1913; G. F. Averill, 1914; 
R. J. Knowles, 1915. 

J. A. Foster was grand patriarch of the Grand Encampment 
of the State of Vermont for 19 14, also grand representative to 
the Sovereign Lodge at San Francisco. 

The Emerald Rebekah Lodge, No. 33, was instituted April 
30, 1895. The roll of officers has included: Noble grands, 
Mrs. Alma Moody, 1895; Mrs. Alma Moody, 1896; Mrs. R. 
Crossett, 1897; Mrs. Nina Robinson, 1898; Mrs. E. Farrar; 
vice grand, Mrs. J. Shipman, 1900; no officers, 1901 and 1902; 
noble grand, Mrs. J. Shipman, vice grand, Mrs. Jesse Foster, 
1903; Mrs. J. Shipman, Mrs. Nellie Bates, 1904; Mrs. Nellie 
Bates, Mrs. E. E. Campbell, 1905; Mrs. E. E. Campbell, 
Mrs. J. Fife, 1906; Mrs. J. Fife, Mrs. W. J. Boyce, 1907; Mrs. 
W. J. Boyce, Mrs. Emma Turner, 1908; Mrs. Emma Turner, 
Mrs. J. Hattie, 1909; Mrs. J. Hattie, Mrs. Helen Somerville, 
1910; Mrs. Helen Somerville, Mrs. O. L. Ayers, 1911; Mrs. 

PERIOD 1900-1915 269 

O. L. Ayers, Mrs. R. J. Knowles, 1912; Mrs. R. J. Knowles, 
Mrs. G. Russell, 1913; Mrs. G. Russell, Mrs. C. Sargent, 1914; 
Mrs. C. Sargent, Mrs. H. Marshall, 1915. 

Fire Record 

The first concerted action at systematic fire fighting was 
taken in 1855 when the selectmen duly laid out one square 
mile as a fire district. This area afterwards form.ed the 
chartered site of Waterbury Village and included most of the 
so-called River Village and a part of Mill Village. By volun- 
tary subscription a medium sized engine and a limited supply 
of hose were bought. It was not until the extensive fire of 
1858 that a larger and better engine and additional appliances 
were purchased. The old engine house gave place to a new 
one in 1871. 

It is said that the first building burned in Waterbury was 
a tan shop of Cephas Wells, situated opposite the old Fireman's 
Hall (date not given). The first district school building 
burned in 1810 and the dwelling house of D. C. Deming in 1816. 

In the spring of 1822 Amasa Pride's large tavern at Stowe 
and Main streets burned. This was the site of the tavern 
k^pt by George Kennan at an earlier day. Mr. Pride rebuilt 
without delay and the new tavern was presided over by 
Sayles Hawley as host, remaining as a house of call or public 
house until after the coming of the railroad. 

In 1834 the tan shops of M. and J. H. Lathrop were burned 
and never rebuilt. 

In 1838 a factory of Thompson &Seabury, at Mill Village, 
was burned and never rebuilt. 

In the early 40's a store of J. B. Christy was destroyed by 
fire and again one owned by J. G. Stimson in 1856. These 
were partly covered by insurance and were rebuilt. The 
largest and most destructive fire prior to the breaking out 
of the Civil War occurred in October, 1858, when was burned 
the large hotel of E. and W. Moody, in one wing of which was 
housed the bank of Waterbury; stores of William Wells, D. 
M. Knights and I. C. & S. Brown were destroyed, also the 
livery stables of Bruce & Ladd. The total loss was $30,000 


and was partially covered by insurance. D. Adams' foundry 
and the railway station burned about 1870. 

Other fires in later years were: C. C. Warren's Tannery, 
November 18, 1899; Perkins Block, Main Street, June, 1907; 
Moody Block, Stowe Street, December 16, 1907; G. W. 
Randall's barn, October 18, 1908; Mrs. A. Spencer's barn, 
March i, 1898; Vermont State Hospital, November, 1909; 
Winooski Valley Creamery, Winooski Street, March 22, 1912; 
Perry Granite Company's building, December 14, 1914; 
Moody Saw Mill, August 3, 1908; John Williams' Livery 
Stable, Stowe Street, October 21, 1912; Consolidated Com- 
pany's Transformer House, August 27, 1908; creamery build- 
ing, Randall Avenue, March 31, 1915. 

A laudable effort was made, September 6, 191 5, at giving 
a historical pageant on the schoolhouse grounds under the 
auspices of the Lecture and Entertainment Bureau, a sub- 
committee of the local Board of Trade. The pageant scenes 
were designed to reproduce, in appropriate settings, important 
episodes and incidents of the town's history. The scenes 
included an Indian encampment before the white man's 
arrival; the first settler, James Marsh, alone in the wilderness; 
arrival of the Marsh family with the first cow ever brought 
to Waterbury; arrival of Ezra Butler and bride, with their 
household possessions; first town meeting, March 31, 1790; 
noontime at a barn-raising and dance; company of recruits 
ready to march to the front at the outbreak of the Civil War, 
the drummer "boy" being Mr. Franklin Carpenter, who, 
fifty-four years ago, marched away with the volunteers in 
the same capacity. Concluded with singing "America." 

Those taking part in the pageant were: Robert J. Burnham, 
Max G. Ayers, Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Le Baron, Mr. and Mrs. 
Mark H. Moody, H. F. Hill, A. A. Newcomb, M. E. Hutchins, 
E. E. Campbell, C. B. Adams, H. P. Robinson, D. C. Jones, 
A. J. Kelly, E. J. Foster, A. H. Bailey, Raymond Buzzell, 
Miss Mary Guptil, Alton G. Wheeler, S. R. Dady, Franklin 
Carpenter, D. D. Grout, M. D., E. G. Miller and W. B. 

PERIOD 1900-1915 271 

The soldiers' monument, a gift to Waterbury of the late 
Franklin Sylvester Henry, formerly of Cleveland, Ohio, and 
Waterbury, was unveiled with appropriate ceremony Memo- 
rial Day, May 30, 1914. There was a procession, marshaled by 
General W. W. Henry of Burlington, of the various local 
orders, the Veterans of Stetson and Dillingham Posts, G. A. R., 
Modern Woodmen of America, members of Mentor Lodge, 
I. O. O. F., Woman's Relief Corps, members of Marquis de 
Lafayette Chapter, D, A. R., representatives from the 
Hypatia and Pierian clubs. Queen Esther Chapter, O. E. S., 
Emerald Rebekah Lodge, and teachers and pupils of the 
public schools. The unveiling exercises were had at 2.30 p. m. 
at the monument site, which is on the western slope of the lawn 
of the high school grounds. The southern face of the monu- 
ment presents a bronze tablet containing these words : 




MAY 30, 1914. 










The western exposure's tablet bears the names of the 
commissioned officers and the northern and eastern tablets give 
the names of the non-commissioned officers and privates 
from Waterbury participating in the Civil War. The names 
of all officers and men who were killed in action, or died in 
service, are indicated on the tablets. The monument is 
executed in excellent taste and was designed by W. H. B. 
Perry, then of the Perry Granite Company. It consists 
of a square die of Barre granite, with a base of the same mate- 
rial ; the capstone is surmounted by carved cannon balls. 


Seated on the platform at the unveiHng exercises were the 
members of the monument commission, General Henry, 
Senator WiiUam P. DilHngham, Harry C. Whitehill and O. A. 
Seabury. The act of unveiHng was performed by Miss 
Gladys Henry and Fred B. Henry, Jr. The formal presenta- 
tion speech was made by General W. W. Henry in behalf of 
the trustees. The monument was accepted for the town by 
Carroll C. Robinson, chairman of the board of selectmen. 
Members of the Henry family present were: Mr. and Mrs. 
Franklin Sylvester Henry and daughter, Miss Gladys of 
Cleveland, Ohio; Robert Henry of Waltham, Massachusetts; 
Mrs. Franklin Sylvester Henry of New York City; Miss 
Frances Elizabeth Henry of Cleveland, Ohio, and Mrs. Albert 
Spencer of Waterbury. 

Allusion has already been made to the panegyric delivered 
on this occasion by Senator Dillingham; this will be found 
reprinted in full in the appendix to this book. 

In concluding this volume it seems appropriate to say that 
a superficial view of what a town's history consists is largely 
held. This is, that unless each day furnishes its peculiar thrill, 
there is nothing in the town's life worth recording. The 
obvious answer is that events are purely relative; when one 
speaks of "eventful happenings," he means "relatively" 
eventful. If Waterbury had no other claim upon the world's 
attention as a maker of history than was furnished by her in 
the years 1861 to 1865 inclusive, the town still would remain 
entitled to a very proud place in that regard. 

Soldiers' Monument 

Unveilod May 20, 19 '4 

.p.y^.^/EW YORK , 




Delivered by Senator William P. Dillingham, May 30, 191 4, 
on the occasion of the unveiling of the Soldiers' Monument, 
the gift of Franklin Sylvester Henry to the Town of Waterbury. 

Upon the tablets of the monument which we have met today to dedicate, 
there appear in imperishable bronze the names of those who, in the great 
struggle for the maintenance of the Federal Union, entered the military 
service of the United States from Waterbury; all of them to serve, and some 
of them to die that, in the language of the immortal Lincoln, "the nation 
shall, under God, have a new birth of freedom and that government of the 
people, by the people and for the people shall not perish from the earth." 
In all succeeding centuries generations unnumbered will scan this list with 
an earnest desire to trace descent from men whose names are here recorded, 
realizing the proud distinction which attaches to one in whose veins runs 
the blood of those who had honorable part in the greatest war of the nine- 
teenth century, and the result of which has demonstrated to the world the 
ability of a free people to maintain free institutions upon a scale so gigantic 
as to challenge the wonder and admiration of all nations. 

This was not a war between nations, nor one in which one people were 
arrayed against those of another race. It was a war in which the slave 
states were arrayed against the free states of the North; it was an attempt 
on their part to withdraw from the Union and establish in the South a 
government, the cornerstone of which was declared by Alexander H, 
Stevens, vice-president of the Confederacy, to be human slavery. 

Speaking of the Confederate government and its constitution, he said: 
"Its foundations are laid, its cornerstone rests, upon the great truth that 
the negro is not equal to the white man; that slavery, subordination to the 
superior race, is his natural and normal condition. This, our new govern- 
ment, is the first in the history of the world, based upon this great physical, 
philosophical, and moral truth." 

The denial by the government of the United States of the right of any 
state to secede from the Union, either for that or any other reason, inaug- 
urated a conflict of states against states, of a brave people against an equally 
brave people, a conflict which shook the very foundations upon which free 
institutions are established and that upon which the oppressed of all nations 
had builded their hopes. It was a conflict intensified and made bitter by 
years of agitation over the question of human slavery which, firmly estab- 
lished in the South, was seeking to extend its blighting sway over the free 
territory of our great northwest; a movement which had shocked the moral 



sense of the North and which had been resisted as one which, if successful, 
would turn the wheels of human progress back a thousand years! It was 
a conflict which extended over a territory greater than all continental 
Europe outside of Russia. It was one in which the numbers engaged were 
larger than the entire population of the United States at the time when the 
constitution was adopted; one in which battles were fought greater in 
number than those of any one of the modern wars of Europe and in which 
the army of the dead alone was four times greater in number than the stand- 
ing army of the United States today, when we are apparently upon the eve 
of a war with Mexico. 

It was a conflict which called to battle the flower of American manhood, 
and one which brought sorrow to countless homes, both North and South. 
But these sacrifices were not in vain: Slavery as an institution has been 
abolished; its blighting curse upon the conscience of the nation has been 
removed; a new birth in liberty has been accomplished in the nation, and, 
most remarkable of all, there has been established an indissoluble Union 
representing a present population exceeding one hundred million souls, in 
the full enjoyment of liberty under law, and in whose hearts loyalty to the 
old flag burns with renewed strength and whose devotion to constitutional 
liberty is as uniform as it is deep and abiding. 

Today with thankful hearts we make acknowledgment to Almighty God 
because that in the fullness of time He has delivered this great people from 
the last vestige of the absolutism of the past; because He has enabled them 
to throw off the shackles of arbitrary power, to establish a government 
which recognizes no sovereign save God, one whose civilization stands as 
proof that right is stronger than might, that truth is more powerful than 
error and that light always drives darkness before it. 

Whence came the qualities which actuated these men; from which their 
distinguished gallantry sprung and which led them to strive even unto 
death for the great principles involved? Were they qualities inherited 
from generations of liberty-loving men who had participated in the great 
movement toward the goal of human freedom and which has appealed to 
every succeeding generation for three centuries of time? 

In answering this question we must remember that they were in the 
main "descendants of the sturdy Barons and Commons who demanded 
and obtained Magna Charta from King John and developed an independ- 
ent Parliament to direct the Lords and curb the King and who, during the 
absolutism of the Tudors, considered well the lessons of the times and who, 
during the last three centuries, have succeeded in stripping royalty of every- 
thing but its fiction and who have established the sovereignty of England 
in the House of Commons forever." 

The oppression which centuries of absolutism imposed upon the human 
race cannot be adequately described. True it is that Christianity existed, 
but its principles had been overshadowed by the idea of authority which 
all the world had inherited from the dark ages. Down to the occurrence 
of the great intellectual movement of the sixteenth century the history of 


the world had been one of war and conquest with, as Mr. Bancroft says, 
"hardly a sound principle or a grand sentiment to justify the slaughter. 
Arbitrary power had been the only principle of government and force its 
only instrument." The ignorance which absolutism imposed upon the com- 
mon people was inconceivable, and we have it upon the authority of Mr. 
Macaulay that as late as the fourteenth century not one out of five hundred 
of the country gentlemen of England could spell out one of David's Psalms. 
Under such conditions, he tells us, there was little general exercise of the 
intellectual faculties, no considerable indulgence of the speculative powers; 
imagination was confined mostly to the senses and the people had little 
conception of the sublime either in thought, morals or nature. 

The elements which marked the beginnings of the twentieth century were 
found in the Great Movement, so called, of the sixteenth century, when the 
intellect of Europe was stirred and quickened as never before to a profound 
consideration of the question of the rights of man, socially, religiously and 
politically. The century of conflict which followed, between arbitrary 
power on the one hand and the assertion of the natural right and privileges 
of the English people on the other, marks a period which did more to 
destroy absolutism and to establish constitutional government in Europe 
than any other single period in all history, and in it were laid the broad 
foundations for free institutions on this continent. 

During the reign of Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary, Elizabeth and James, 
a period covering the sixteenth and extending into the seventeenth century, 
the effort of the English government was to crush out any exercise of 
individual rights. Death was decreed alike to the Catholic who denied the 
king's supremacy and to the Protestant who denied his creed. James, 
whose reign covered the early part of the seventeenth century, declared: 
"I will have none of this liberty of conscience, I will have one doctrine, 
one religion in substance and in form." Charles I, who followed him, 
was the embodiment of absolutism, boldly declaring that the throne, 
not the people, was the fountain head of all power; that the laws which 
he permitted to pass through Parliament were only streams flowing from 
this kingly source. 

With the marvelous expansion of intellect among the masses to which 
I have alluded, life, under such conditions, became intolerable; a desire 
for something better was created and grew with each succeeding generation 
until it became irresistible. A self-consciousness of power was developed 
among the people and boldly asserted. Old bonds were broken, old 
systems were destroyed and England took her place among the nations 
as a government which had been compelled to recognize the people as 
represented in Parliament. 

The result of the century's work is well stated by Scott in his History 
of the Development of Constitutional Liberty in the Colonies, where he 

"The forces of society acted only in violence and in violence which sent 
England reeling to the ground. When the conflict ended and men paused 


to take breath and look around them, marvelous were the changes 
wrought. In religion, freedom of conscience held the ground; and 
intolerance, or the doctrine that the civil power was at the service 
of the ecclesiastical in prescribing faith, in regulating doctrine and in 
extirpating heresy, had sheathed its sword. Absolutism the world over 
had never recovered from the shock. Modern England dates from its 
extirpation, and with it ended an heroic page. Politically, it was the 
revolt of the middle class; intellectually and spiritually, it was a violent, 
uncontrollable expansion of the mind and soul; historically, it was the 
latest popular development of free inquiry in the British Isles. Taking it 
altogether, it was a convulsive effort toward freedom. The middle class 
wanted representation in the government. The intellectual class, whose 
field had been broadened by free inquiry, would no longer stay, pent up 
within the schools; and the religious class, stimulated by the sight of the 
open Bible and frantic from the stings of intolerance, insisted upon absolute 
freedom of conscience. All three got what they wanted." 

In this great movement we find the foundations laid for free institutions 
in America. Before this grand achievement of their brethren in the mother 
country was fully accomplished, a large number of this new and best 
element in English life had established themselves and made homes in the 
new world. Between 1630 and 1641 two hundred emigrant ships crossed 
the Atlantic, and more than twenty thousand liberty-loving English people 
found a refuge in New England. Green, the English historian, says: 
"They were in great part men of the professional and middle classes. 
Some of them of large landed estate, some men like Cotton, Hooker and 
Roger Williams, some shrewd London lawyers or young scholars from 
Oxford. The bulk were God-fearing farmers from Lincolnshire and the 
eastern counties. They desired, in fact, only the best as sharers in their 
enterprise; men driven forth from their fatherland, not by earthly want, or 
by the greed for gold, or by the lust for power, but by the fear of God and 
the zeal of godly worship." Our American historian, Fiske, tells us that 
in all history there has been no such instance of colonization so exclusively 
affected by picked and chosen men. In it there were as many graduates 
of Cambridge and Oxford as could be found in any population of similar 
size in the mother country. 

Desiring that the colony they were forming should be governed upon 
principles diametrically opposed to those of all existing governments; that 
the laws should be formulated by the people and for the people, and that 
every citizen should become a living and potent factor in the affairs of the 
state, they realized that every person should become intelligent as well as 
virtuous; and to this end and with an inspired vision of the results which 
were to be attained, one of their first undertakings was to establish a system 
of elementary schools at public expense, a system then absolutely new to 
the world, but which has since expanded until it has become the policy of 
states and nations. 

In the establishment of New England homes, which all agree were 


sanctuaries of morality; in their churches, in which reverence was incul- 
cated; in their town meetings and other gatherings, where citizenship was 
recognized and in which every man became an active factor; in their pro- 
pensity for debate upon all questions religious, social and political, and in 
their flaming love of liberty which supplemented all, there was created a 
citizenship never before seen nor conceived of. 

The effect of this colonial life was to make good thinkers of the masses; 
it developed self-respect and individuality; the people learned not only to 
act individually but collectively, and they mastered the art of self-govern- 
ment. Their leaders were statesmen in the strongest and best sense of 
the word; the system thus inaugurated was founded upon public intellectual 
culture. The difference between such conditions and those existing in the 
mother country- has been pointed out by Professor Draper, who, calling 
attention to the European system where enlightenment was furnished to 
certain classes only, not to the masses, says that the people were left to 
grope about in political darkness, not knowing whither they were going and 
afraid to look into the future; while, on the other hand, "in America the 
sentiment of manifest destiny to imperial greatness gave everyone a 
determinate direction and an energetic life." 

During the century and a half of their splendid colonial life, there was 
built up in our colonies a constructive democracy, the essential elements 
of which are embalmed in the Declaration of Independence, and the com- 
bined wisdom of which found expression in the state constitutions and that 
of the United States. 

It was from this stock, imbued with all its heroic qualities and actuated 
by its lofty motives, that Vermont was settled. It was their sturdy inde- 
pendence which led them to oppose the aggression of the crown, and it 
was at the Westminster massacre as early as March, 1775, that William 
French was killed and the first blood in the momentous contest which gave 
birth to a nation was shed upon Vermont soil. It was this independence 
and zeal for liberty which led the Green Mountain Boys, two months later, 
foreseeing the coming struggle, to make the night assault upon Ticonderoga, 
and through their commander, Ethan Allen, demand and receive the 
surrender of that fortress in the name of the Great Jehovah and the Con- 
tinental Congress. It was their instinct for self-government which led 
them in 1777 in the courthouse at Westminster, where William French 
had been slain, to adopt that immortal declaration that they would at all 
times consider themselves a free and independent state, capable of regulat- 
ing their internal police, and that the people had the sole and exclusive and 
inherent right of ruling and governing themselves in such manner and form 
as in their own wisdom they should think proper. And it was the quality 
of this early citizenship of Vermont that led them, in the adoption of their 
constitution in July of the same year, to become the first of all the states 
to forever prohibit slavery within her territory — an act which, had it been 
adopted by the other states, would have prevented the perpetration of 
that great wrong whose cancerous growth affected the very vitals of a 


nation dedicated to the rights of man, and would have left no opportunity 
for the conflict which shook the foundations of the government, with all 
the sacrifices, the sorrows and the sufTerings which it entailed, and of which 
we are so vividly reminded today. It was this inheritance which enabled 
the people of Vermont, although repulsed by the Continental Congress in 
every attempt it made to become a member of the Federal Union, to main- 
tain an independent government throughout the War of the Revolution, 
and which also enabled them to defend even by force of arms the titles to 
their homes against the claims of the state of New York. And it was the 
same sturdy sense of independence and the same capacity for self-govern- 
ment which enabled them during a period of eight years following the 
achievement of independence by the thirteen original states, to maintain 
"the Republic of the Green Mountains" independent of the government 
of the United States or that of Great Britain or any other power or poten- 
tate. They exercised all the functions of a government of sovereign powers; 
they established a standard of weights and measures; coined money and 
regulated the value thereof; established a postal service and appointed a 
postmaster-general, and in various other ways exercised the functions of 
absolute independence, and it was not until 1791 that Vermont surrendered 
such sovereignty and became a member of the Federal Union. 

And it was from this sturdy, intelligent and self-respecting type of citizen- 
ship that Waterbury derived her early settlers. It is well to remember that 
its first settler, James Marsh, came in 1783, that the first clerk of the town, 
Ezra Butler, came in 1785, and that it was not until 1790 that the town 
was fully organized and embarked upon its history of progress and honor. 
Has it occurred to you that during all these years none of these men were 
citizens of the United States, either under the confederation or constitu- 
tion? It is a significant fact that although they had fought for independ- 
ence side by side with the citizens of the thirteen states, they were citizens 
only of the state of Vermont — "the Republic of the Green Mountains" — 
and it was not until the year after the organization of the town that the 
state became the first admitted member of the Union and her people citizens 
of the United States. 

Among the first settlers and early inhabitants of Waterbury, those who 
in the American Revolution had carried arms to establish freedom in this 
land of promise, were Ezra Butler, Paul Dillingham, Sr., David Towne, 
John Gregg, Stephen Jones, John Hudson, Joseph Ayer, Moses Nelson, 
A. Wilder, James Green, George Kennan, Thomas Eddy, and doubtless 
others whose names I have been unable to discover, and, besides these, 
many others of the same rugged stock — and these were typical of all. 

Did the stock hold good? Did the sons and the grandsons of such sires 
maintain the characteristics and the principles of those from whom they 
sprung, in their devotion to free institutions? Did they, in upholding free 
institutions, make sacrifices equal to those required in establishing liberty 
upon this continent? Did they have part in the grand record which Ver- 
mont made in the war for the maintenance of the Union? Fortunately for 


us, an answer to these questions can be found in the records both of the 
state and of the nation, and a little later I shall have occasion to speak in 
no uncertain tone of their devotion to the sacred cause. 

But before doing so, let us look at Vermont's record as a whole and ascer- 
tain whether among the people of any of the states of the Union there was 
found a readier response to the call for service, or a service more brilliant 
than that of the volunteers from our little mountain state. It is with a 
feeling of glowing pride that I approach this subject, and with deep personal 
emotion, also, because of the sacred memories which hallow my thoughts. 

I am one of the comparatively few among those present on this occasion 
who can recall in memory' that April day more than half a century ago when 
the news that Fort Sumter had fallen stunned the nation, and the powerful 
reaction which followed the proclamation of President Lincoln calling for 
75,000 troops. 

F"or days my father, strong and resourceful in character, but com- 
prehending, as few then did, the strength and earnestness of the South, and 
foreseeing, as few did, the bloody years of war which were to follow, had sat 
with bowed head vainly seeking light where all was darkness. But with 
this call to arms he rose in the strength of one who served God and loved 
his country, and turning to his first-born son, exclaimed: "Charley, what 
are we to do?" The response was: " I shall answer the call and recruit a 
company as quickly as I can secure authority." The father, with the same 
spirit which actuated countless other fathers throughout state and nation, 
with outstretched arms and with tears gushing from his eyes, exclaimed: 
"Go, my son; and God bless you. If I were of your age, I would go with 

The news of the fall of Sumter and of Lincoln's call to arms, was received 
in Vermont on the 14th of April. Within twelve days from that time the 
Vermont Legislature had met in extraordinary session, had appropriated 
$1,000,000 for war purposes and had provided for raising and equipping six 
regiments for two years' service. 

Not waiting to receive from Federal authority the official blanks upon 
which to secure enlistments, the work of recruiting was immediately begun 
by Charles Dillingham and was actually completed before the official 
blanks were received. I hold in my hand the paper employed, which 
contains the original signatures of the first men of Waterbury and sur- 
rounding towns who volunteered for three years' service in the army of the 
United States for the suppression of the rebellion. For fifty years it has 
been in my possession carefully preserved, and this is the first occasion 
when it has been publicly exhibited. Let me read these names as a whole, 
for those from neighboring towns who honor this occasion by their presence 
have an interest equal to our own in this historic group. 

The contract so entered into by these men clearly indicates their patriotic 
zeal to defend the Union, as well as the resolute purpose of the authorities 
of the state to prepare in advance for such requisitions as might soon be 


made upon Vermont by the general government for troops. It reads as 
follows : 

"State of Vermont." 

"We, and each of us, who hereunto affix our names, agree to enlist and be 
enrolled in a Company of Volunteer Soldiers, to be raised in the town of 
Waterburyand vicinity, subject to the orders of the Commander-in-Chief 
of the State of Vermont, or of the President of the United States, and Con- 
sideration of arms and equipments to be furnished us and each of us by the 
State, and of such pay and allowances as are allowed by law, we, and each 
of us, agree to serve as such soldiers for the period of three years from and 
after the first day of June, 1861, unless sooner discharged agreeably to law. 
We enlist and agree to serve for the first two years under and by virtue 
of the provisions of an act of the Legislature of this State, entitled 'An Act 
to Provide for Raising Six Special Regiments for Immediate Service for 
Protecting and Defending the Constitution and the Union,' approved 
April 26, 1861, and are to receive the compensation therein provided." 

Those from Waterbury were Charles Dillingham, William W. Henry, 
Samuel Morey, William Bruidnell, James W. Nichols, George Brown, John 
W. York, Wilber Foster, Charles C. Gregg, Ira A. Marshall, Frank Huntley, 
Edwin Parker, Robert Hunkins, Lyman Woodward, Elihu Wilson, Charles 
Prescott, Charles N. Collins, Allen Jewett, Henry F. Parker, Christopher 
P. Brown, John Murray, Luther Merriam, Franklin Carpenter, William 
Clark, Tilton Sleeper, Hartwell Moody, George E. Smith, Harvey J. 
Wilson, George W. Farnham, Patrick F. Flaherty, Lorenzo B. Guptil, 
Lorenzo S. Bryant, Harper A. Demmon, George C. Sherman. 

Those from our sister town, Duxbury, were: Mason Franklin Atkins, 
William Kelley, George C. Center, Nathan F. Huntley, Warren C. Gilman, 
Edwin Turner, Sidney Sherman, Truman M. Dow, Orin Gilman, Chancey 
Shonio, Charles H. Gilman. 

Those from Stowe were: George W. Colby, Isaac S. Pratt, Albert W. 
Russell, Holden S. Hodge, Alexander Warden, Dennis H. Bicknell, John 
R. Smith, James S. Perrier, John Knapp, Orlo W. Bickford. 

Those from Middlesex were: John T. Bass, Rufus S. Marsh. 

Those from Moretown were: John Travers, Orlando S. Turner, James 
Diamond, Edwin Murphy, Henry Newton, Michael Conway. 

Those from Montpelier were: Francis Gravlin, Richard Dodge, Andrew 
J. Allen, Ira S. Honan, Robert Lamont. 

From Barre: George W. Goodrich, S. D. Strong, Henry C. Jones, Eldon 
A. Tilden, Orin Beckley, Jr., Albert Smith. 

From Berlin: Daniel K. Stickney, Obadiah W. Hill. 

From Marshfield: Chauncey Smith, Alfonzo Lesser, Hiram Hall. 

From Calais: James O. Horey, George Soper. 

From Woodbury: Henry Goodell, Aaron P. Hall. 

From Northfield: Charlie C. Canning. 

From East Montpelier: Samuel Looker. 

From Cabot: Andrew Hill. 


From Hyde Park: Francis Finnigan, Philo J. Crowcll, George W. Perry, 
John Roddy. 

From Elmore: Edmond Holdeq. 

From Eden: Terrence Roddy. 

From Orange county: C. E. Turner, John H. Fuller, Horatio G. Piatt. 

From greater distances: H. H. Matthews of Barnet, Edwin M. Suther- 
land of Montgomery-, Josiah Watson of Granville, and John Gowing of 
Providence, Rhode Island. 

These men constituted, in the main. Company D of the Second Vermont 
Infantry. It was officered by Charles Dillingham, William W. Henry and 
Charles C. Gregg. This regiment was the first body of men enlisted in 
Vermont for three years' service. It was organized early enough to have 
part in the first battle of Bull Run and its organization was retained 
until the last shot had been fired near Appomattox. 

This regiment formed the nucleus of the Old Vermont Brigade, composed 
of the Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Regiments of Vermont In- 
fantry — a brigade whose service measured by any test suggested by the 
exigencies of war was so brilliant as to merit the admiration even of the 
army. Its steadiness and dependable character was such that the heaviest 
demands were made upon it in every crisis. If the presence of the Sixth 
Corps was imperatively demanded in the neighborhood of Gettysburg to 
repel the invasion of Pennsylvania by Lee with his army of veterans, and a 
forced march was required, General Sedgewick's laconic order to place the 
Vermonters at the head of the column and keep the ranks well closed up, 
told the story of his trust and confidence in these veterans from our rugged 
little state. If gallantry and dash in battle ever was required, the Vermont 
Brigade never failed to respond to any call, and if stubborn resistance to 
the onslaughts of the enemy was necessary to turn the tide of battle, then, 
also, they always stood as firm as the rocks upon the mountains among 
which they were born. It is not necessary on this occasion to deal in 
rhetoric, nor to indulge in any flights of oratory^, for deeds speak louder 
than words. 

In this month of May, just fifty years ago, the Vermont Brigade, which 
had crossed the Rapidan with 2,800 effective fighting men, was thrust into 
the terrible battles of the Wilderness and Spottsylvania, where they fought 
with a desperation which can never be described but which is in part indi- 
cated by the losses they sustained. The story is best told to a thoughtful 
listener by the statement that out of the 2,800 brave men who entered 
that vortex of death, 1,645, or 58 per cent of the whole, had, in a single 
week, been killed or wounded or reported missing. 

But the story is not fully told without the added statement that this 
Brigade during its long service fought its way out of any class and achieved 
a distinction all its own; one so marked, so unequalled in character, that 
it comes down in history as the one brigade among all the brigades consti- 
tuting all the armies of the United States, both in the East and in the 
West, whose losses in killed and mortally wounded in battle exceeded all 


others. These brave and gallant sons of Vermont were the first in the 
field and the last to leave. From Bull Run to Appomattox, every step in 
their history was crowned with glory, and it was the men of the Brigade 
who fired the last shots of the Sixth Corps while engaged with the rear 
guard of Lee's retreating army in the final battle near Sailors Creek, just 
preceding the surrender of Lee at Appomattox. With just pride they 
marched together at the grand review in 1865, and then, in the exercise 
of the same qualities that had made them soldiers of the grandest type, 
they laid down their arms to become equally faithful citizens of the coun- 
try they had helped to save. 

The regiments of the Old Brigade were hardly in the field when succeed- 
ing calls for men were made, and regiment after regiment was rushed to 
the front. The First Cavalry went out in the autumn of 1861, among its 
members from Waterbury being Lieutenant William Wells of Company C. 
In February, 1862, the state equipped and sent to the front for service in 
the gulf states the Seventh and Eighth Regiments, Charles Dillingham 
having been made Major and later Lieutenant-Colonel of the latter. In 
July they were followed by the Ninth Vermont, and in September 
by the Tenth, Company B of which was recruited by Edwin Dillingham and 
was comprised of men from Waterbury and surrounding towns. It was 
officered by Dillingham, Stetson and Thompson, who sealed their devotion 
to the cause by giving up their lives, every one of them having been slain 
in battle. The Eleventh went out during the same month, and in October, 
following the nine-months' regiments, the Twelfth, Thirteenth, Fourteenth, 
Fifteenth and Sixteenth and in 1864 another three-year regiment, the 
Seventeenth, went out to a distinguished service, and among those enrolled 
were Lieutenant J. Edwin Henry and Frank S. Henry, a cousin, whose 
action in presenting this monument to his native town is so keenly appre- 
ciated by all who are gathered here today. 

If Vermont was so greatly honored by the achievements of the Old 
Brigade, she was not less honored by the men thus later called to the 
service. They were equally brave, equally gallant. Not having been 
brigaded together, comparison with other regiments, all brave and doing 
well their part, can only tell the story of their sacrifices, and of the relative 
rank they achieved among the other organizations constituting the 
armies of the Union. Let the records speak in unimpeachable terms. 
In the Union army as a whole, there were no less than 2,000 regi- 
ments in active service. Measured by the actual losses in battle, 
there were 300 individual regiments, which specially distinguished 
themselves for gallantry as measured by the number of their men left 
dead upon fields of battle. These 300 constitute the whole number of 
regiments which lost more than 130 men each in battle. And of Ver- 
mont's 12 regiments enlisted for three years or during the war, nine 
are found in this distinguished list. In the Union armies also there were 
many cavalry regiments. All had hard and even desperate service; but, 
while all suffered severely, there were nine whose services were such that 


they lost more heavily than any others. And among these nine so singled 
out for distinction, the First Vermont Cavalr>' was fifth, while it was first 
in the number of guns and prisoners captured in battle. To tell the story 
of Vermont's record as a whole and in strictly official language, I again 
quote from Colonel Fox, who says: " The percentage of killed in the quota 
furnished by Vermont is far above the average, and is exceeded only by 
one other state. Its large percentage is easily understood by a glance at 
the battle losses of its regiments." 

Nor do we, in speaking of those who served longest, overlook the fact 
that the Second Vermont Brigade, composed of the Twelfth, Thirteenth, 
Fourteenth, Fifteenth and Sixteenth Regiments, enlisted for nine months' 
service, had the honor of being a part of that wall on the hills of Gettysburg 
against which the highest tide of the Rebellion struck and from which 
it receded never again to reach a similar height. To some of these 
regiments fell the lot of flanking Pickett's Corps as it struck the Union 
lines at the point where the Vermont state monument now stands, and 
to gather in as prisoners the men who, under Pickett's intrepid leadership, 
had exhibited a courage, nay, a desperation, never surpassed in the history 
of battles, and to hold them as prisoners of war. 

But if Vermont as a whole was so greatly distinguished by the valor of 
her troops in this great conflict, which demonstrated that they were noble 
sons of noble sires, what shall we say of Waterbury's record in that great 
struggle? Bear with me in leading up to the subject while I tell you of 
the percentage of killed and wounded in the greatest armies of foreign 
nations in modern wars and compare them with the losses of the Union 
forces during the Civil War. 

In the Austrian army of 1866, the losses of killed in battle were 2.2 
per cent. In the splendid German army engaged in the Franco-Prussian 
War such losses were 3.1 per cent. In the allied armies in the Crimea 
they were 3.2 per cent. 

Compare these with the vastly greater losses of the Union army in the 
War of the Rebellion, where they amounted to 4.7 per cent. And remem- 
ber that the losses among the Vermont troops in such army were 6.8 per 
cent, which is more than double that of any of the European armies in the 
great wars I have mentioned, and almost a third larger than that of 
the Union armies as a whole, and larger than that among the troops from 
any other state in the Union save one. 

But as great as Vermont's loss was upon which her proud record is based, 
we remember with sad but enduring pride that Waterbury's loss as a town 
was still greater, and that the proportion of the slain was over 8 per cent 
of all her sons whom she sent to the field. 

Who were these men who were killed or mortally wounded in battle? 
Ira S. Gray at Savage Station, Marcellus Johnson at South Mountain, 
and George S. Woodward in a cavalry engagement in Virginia. Who 
among us whose memories extend back to that period can forget the terrible 
year of '64, when the armies both of the North and South had become 


veterans and had entered upon a struggle which must go down in the 
annals of war as unequalled either in the desperate character of the battles 
fought or in the multitude of those who were slain? For while men fought, 
women wept. In every town, village or hamlet, however small, mothers 
mourned for their sons, wives for husbands, and children for fathers. 
Thirteen times during that year of sorrow the church bells of this place 
tolled out the news that another of Waterbury's sons had been slain in 
battle and that another household had been made desolate. Willard S. 
and Horatio G. Stone, Alva Rowell, Robert Hunkins, George Hubbard, 
George W. York, and Theodore Wood fell at the Wilderness or Spott- 
sylvania in the budding month of May. In June Edward C. Bragg, Henry 
B. Burleigh, Hamilton Glines, and Mason Humphrey closed their earthly 
career in the battle of Cold Harbor, and Allen Greeley received wounds from 
which he died the following month. Captain Stetson, too, who went out 
as one of the officers of Company B, Tenth Vermont, was among the slain. 
July brought the news of the death of John Brown at Andersonville, and 
with the news of the battle of Winchester, on the 19th of September, came 
the announcement that Major Edwin Dillingham had fallen while in com- 
mand of his regiment. Just a month from that day, on the 19th of 
October, his comrade and devoted friend, Captain Thompson, was instantly 
killed at Cedar Creek; while in the January- following, almost at the close 
of the war, came the news that Lieutenant J. Edwin Henry of the Sev- 
enteenth had fallen in the assault upon the fortifications at Petersburg. 

But in recounting the valor of those who fell in the shock of battle, we 
must not forget that larger number who, in the hospital and the prison pen, 
suffered from exposure, hardships and disease, showing the same soldierly 
qualities, and who laid down their lives with equal honor and devotion. 
Think of the number of mourners who walked our streets because of the 
death of Surgeon Drew, Lieutenant Don D. Stone, Corporal Charles B. 
Lee, Dennis A. Bickford, George Brown, H. S. Burleigh, Charles N. Collins, 
Joseph B. Conant, Henry Dillingham, Lyman Godfrey, Marcellus B. 
Johnson, Edwin Joslyn, Henry Lee, Sayles H. Locks, Lucian W. Murray, 
George C. Rice, Frank Stearns, Burton C. Turner, Henry Wells, Henry 
M. Wood, William H. Wood, Hiram Young. 

But if the loss among all classes representing Waterbury was so great, 
what shall be said of that among the officers who originally went out in 
command of such brave men? Do not let it be forgotten, write it upon the 
tablets of your hearts, that 43 per cent of these gallant officers fell in the 
shock of battle and died with their faces to the foe, counting their lives as 
naught when the life of the nation was at stake. 

This record of sacrifices made by the men of Waterbury in the Civil War 
places her in a rank by herself. If the valor of her men has been established 
by these terrible losses in battle, their quality as soldiers and commanders 
has been equally demonstrated by the fact that of the three men entering 
the service with the Vermont troops who, by their ability and gallantry, 
reached the rank of brevet major-general of volunteers, Waterbury is 


credited with William Wells who, entering the service as a first lieutenant, 
passed through every grade by promotion until in the grand review of the 
Union armies at the close of the war he rode proudly at the head of the Sec- 
ond Brigade of the Old Cavalry Corps of the Army of the Potomac, of which 
corps he also became the last commander. And of the seven brevet brig- 
adier-generals of volunteers appointed from among the Vermont troops, 
Waterbury was credited with one, in the person of William W. Henry, who, 
entering the service as a lieutenant, also passed through each successive 
grade and who still lives to tell the story of the gallantn.- of Vermont men. 

May I add, also, that no elements entering into the exercises of this 
occasion can so impress the minds of those whose memories reach back to 
the period of the war as the presence with us of Doctor Henry Janes! 
The tremendous proportions of the Civil War, the magnitude of its battles 
and the awful slaughter of brave men are indelibly impressed upon the 
minds of those who remember that during his service as surgeon of the Third 
Vermont and as lieutenant-colonel and surgeon of United States volunteers, 
he not only ministered to multitudes of those who suffered from exposure 
and disease, but also had directly under his charge and was responsible for 
not less than 50,000 wounded men, an army of wounded men twice as large 
as the standing army of the United States before our war with Spain. In 
the honor that was thrust upon him in being placed in charge of all the 
hospitals in and about Gettysburg after the sanguinary battle at that place, 
Waterbury was equally honored. Every person within the reach of my 
voice joins with me in an expression of high regard and deep affection for 
Doctor Janes, and, by reason of his record both as citizen and as soldier, 
they accord to him the first place in the citizenship of the town. 

In tracing to some extent the struggle for individual liberty, the over- 
throw of arbitrary power, the establishment of free institutions in America 
and the successful maintenance of them in the great war between the states, 
I have had a definite purpose. In addition to the desire which fills every 
heart here present to pay a just and affectionate tribute of praise to the 
veterans of the Civil War, whose record has never been equalled and will 
never be surpassed, as well as to the few who gather with us as to that 
larger number who, having fought the fight and kept the faith of good 
citizenship, have gone to their reward, I have desired to impress upon all 
who hear my voice the priceless value of the legacy which has been be- 
queathed to us and the terrible cost through which it was obtained. 

I have done this at the express desire of the man toward whom the 
thoughts of this audience are most directed, to whom in his lifetime their 
affections went out in generous measure and for whose presence with us 
on this occasion we had so fondly hoped. Frank S. Henry was to the 
manor born. His love for Waterbury was an inheritance from generations 
running back to the time of the settlement of the town, strengthened and 
developed by early associations and later by his military service with the 
companions of his boyhood. It was perpetuated through friendships 
old and new, resulting from family and social relations which he sustained 


through life with the people of this community. He loved us, he gloried in 
our history, and his great desire was to make a lasting impress upon our 
future. He remembered that the boys of the nation fought the War of 
the Rebellion, and his great desire was that the boys of the present day and 
those of the future should be prepared to do well their part in perfecting 
and carrying out the work of the fathers. 

It is an astounding fact that out of the 2,672,341 men constituting the 
Union armies during the war between the states, 2,157,798 or 81 per cent, 
were under twenty-one years of age when they enlisted, and that of this 
number 1,151,438 — 43 per cent — were under eighteen years of age. The 
miracle of the nineteenth century was the almost instantaneous develop- 
ment of these boys into strong, rugged, thoughtful, determined men, when 
the developing powers of great responsibilities were laid upon them. 

No one remembered this fact more perfectly than Mr. Henry, and no one 
comprehended more perfectly the importance of having succeeding genera- 
tions equally well equipped for great national exigencies. His generous 
and patriotic action in erecting this monument was born not alone from a 
desire to honor those who had been his comrades in that great conflict, 
but by placing it in the grounds of the public schools, he hoped that countless 
generations would daily look upon it and derive inspiration from the record 
it discloses. So strong was his interest in those who are to succeed us in 
the responsibilities of citizenship that even when upon a bed of suffering 
and when facing that great change in which the mortal puts on immortality, 
he asked me to impress upon the heart and mind of this audience today the 
value of patriotism, of loyalty, of devotion to free institutions and the 
obligation that rests upon every community to keep alive the spirit of the 
fathers, and to impress it upon their children; and he was particularly 
impressed with the conviction that there should be included in the curricu- 
lum of the schools not only proper instruction in the elements of patriotism, 
but also in military tactics among the older boys, that there may be aroused 
in them an enthusiastic love of country and that there may be developed in 
them that military instinct which is so essential as an element of character 
in manly men and model citizens. 

May the memory of his great generosity, his deep love for his native 
town and her people, and his patriotic interest in those who are to follow us, 
remain in the hearts of Waterbury's sons and daughters as long as bronze 
and granite endure, and God grant that such memory shall ever inspire 
them to a high conception and heroic defense of the great principle of 
liberty under law which the fathers established, and the maintenance of 
which made immortal the men of '61 to '65. 



This book is 


under no circumstances to be 
en from the Building 

f<Mlli ill!